Instructional
Design
Theories involved in the ID process
Sankarsingh, C. EDFN201B
Lecture 2
Learning Theories
Instructional Theories
Motivational Theories
• Communication Theories
• General Systems The...
ICEBREAKER: What’s going
through their minds?
8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 3
Differences among learners
Learners differ:
 Cognitive differences
Affective differences
Conative differences
"the aspe...
What is Motivation?
• A hypothetical construct to explain the
initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of goal-
di...
Causes of Motivation
• Extrinsic (External)
Learner does something
to earn an external
reward
• Intrinsic (Internal)
Learn...
Motivation Theories &
Instructional Design
If we can understand the internal factors that
motivate our students, we will b...
Maslow’s Theory of Growth
Motivation
• [Humanistic Viewpoint]
• Motivation is influenced by fulfilling different levels of...
8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 9
8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 10
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
(1964)
• [behavioural viewpoint]
• assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices
among a...
8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 12
When we “expect” we are most
inclined to “do”
If I study for exams I
stand a better chance
of getting straight As
If I get...
Other motivational theories
Equity theory
(Adams, 1963)
• People develop beliefs
about what is a fair
reward for one’s
con...
ARCS- A model of motivational
design (Keller, 1987)
• Four categories of motivation:
ATTENTION, RELEVANCE, CONFIDENCE &
SA...
Motivational Categories (*)
See notes for this slide
ATTENTION
Perceptual arousal
Inquiry arousal
Variability
RELEVANCE...
Instructional
Strategies
Guided lecture 3 for Coursework Assignment
8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 17
What have we done thus far?
Identified :
• the instructional problem
• the content to correct the problem &
• the objectiv...
The Instructional Strategy
• Prescribes sequences and methods of
instruction to achieve an objective
• Provide guidance on...
Nine categories of instructional
strategies (Marzano’s
Pickering, and Pollock, 2004)
• Identifying similarities and differ...
Four generative categories of
instructional strategies
(Jonassen,1988)
• Strategies of Recall that facilitate recall inclu...
Performance Content Matrix
Content Performance
Recall Application
Fact
Concept
Principles & Rules
Procedure
Interpersonal
...
Setting it up: use a table
CONTENT STRATEGY
CATEGORY
INITIAL
PRESENTATION
/GENERATIVE
STRATEGY/
IMPLEMENTATION
Fact:
Conce...
Writing those prescriptions
CONTENT STRATEGY
CATEGORY
INITIAL
PRESENTATION
/GENERATIVE
STRATEGY/
IMPLEMENTATION
State it S...
Try it
now
Get into your groups now and begin to
draft out the instructional strategies for
your approved objectives.
You ...
Instructional Design Lecture 2 Part 3 - Motivational Theories
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Instructional Design Lecture 2 Part 3 - Motivational Theories

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This is part 3 of Lecture 2 on Motivational Theories.
We will not attempt to do all the theories back to back.
Small doses.

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  • What could happen here? How could motivation be affected in situations like this in class?What happens to motivation levels when situations or strategies are flawed? Unidimensional?In educational situations, students' motivational beliefs and judgments of their own capabilities influence their intentions and plans.
  • Not all individuals are motivated by the same things. A particular situation may motivate one individual because of prior learning, experience, or expectations, but not another.
  • Not all individuals are motivated by the same things. A particular situation may motivate one individual because of prior learning, experience, or expectations, but not another.
  • We rely on our knowledge of motivational theories to design instructional strategies that can strengthen the learning capabilities of our students.
  • Brown & Green (2011)Before looking at an intended audience as a group of learners, recognize them as a group of human beings.Basic human wants and needs must be addressed before any instructional intervention is attempted.How much control will you have over that?Maslow assumes that at any given time, a person’s behaviour is determined by his or her needs.
  • The Hierarchy of Needs is typically depicted as a pyramid that has as its base the general physiological comforts. Once these bodily comforts are met, one may address the more abstract needs of knowledge, aesthetics, and self-fulfillment. So think about how or if you can ensure that learners are not particularly hungry when they participate in instruction. Have they had lunch or breakfast? Etc.
  • You don’t need to know all of these in fine detail but be aware of the concepts.
