There is also stipulation of who is reporting these cases of abuse. Only 16% of abuse cases go reported and that is because the shame gets worse by telling someone about the abuse. (2011). Nagabhushan, P. (2011).
Adolescent gay bullying doesn’t only occur in “out” adolescents, it also occurs with those who are questioning their sexuality. Students who are questioning their sexuality are bullied more often taking a toll on their self esteem as well as act more truant than other students and are having depression as well as suicidal thoughts/ attempts
Less social support from their peers may encourage negative bullying and the affects. Truancy, prostitution and running away are common negative side effects of bullying. (Williams 2008). There is definitely a connection between peers and the experience of how gay individuals turn out. If their experience is a good one then they will more than likely end up healthy and well adjusted and if they are bullied mercilessly then their experience will be a bad one.
)”. Other affects that can occur would be self harming, risk taking behaviors, eating disorders, and alcohol and drug abuse. Suicide is one of the affects that bullying has on gay individuals because they are teased mercilessly and has no way to escape it but to take their own life.
This research question is important because bullying and gay rights are important topics in today’s society and combing the two ideas is a way to get the message across that gay bullying has negative effects on these individuals
The Effects Of Bullying On The Gay Persons Self Esteem
The Effects of Bullying on the Gay Persons SelfEsteem AbstractThe research that has been done regarding gay individuals and their self esteem is to show what effect does bullying have if any on their self esteem. In all the articles that are in the Lit review it is shown that bullying has long lasting effects on the self esteem.
Findings According to the authors reports and the most recent publication from the National Center for Education Statistics on School Safety (Nolle, Guerino, & Dinkes, 2007), 43% of middle school educators report that student bullying occurs at school daily or weekly.
Findings “Homophobic bullying is recognized by psychologists as a serious problem for young Lesbians and gay men (D’Augelli, 1998; Rivers, 1995, 1996). Lesbian and gay Psychologists have examined the nature, frequency and psychological impact of In a study shown by D’Augelli it was found that up to half of lesbians and gay men have experienced some form of bullying in school and “many school problems of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students, such as poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out of school, are direct or indirect results of verbal and physical abuse perpetrated by peers or others in school” (p. 200).”
Findings In another study it is shown that gay bullying is affecting not only the United States but other countries as well. There are reports in Australia where homophobic bullying is quite the normal and the article; “Gay and Lesbian Issues” sums it up perfectly. I would say that an affect that bullying has on gays is fear. “It is evident that only 16% of incidents of homophobic abuse, harassment and violence to the police and liaison officers were reported.” (Nagabhusha 2011 page 80-82)
Findings In a study by Rivers, some effects that gay bullying has on adolescents are that of posttraumatic stress, depression, and having more casual sexual partners than those who have not been bullied. There were also reports of using prescription and non prescription drugs and alcohol to cope with memories of bullying as adults. Nightmares and flashbacks or even suicide are some effects as well. (Rivers 2004). There are also reports of self loathing and internalizing the homophobia the adults felt as adolescents. 20% of gay men and women have contemplated or attempted suicide due to bullying experiences. In one study in the UK 21%of participants experienced psychological distress when in situations that remind them of their school days being bullied. (Rivers).
Findings Children’s mental health, achievement, self- concept, and a child’s ability to form social relationships.” (Birkett). This is why when there is bullying in schools and especially in the gay community it really effects them negatively as adults. 72% of a sample of LGB adults who reported being bullied as children over their sexual orientation were likely to have played sick or were truant in order to avoid abuse at school. (Birkett).
Other than the bullying and vicimizalation that gays feel in school there is also the feeling of having less peer interaction of a positive kind. There is limited supportive interaction between friends and family members. Adolescence is a developmental period during which questioning one’s place along the sexuality spectrum typically occurs. As the sexual aspect of the self emerges and becomes increasingly more central to identity, questions Of non-heterosexuality may arise and becomes a predominant focus for adolescents who question their own sexuality
Findings , in a large representative high school-based sample of adolescents, sexual minority youths were more likely than their peers to report being physically threatened, injured with a weapon, fearful of attending school, and of having property stolen or deliberately damaged by peers. (Williams). Even after the bullying is over the aftermath stays for a lifetime. Children who are involved in bullying behavior should be actively screened for psychiatric problems and suicidality. (Klomek). Name-calling and physical abuse are not the only ways of bullying. A newer trend of bullying has hit the surface and that is cyber bullying which is bullying over the internet.
Findings Espalage (2008) found that the types of bullying that can occur in schools can vary greatly. Rumor spreading (59%) and social isolation (27%), which could be considered relational forms of aggression, are also ways of bullying. The articles relate to each other because they build off each other in the way that it a common theme that when gay individuals are bullied it affects their self worth in the way of drugs, alcohol, promescuity, suicide, and self loathing.
Conclusion This literature review has reviewed current research to answer the following question: what is the effect of bullying on gay individuals. My hypothesis has been supported because bullying has affected gay people in the way of substance abuse, suicide and more. Further research can be done to show in what types of bullying effects gay people more whether it be name calling or physical bullying and what can be done to stop it. This research question is important because bullying and gay rights are important topics in today’s society and combing the two ideas is a way to get the message across that gay bullying has negative effects on these individuals
References Clarke, V., Kitzinger, C., & Potter, J. (2004). Kids are just cruel anyway: Lesbian and gay parents talk about homophobic bullying. British Journal Of Social Psychology, 43(4), 531-550. Conoley, J. (2008). Sticks and stones can break my bones and words can really hurt me. School Psychology Review, 37(2), 217-220. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219655761?accountid=34899 Espelage, D., Aragon, S., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202-216. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219656078?accountid=34899 Gould MS, Greenberg T, Velting DM, et al. Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;53:1155-11 Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 34, No. 5, October 2005, pp. 471–482 ( C _ 2005) Nagabhushan, P. (2011). Speaking out: Stopping homophobic and transphobic abuse in queensland. Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 7(1), 80-82. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/894273124?accountid=34899 Rivers, I. (2004). Recollections of bullying at school and their long-term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 25(4), 169-175. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.25.4.169