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Lecture 3 instructional design group-projectpart3

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how to write up your instructional strategies for your project, i.e. you coursework deliverables.

how to write up your instructional strategies for your project, i.e. you coursework deliverables.

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  • What is a prescription?A set of instructions given by the expert.Think of your visit to the doctor. What does it say?The authoritative recommendation of an action or procedure
  • Classifying: support activities include graphic organizers, venn diagrams, scattergrams, analogies, metaphors and similes
  • Helpful for learning facts, listsUseful for transforming information into a more remembered formHelps the learner to identify how new ideas relate to existing ideasRequires learners to add their ideas to new informationInstructional strategies begin with determining the content and performance type of each objective using the expanded content performance matrix. The classification of the objectives helps the designer to identify how the learner is to perform the behaviour specified in the objective and the type of content the learner must muster.
  • Specific strategies are then prescribed for each cell of the content performance matrix.Recall performance relies on rote memorization of the content. The learner might need to recall a fact, state the definition of a concept, state a rule, list the steps in a procedure, describe a type of behaviour, attitude.Application performance requires the learner to apply the content to a new situation or problem.FACTS CAN ONLY BE RECALLED. THEY HAVE NO SPECIFIC APPLICATION.If an objective is classified as factual content and the performance is recall, then the prescriptions describe how to present the fact to the learner for optimum learning. CONCEPTS can be either RECALL or APPLICATION (identify new examples of the concept). Integration and Organizational strategies are useful for facilitating generative learning of concepts of application.
  • Each prescription involves two components. The first component is the initial presentation of the content for the learner. The second component of the prescription is a generative strategy to make the content meaningful and to encourage active processing by the student. The generative strategies include recall, integration, organization, and elaboration.
  • Each prescription involves two components. The first component is the initial presentation of the content for the learner. The second component of the prescription is a generative strategy to make the content meaningful and to encourage active processing by the student. The generative strategies include recall, integration, organization, and elaboration.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Instructional Strategies Guided lecture 3 for Coursework Assignment 8/5/2 013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 2
    • 2. In this session we will: 0 Review : What stage in the Morrison, Ross & Kemp Model do we find instructional strategies? 0 Discuss: the role of learner motivation in setting up instructional strategies 0 Discover: the categories of instructional strategies 0 Practice: designing and writing instructional strategies 05/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 3
    • 3. What have we done thus far? Identified : 0 the instructional problem 0 the content to correct the problem & 0 the objectives for the instruction. We now need to design effective and efficient instruction that produces reliable results each time it is presented to the learner. To do this, we must develop prescriptions that describe an optimum method of instruction for different types of content. 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5
    • 4. The Instructional Strategy 0Prescribes sequences and methods of instruction to achieve an objective 0Provide guidance on how to design instructional sequences 0A well-designed instructional strategy prompts or motivates the learner to actively make these connections between what the learner already knows and the new information. 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 6
    • 5. Nine categories of instructional strategies (Marzano’s Pickering, and Pollock, 2004) 0 Identifying similarities and differences 0 Summarizing and note-taking 0 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 0 Homework and practice 0 Non-linguistic representations 0 Cooperative learning 0 Setting objectives and providing feedback 0 Generating and testing hypotheses 0 Questions, cues, and advance organizers. 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 7
    • 6. Four generative categories of instructional strategies (Jonassen,1988) 0 Strategies of Recall that facilitate recall include repetition, rehearsal, review and mnemonics 0 Integration Strategies help the learner transform new content such as paraphrasing, generating questions or examples 0 Organizational Strategies include analyzing key ideas and then interrelate them, outlining, categorizing, integrating new information, cognitive mapping, 0 Elaboration Strategies include the generation of mental images, creating physical diagrams, sentence elaborations. 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 8
    • 7. Performance Content Matrix Content Performance Recall Application Fact Concept Principles & Rules Procedure Interpersonal Attitude 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 9
    • 8. Setting it up: use a table CONTENT STRATEGY CATEGORY INITIAL PRESENTATION /GENERATIVE STRATEGY/ IMPLEMENTATION Fact: Concept: Principles/Rules: Procedure: Interpersonal: Attitude: State all that are relevant Recall Integration Organizational Elaboration Demonstration Practice Model Mental Rehearsal State how it will be presented 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 10
    • 9. Writing those prescriptions CONTENT STRATEGY CATEGORY INITIAL PRESENTATION /GENERATIVE STRATEGY/ IMPLEMENTATION State it State it State how it will be presented; 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 11 1) Review each objective and determine in which cell it best fits in the performance-content matrix 2) Refer to the appropriate table of prescriptions and select an initial and generative strategy 3) Develop the instruction, which consists of the initial presentation & generative strategy
    • 10. Try it now Get into your groups now and begin to draft out the instructional strategies for your approved objectives. You will be submitting your instructional strategies along with your objectives next week. You may consult with your instructor during the process. 8/5/2013 EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 12