  • (Keller, 1987)A1 : What can I do to capture their interestA2: How can I stimulate an attitude of inquiryA3: How can I maintain their attentionR1: How can I best meet my learners’ needs?R2: How and when can I provide my learners with appropriate choices?R3: How can I tie the instruction to the learners’ experiences?C1: How can I assist in building a positive expectation for success?C2: How will the learning experience support or enhance the students’ belief in their competence?C3: How will the learners clearly know their success is based on their efforts and abilities?S1: How can I provide meaningful opportunities for learners to use their newly acquired knowledge and skills?S2: What will provide reinforcement to the learners’ successes?S3: How can I assist the students in anchoring a positive feeling about their accomplishments?
  • What is a prescription?A set of instructions given by the expert.Think of your visit to the doctor. What does it say?The authoritative recommendation of an action or procedure
  • Classifying: support activities include graphic organizers, venn diagrams, scattergrams, analogies, metaphors and similes
  • Helpful for learning facts, listsUseful for transforming information into a more remembered formHelps the learner to identify how new ideas relate to existing ideasRequires learners to add their ideas to new informationInstructional strategies begin with determining the content and performance type of each objective using the expanded content performance matrix. The classification of the objectives helps the designer to identify how the learner is to perform the behaviour specified in the objective and the type of content the learner must muster.
  • Specific strategies are then prescribed for each cell of the content performance matrix.Recall performance relies on rote memorization of the content. The learner might need to recall a fact, state the definition of a concept, state a rule, list the steps in a procedure, describe a type of behaviour, attitude.Application performance requires the learner to apply the content to a new situation or problem.FACTS CAN ONLY BE RECALLED. THEY HAVE NO SPECIFIC APPLICATION.If an objective is classified as factual content and the performance is recall, then the prescriptions describe how to present the fact to the learner for optimum learning. CONCEPTS can be either RECALL or APPLICATION (identify new examples of the concept). Integration and Organizational strategies are useful for facilitating generative learning of concepts of application.
  • Each prescription involves two components. The first component is the initial presentation of the content for the learner. The second component of the prescription is a generative strategy to make the content meaningful and to encourage active processing by the student. The generative strategies include recall, integration, organization, and elaboration.
  • Each prescription involves two components. The first component is the initial presentation of the content for the learner. The second component of the prescription is a generative strategy to make the content meaningful and to encourage active processing by the student. The generative strategies include recall, integration, organization, and elaboration.
  • Instructional Design Lecture 2 Part 3 - Motivational Theories

    1. 1. Instructional Design Theories involved in the ID process Sankarsingh, C. EDFN201B
    2. 2. Lecture 2 Learning Theories Instructional Theories Motivational Theories • Communication Theories • General Systems Theories EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. Lecture 2 (PART THREE) : Motivational Theories 8/5/2013 2
    3. 3. ICEBREAKER: What’s going through their minds? 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 3
    4. 4. Differences among learners Learners differ:  Cognitive differences Affective differences Conative differences "the aspect of mental process directed by change and including impulse, desire, volition and striving” • There are 3 parts of the mind. • The cognitive part of the brain measures intelligence • The affective deals with emotions • The conative drives how one acts on those thoughts and feelings. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 4
    5. 5. What is Motivation? • A hypothetical construct to explain the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of goal- directed behaviour (Good & Brophy, 1990). • The selection, persistence, intensity and direction of behavior (Elliot & Covington, 2001) • Forces that cause a learner to engage in study behaviour, focus attention on a particular learning goal, or do extra work on an assignment (Gagne, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2005) 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5
    6. 6. Causes of Motivation • Extrinsic (External) Learner does something to earn an external reward • Intrinsic (Internal) Learner does something to experience inherently satisfying results. Eg: to satisfy his own curiosity, a need to feel accomplished, to build his own confidence etc. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 6
    7. 7. Motivation Theories & Instructional Design If we can understand the internal factors that motivate our students, we will be able : to design external conditions that ACTIVATE motivational processes or states for our learners. We will be able to add opportunities for them to feel more self-actualized. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 7
    8. 8. Maslow’s Theory of Growth Motivation • [Humanistic Viewpoint] • Motivation is influenced by fulfilling different levels of need. • Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulifil the next one, and so on. • Deficiency needs must be first met in order for a learner to be motivated to learn. • Let’s have a look 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 8
    9. 9. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 9
