Exercise: We are trying to pick out key characteristics that might be used in the definition of a theory.
We are again looking at the key characteristics of these images and trying to pick out elements that may be related to the definition.
InstructionalDesignUnderstanding the role of theories & modelsSankarsingh, C. EDFN201B
Lecture 1• What is a Theory?• What is a Model?• How are they different?• What is Instructional Design?• What is an Instructional Design Theory?• What is an Instructional Design Model?5/15/2013 2EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.
Icebreaker (Theories)5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 3
What is a theory?• A tested and testable concept used to explain an occurrence.• A set of assumptions, tested propositions, accepted facts that attempts toprovide a plausible or rationale explanation of “cause and effect.”• Is based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence.• An explanation of an event that has been supported byconsistent, repeated experimental results and has therefore beenaccepted by most scientists.Know any theories?5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 4
Sure youdo!“Behaviours that arereinforced will tend tocontinue, while behavioursthat are punished willeventually end.”5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5
Operant conditioning can be described as a process thatattempts to modify behaviour through the use of positive andnegative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, anindividual makes an association between a particularbehaviour and a consequence.B.F. Skinner(1938)5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 6The Theory of OperantConditioning
A learning theory offers an explanationas to how information isabsorbed, processed and retained duringlearning.As a theory...• Tested & testable• Provide a set ofassumptions, testedpropositions, acceptedfacts that attempts toprovide a plausible orrationale explanation of“cause and effect”• Attempts to explain howthe human being learns.
Icebreaker (Models)5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 8
What is a Model?• A verbal, mathematical, visual representation of a structure or process.• An illustration of an idea• Bears likeness to the real world and are constructed to reflect certainparts that are essential for the job at hand.• Useful to “break the world up into manageable pieces” & explainingthings that may be difficult to describe• Offer guidelines and ensure a level of quality & uniformity by providinga means of comparison.5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 9
How are theories & modelsdifferent?Theories• Tend to express beliefs &principles while providingpossible explanations ofnatural phenomena.Models• Take those beliefs andprinciples and turn theminto “sequenced” practice.• Are often used to describean application of a theoryfor a particular case.• Can be a physicalrepresentation of a theory.• Can serve as the structurefor a step-by-stepformulation of a theory.5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 10
Why are theories and modelsimportant?• Theory is the backbone of all science. Scientists observephenomena in nature and make observations. They deducehypotheses and subject them to experimental evaluation.• Theories provide guidance of what is already known andtherefore allow us to make predictions .• Theories play a role in the “furtherance” ofknowledge, allowing us to generate new hypotheses anddiscover novel situations.• Well established and respected models for instructional designand development provide guidelines and procedures that canbe applied to a wide variety of situations.5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 11
Instructional Design: thelinking scienceBackground• Dewey (1900) saw “a need fora science that could translatewhat was learned throughresearch into practicalapplications for instruction.This science would makedecisions about instructionalpractices based on soundresearch rather than byintuition.”• It is based on what is knownabout learningtheories, informationtechnology, systematicanalysis, educationalresearch, and managementmethods.Definitions• Instruction Design is thelinking science that appliesLOGIC and SCIENTIFICmethods to the problemsinvolved in designing anddeveloping instruction.• Instruction is a set of eventsembedded in purposefulactivities that facilitatelearning.• Learning is a natural processthat leads to changes in whatwe know, what we can do, andhow we behave.5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 12
So what then isan InstructionalDesign Theory?5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 13
An instructional theory offers explicitguidance on how to better help humanbeings learn and develop.As a theory...• Tested & testable• Provide a set ofassumptions, testedpropositions, acceptedfacts that attempts toprovide a plausible orrationale explanation of“cause and effect”• Attempts to explain therelationship betweeninstruction (teaching) andlearning.
And what then isan InstructionalModel?5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 15
An instructional model is a guidelineor set of strategies on which theapproaches to teaching is/are used.Instructional designmodels:• Illustrate how to organizeappropriate pedagogicalscenarios to achieveinstructional goals.• Target goals and desiredoutcomes .• Guide the design and selectionof learning activities.• Give structure and meaning toan ID problem.• Help to visualize theproblem, to break it down intodiscrete, manageable units.
Next Week• In EDFN201B, you will be expected todesign educational experiences utilizingvarious instructional design models andinstructional and learning theories.• Have you thought about an instructionalproblem that you would like to solve?• If you had the opportunity to teachsomething “differently” how would youdo it? Where would you begin? Howwould you accomplish what you set outto do? How would you know that youhad been successful?We discover a host oftheories used in theInstructional DesignProcess.5/15/2013EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 17