+Session 4 What is the instructional software?Definition Types of instructional softwareCategories, Instructional Role, Features, Examples Benefits vs. PitfallsWhat do those in support say? What do the critics say? How do you select appropriate instructional softwareScenarios, theory bases, selection criteria, instructional stategiesSANKARSINGH,C TECH10012
+Instructional Software The word “software” is used to describe programs written incomputer languages. Instructional software is application software that is designedspecifically to deliver or assist with learner instruction on atopic. Sole purpose: to deliver instruction or to support learning.SANKARSINGH,C TECH10014
+Types of Instructional Software Drill and Practice Tutorial Simulation Instructional Game Problem SolvingSANKARSINGH,C TECH10015
+Drill and PracticeExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH10016 DefinitionDrill and practice softwareprovides exercises in whichstudents work example itemsone at a time and receivefeedback on their correctness. Instructional RoleTo help students accuratelycommit information andunderstanding to memory. FeatureReinforce instruction byproviding the repetitionnecessary to move acquiredskills and concepts into long-term memory. Flash card activities; Branchingdrills; Extensive feedbackactivities. Vocabulary, maths, factsquizzes, worksheets
+Criteria for Selection BENEFITSImmediatefeedback, Motivation, Savesteacher time. LIMITATIONSMisuse / OveruseOutmodedSANKARSINGH,C TECH10018 Do you have control over thepresentation rate? Is it timed?What is the navigation like? Is there good answer judging?Does the program discriminatebetween correct and incorrectinput of answers? Is feedback appropriate?
+TutorialsExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH10019 Tutorials provide an entireinstructional sequence similar toa teacher’s classroom instructionon a topic. A tutorial exposes the learner tomaterial that has not beenpreviously taught or learned. Instructional Role: to provideself-paced reviews ofinstruction, alternative learningstrategies, when teacher is notavailable Features Follow linear programmed instruction or branching design. May include drill-and-practice activities Encourage students to interact, control and respond to the program. Guide the learner throughout learning from the beginning (objectives) tothe end (evaluation). Have computer-management capabilities (e.g. data collection).
+Criteria for Selection BENEFITSDrills; self-contained, self-pacedunit of instruction; can be usedin the absence of a teacher LIMITATIONScriticized for being “directed”instruction by constructivists;lack of good products; onlyemploy one instructionalapproachSANKARSINGH,C TECH100111 Is there extensive interactivity? Is there thorough user control? Is the pedagogy appropriate? Is there adequate answer-judging and feedbackcapabilities? Are there appropriate graphics? Is there adequaterecordkeeping?
+SimulationsExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100112 Definitioncomputerized models of real orimagined systems designed toteach how the system works Features Involve students into learning process. Compress time or slow down processes. Save money and resources. Make experimentation safe. Make impossible situations possible and controllable. Let student repeat events as many times as they want. Instructional Role: tointroduce or clarify a newtopic, to foster explorationand problem solving, andto encourage cooperationand group work.
+Criteria for Selection BENEFITSCompress time; slowdown/speed up processes; highstudent-involvement, safeexperimentation; “impossible”becomes possible; repetition;observation of complexprocesses; LIMITATIONSAccuracy problems;Misuse, MisrepresentationsSANKARSINGH,C TECH100115 The usefulness of simulationsoftware depends on theprogram’s purpose. How well does the simulationfit with the purpose of thelesson and the studentneeds? Use as supplements to labexperiments; role-playing; fieldtrips; clarification on a newtopic; group work; exploration.
+Instructional GamesExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100116 Definitioncourseware designed tomotivate learning by addinggame rules and/or competitionto learning activities Features Make learning fun and motivating (Edutainment). Motivate learners via the challenge of competition. Engage the learner in a situation where the learner is competing fora high score. Include elements of adventure and uncertainty. Provide different levels of complexity that match player’s ability Instructional Role: to use inplace of worksheets andexercises, to teach cooperativegroup skills, and as a reward.
+Criteria for Selection BENEFITSInteresting, motivating, rewarding LIMITATIONSlearning versus having fun;confusion of game rules andreal-life rules; inefficientSANKARSINGH,C TECH100119 Is the format and activityappealing? Elements ofadventure? Uncertainty? What is the instructionalvalue? Is the physical dexterityreasonable? Minimum violence andaggression
+Problem SolvingExampleSANKARSINGH,C TECH100120 DefinitionA program that serves to fostercomponent skills involved insolving problems and/or provideopportunities to practice solvingvarious problems in specificcontent areas Features Emphasis on thinking processes rather than correct answers. Exposes students to a series of activities that would help teach the desired skills. Help students work together in small teams. Give students opportunities to see how information applies to actual problems. Vary the amount of direction and assistance depending on the each student’sneeds. Instructional Role: to teachcomponent skills in problemsolving strategies, providesupport in solvingproblems, and encourage groupproblem solving.
+Criteria for Selection BENEFITSImproved interests andmotivation; Prevents inertknowledge LIMITATIONSnames versus skills;software claims versuseffectiveness; possiblenegative effects of directedinstruction; transferSANKARSINGH,C TECH100121 Are the problemformats interesting?Challenging? Is there a clear link todeveloping a specificproblem solvingactivity?
+It’s your turn nowThink of the scenarios in which instructionalsoftware can be used in a classroom or aninstructional setting in Trinidad and Tobago.SANKARSINGH,C TECH1001 22
+Technology Integration Strategies[Drill & Practice] - Class ActivityTo remedy identified weaknesses or skilldeficitsTo promote skill fluency or automaticitySANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 123
+Technology Integration Strategies[Tutorials] - Class ActivityTo provide efficient, self-paced instructionTo support self-paced review of conceptsSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 224
+Technology Integration Strategies[Simulations] - Class Activity To foster creative problem solving and metacognition To build mental models, increase knowledge transfer To foster group cooperation; allow for multiple intelligences To generate motivation to learn; optimize scarce personnel and materialresources To remove logistical hurdles to learningSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 325
+Technology Integration Strategies[Instructional Games] - Class Activity To remedy identified weaknesses or skill deficits To promote skill fluency or automaticity To foster group cooperation; allow for MI; generatemotivation to learnSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 426
+Technology Integration Strategies[Problem-Solving] - Class Activity To promote skill fluency or automaticity To foster creative problem solving and metacognition;group cooperation; allow for MISANKARSINGH,C TECH1001SCENARIO # 527
+Next Week:Technology Software SupportTools in Teaching and LearningReview this class on BlackboardSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001