    10. 10. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 10
    11. 11. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1964) • [behavioural viewpoint] • assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. • The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that: • There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance • Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward • The reward will satisfy an important need • The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 11
    12. 12. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 12
    13. 13. When we “expect” we are most inclined to “do” If I study for exams I stand a better chance of getting straight As If I get As, I may be rewarded with an open scholarship If I get a scholarship I will be able to study at a foreign university of my choice without worrying about the cost! 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 13
    14. 14. Other motivational theories Equity theory (Adams, 1963) • People develop beliefs about what is a fair reward for one’s contribution. • If he believes his treatment is inequitable compared to others, he will be motivated to do something about it. Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory (1968) • Certain factors cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction. • Motivators are factors that are based on the individual’s need for personal growth. • Hygiene factors are based on the needs for a business to avoid unpleasantness. If these factors are inadequate, they cause dissatisfaction. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 14
    15. 15. ARCS- A model of motivational design (Keller, 1987) • Four categories of motivation: ATTENTION, RELEVANCE, CONFIDENCE & SATISFACTION • Two major parts: I. A synthesis of propositions/guidelines from many theories II. A motivational design process to analyze the conditions of student motivation in order to prescribe strategies. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 15
    16. 16. Motivational Categories (*) See notes for this slide ATTENTION Perceptual arousal Inquiry arousal Variability RELEVANCE Goal orientation Motive matching Familiarity 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 16 CONFIDENCE Learning requirements Success opportunities Personal control SATISFACTION Natural consequences Positive consequences Equity
    17. 17. Instructional Strategies Guided lecture 3 for Coursework Assignment 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 17
    18. 18. What have we done thus far? Identified : • the instructional problem • the content to correct the problem & • the objectives for the instruction. We now need to design effective and efficient instruction that produces reliable results each time it is presented to the learner. To do this, we must develop prescriptions that describe an optimum method of instruction for different types of content. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 19
    19. 19. The Instructional Strategy • Prescribes sequences and methods of instruction to achieve an objective • Provide guidance on how to design instructional sequences • A well-designed instructional strategy prompts or motivates the learner to actively make these connections between what the learner already knows and the new information. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 20
    20. 20. Nine categories of instructional strategies (Marzano’s Pickering, and Pollock, 2004) • Identifying similarities and differences • Summarizing and note-taking • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition • Homework and practice • Non-linguistic representations • Cooperative learning • Setting objectives and providing feedback • Generating and testing hypotheses • Questions, cues, and advance organizers. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 21
    21. 21. Four generative categories of instructional strategies (Jonassen,1988) • Strategies of Recall that facilitate recall include repetition, rehearsal, review and mnemonics • Integration Strategies help the learner transform new content such as paraphrasing, generating questions or examples • Organizational Strategies include analyzing key ideas and then interrelate them, outlining, categorizing, integrating new information, cognitive mapping, • Elaboration include the generation of mental images, creating physical diagrams, sentence elaborations. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 22
    22. 22. Performance Content Matrix Content Performance Recall Application Fact Concept Principles & Rules Procedure Interpersonal Attitude 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 23
    23. 23. Setting it up: use a table CONTENT STRATEGY CATEGORY INITIAL PRESENTATION /GENERATIVE STRATEGY/ IMPLEMENTATION Fact: Concept: Principles/Rules: Procedure: Interpersonal: Attitude: State all that are relevant Recall Integration Organizational Elaboration Demonstration Practice Model Mental Rehearsal State how it will be presented; 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 24
    24. 24. Writing those prescriptions CONTENT STRATEGY CATEGORY INITIAL PRESENTATION /GENERATIVE STRATEGY/ IMPLEMENTATION State it State it State how it will be presented; 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 25 1) Review each objective and determine in which cell it best fits in the performance-content matrix 2) Refer to the appropriate table of prescriptions and select an initial and generative strategy 3) Develop the instruction, which consists of the initial presentation & generative strategy
    25. 25. Try it now Get into your groups now and begin to draft out the instructional strategies for your approved objectives. You will be submitting your instructional strategies along with your objectives next week. You may consult with your instructor during the process. 8/5/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 26

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