Lecture 4 Instructional software

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  • 1. +Educational TechnologyInstructional SoftwareSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001
  • 2. +Session 4 What is the instructional software?Definition Types of instructional softwareCategories, Instructional Role, Features, Examples Benefits vs. PitfallsWhat do those in support say? What do the critics say? How do you select appropriate instructional softwareScenarios, theory bases, selection criteria, instructional stategiesSANKARSINGH,C TECH10012
  • 3. +IcebreakerSANKARSINGH,C TECH10013
  • 4. +Instructional Software The word “software” is used to describe programs written incomputer languages. Instructional software is application software that is designedspecifically to deliver or assist with learner instruction on atopic. Sole purpose: to deliver instruction or to support learning.SANKARSINGH,C TECH10014
  • 5. +Types of Instructional Software Drill and Practice Tutorial Simulation Instructional Game Problem SolvingSANKARSINGH,C TECH10015
  • 6. +Drill and PracticeExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH10016 DefinitionDrill and practice softwareprovides exercises in whichstudents work example itemsone at a time and receivefeedback on their correctness. Instructional RoleTo help students accuratelycommit information andunderstanding to memory. FeatureReinforce instruction byproviding the repetitionnecessary to move acquiredskills and concepts into long-term memory. Flash card activities; Branchingdrills; Extensive feedbackactivities. Vocabulary, maths, factsquizzes, worksheets
  • 7. +Examples:SANKARSINGH,C TECH10017
  • 8. +Criteria for Selection BENEFITSImmediatefeedback, Motivation, Savesteacher time. LIMITATIONSMisuse / OveruseOutmodedSANKARSINGH,C TECH10018 Do you have control over thepresentation rate? Is it timed?What is the navigation like? Is there good answer judging?Does the program discriminatebetween correct and incorrectinput of answers? Is feedback appropriate?
  • 9. +TutorialsExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH10019 Tutorials provide an entireinstructional sequence similar toa teacher’s classroom instructionon a topic. A tutorial exposes the learner tomaterial that has not beenpreviously taught or learned. Instructional Role: to provideself-paced reviews ofinstruction, alternative learningstrategies, when teacher is notavailable Features Follow linear programmed instruction or branching design. May include drill-and-practice activities Encourage students to interact, control and respond to the program. Guide the learner throughout learning from the beginning (objectives) tothe end (evaluation). Have computer-management capabilities (e.g. data collection).
  • 10. +ExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100110
  • 11. +Criteria for Selection BENEFITSDrills; self-contained, self-pacedunit of instruction; can be usedin the absence of a teacher LIMITATIONScriticized for being “directed”instruction by constructivists;lack of good products; onlyemploy one instructionalapproachSANKARSINGH,C TECH100111 Is there extensive interactivity? Is there thorough user control? Is the pedagogy appropriate? Is there adequate answer-judging and feedbackcapabilities? Are there appropriate graphics? Is there adequaterecordkeeping?
  • 12. +SimulationsExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100112 Definitioncomputerized models of real orimagined systems designed toteach how the system works Features Involve students into learning process. Compress time or slow down processes. Save money and resources. Make experimentation safe. Make impossible situations possible and controllable. Let student repeat events as many times as they want. Instructional Role: tointroduce or clarify a newtopic, to foster explorationand problem solving, andto encourage cooperationand group work.
  • 13. +ExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100113
  • 14. +ExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100114
  • 15. +Criteria for Selection BENEFITSCompress time; slowdown/speed up processes; highstudent-involvement, safeexperimentation; “impossible”becomes possible; repetition;observation of complexprocesses; LIMITATIONSAccuracy problems;Misuse, MisrepresentationsSANKARSINGH,C TECH100115 The usefulness of simulationsoftware depends on theprogram’s purpose. How well does the simulationfit with the purpose of thelesson and the studentneeds? Use as supplements to labexperiments; role-playing; fieldtrips; clarification on a newtopic; group work; exploration.
  • 16. +Instructional GamesExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100116 Definitioncourseware designed tomotivate learning by addinggame rules and/or competitionto learning activities Features Make learning fun and motivating (Edutainment). Motivate learners via the challenge of competition. Engage the learner in a situation where the learner is competing fora high score. Include elements of adventure and uncertainty. Provide different levels of complexity that match player’s ability Instructional Role: to use inplace of worksheets andexercises, to teach cooperativegroup skills, and as a reward.
  • 17. +Example:SANKARSINGH,C TECH100117
  • 18. +ExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100118
  • 19. +Criteria for Selection BENEFITSInteresting, motivating, rewarding LIMITATIONSlearning versus having fun;confusion of game rules andreal-life rules; inefficientSANKARSINGH,C TECH100119 Is the format and activityappealing? Elements ofadventure? Uncertainty? What is the instructionalvalue? Is the physical dexterityreasonable? Minimum violence andaggression
  • 20. +Problem SolvingExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100120 DefinitionA program that serves to fostercomponent skills involved insolving problems and/or provideopportunities to practice solvingvarious problems in specificcontent areas Features Emphasis on thinking processes rather than correct answers. Exposes students to a series of activities that would help teach the desired skills. Help students work together in small teams. Give students opportunities to see how information applies to actual problems. Vary the amount of direction and assistance depending on the each student’sneeds. Instructional Role: to teachcomponent skills in problemsolving strategies, providesupport in solvingproblems, and encourage groupproblem solving.
  • 21. +Criteria for Selection BENEFITSImproved interests andmotivation; Prevents inertknowledge LIMITATIONSnames versus skills;software claims versuseffectiveness; possiblenegative effects of directedinstruction; transferSANKARSINGH,C TECH100121 Are the problemformats interesting?Challenging? Is there a clear link todeveloping a specificproblem solvingactivity?
  • 22. +It’s your turn nowThink of the scenarios in which instructionalsoftware can be used in a classroom or aninstructional setting in Trinidad and Tobago.SANKARSINGH,C TECH1001 22
  • 23. +Technology Integration Strategies[Drill & Practice] - Class ActivityTo remedy identified weaknesses or skilldeficitsTo promote skill fluency or automaticitySANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 123
  • 24. +Technology Integration Strategies[Tutorials] - Class ActivityTo provide efficient, self-paced instructionTo support self-paced review of conceptsSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 224
  • 25. +Technology Integration Strategies[Simulations] - Class Activity To foster creative problem solving and metacognition To build mental models, increase knowledge transfer To foster group cooperation; allow for multiple intelligences To generate motivation to learn; optimize scarce personnel and materialresources To remove logistical hurdles to learningSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 325
  • 26. +Technology Integration Strategies[Instructional Games] - Class Activity To remedy identified weaknesses or skill deficits To promote skill fluency or automaticity To foster group cooperation; allow for MI; generatemotivation to learnSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 426
  • 27. +Technology Integration Strategies[Problem-Solving] - Class Activity To promote skill fluency or automaticity To foster creative problem solving and metacognition;group cooperation; allow for MISANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 527
  • 28. +Next Week:Technology Software SupportTools in Teaching and LearningReview this class on BlackboardSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001