Students should all pass the same tests!Standardization means accountability.Inquiry approaches are too slow to be practical.
Lecture 2 - Theory Bases, Instructional Models & Technology Integration
+Educational TechnologyUnderstanding the foundations of effectivetechnology integrationSANKARSINGH,C TECH1001
+Session 2 What are learning theories? Why do they matter? Who said what?Learning theories form the bases for instructional models. How have learning theories shaped teaching & learning?Instructional models are grounded in learning theories. These theoriesinfluence the approach to instruction and technology integration. Why are theory bases and instruction modelsfundamental to technology integration in learning environments?Technology integration strategies can be developed to support differentinstructional models based on instructional goals, learner’s needs etc. How should you proceed?Technology integration requires planning (TIP Model) What do you need?For technology integration to have a desired impact on teaching andlearning, several conditions must exist.SANKARSINGH,C TECH10012
+Two opposing perspectives:Objectivism and Constructivism [ In this course] we explore 2 schools of thought on howhuman beings learn and acquire knowledgeOBJECTIVISM CONSTRUCTIVISMKNOWLEDGE residesOUTSIDE of the human mind.KNOWLEDGE must beTRANSMITTED to the humanmind.TO LEARN is to STORETRANSMITTEDKNOWLEDGE in the humanmind.Humans construct ALLKNOWLEDGE in their mindsby PARTICIPATING in certainEXPERIENCES.TO LEARN is to acquire andconstruct PERSONALISEDversions of knowledge via selfrationalization, experimentationand discovery.
+Learning Theory Bases that supportObjectivism Key Concepts:Contingencies of reinforcement(REWARD vs. PUNISHMENT),Operant conditioning, ProgrammedLearning. Behaviourism (as in the workof B.F. Skinner) He believed that it was moreproductive to study DIRECTOBSERVABLE BEHAVIOURrather than INTERNALMENTAL events. The best way to understandbehaviour was to look at theCAUSES of action and itsCONSEQUENCES.
+ The learner is seen as aprocessor of information, inmuch the same way as acomputer receives and storesinformation to later produce anoutput. Information Processing Theory(as in the works of Atkinson &Shiffrin)Learning Theory Bases that supportObjectivism Key Concepts:Stimulus, SensoryRegister, Short TermMemory, Schema, Encoding, Chunking, Long Term Memory.
+Learning Theory Bases that supportObjectivism Cognitivism (as in the works of Robert Gagné). The set of factorsthat influence learning can be collectively called the CONDITIONS OFLEARNING. These conditions both internal and external shape thelearning process. KEY CONCEPT: 9 EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION, SKILLS HIERARCHY(Simple to Complex)
+Learning Theory Bases that supportObjectivism Systems approaches/ theories (as seen in the works of LeslieBriggs, Mager, Merill, Reigeluth) They believed that learning was most efficient when it was supportedby a carefully designed system of instruction. This is usually in the form of step-by-step processes; a highlystructured sequence of instruction.
+In other words, instruction within theOBJECTIVIST perspective should be: TRANSMITTED SYSTEMATIC STRUCTURED STANDARDIZED TEACHER-DIRECTED(THE SAGE ON THE STAGE)
+Learning Theory Bases that support(Constructivism) Social Activism Theory (as in the work of JohnDewey) Grandfather of constructivism Learning should be hands-on and experience-based The purpose of education was to GROW, PREPAREto take a role in society, Learning only useful in the context of socialexperience. Anti- standardization, pro-curriculum based onstudent interests. Activity Theory & Scaffolding (as in the work ofLev Vygotsky) A novice (child) and an expert (adult) view things verydifferently based on their cognitive functioning. The Zone of Proximal Development refers to the thisdifference SCAFFOLDING: The expert (adult teacher)determines where the child is in the developmentprocess and builds on it, gradually increasing thecognitive functioning to expert level.
+Learning Theory Bases that support(Constructivism) Discovery Learning (as in the work of JeromeBruner) Active participation by the learner was crucial to thelearning process. Active participation is best achieved byproviding/setting up DISCOVERY learningenvironments. Allow learners to explore alternatives andrecognize relationships between ideas. Learners more likely to understand and rememberthings they discovered in their exploration. Multiple Intelligences (as in the work ofHoward Gardner) IQ tests cannot judge all students’ability to learn. Traditional academic tasks DO NOT REFLECTtrue ability. There are at least 8 different and independenttypes of intelligences: linguistic, musical,logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic,intrapersonal, interpersonal & naturalist.
+In other words, Constructivists believeinstruction should be: more LEARNER-CENTERED more LEARNER-DRIVEN EXPERIENTIAL FLUID, OPEN, FLEXIBLE Motivated by individual’s interests rather thanexams & standard curriculum Teacher is the GUIDE ON THE SIDE
+Objectivism &Constructivism areBOTH important tothe instructionalprocessSome learning processes require moredirected instruction than others.Can you think of some examples?
+Differences in Directed & ConstructivistApproaches
+Technology Integration in learningactivities Instructional models are grounded in learning theories. Learning theories provide insight into the ways we believehuman beings learn. Instructional models can be directed, constructivist or blended,dependent on the educational goal, aim or need. As teachers, we are now expected to integrate technology inour approach regardless of the model of our choice.
+Directed ModelsTutorialdrill-and-practice softwareDrill-and-practice orInstructional game softwareTutorial software oronline training courseTutorial, drill-and-practiceSimulation softwareConstructivist ModelsVideo –based scenariosGraphic Tools, simulationsInternet & web servicesInstructional gamesMultimedia products, webProduction, desktop publishingMultimedia productsSimulation, Problem-solving softwareBothDrill-and-practice, multimedia,Hands-onSimulationsWord processing, virtual tours,SpreadsheetsMultimedia research productsSuggested Tech-based Activities [More?]
+How will I know what isrequired?Technology is not used simply for the sake oftechnology.TechnologyIntegrationPlanningModel
+TIP MODELPHASE 1 What is the problem I am addressing? Give evidence of problem Are technology-based methodsavailable to address the problem? Do these methods provide a suitableand sufficient advantage? Estimate the impact/benefit Consider the time and work involvedin setting it up. Is it worth it?Relative Advantage:Why should I use a technology-basedmethod?
+TIP MODELPhase 2 What outcomes do I expect from usingthe new methods? What are the best ways for assessingthese outcomes? Written test? Short answers? Products? Presentations? Webpages? Rubrics? Likert Scale? Survey?Decide on objectives & assessmentHow will I know students havelearned?
+TIP MODELPhase 3 What kinds of instructional methods areneeded in light of content objectives andstudent characteristics? Single subject vs. interdisciplinary Group work vs. individual How can technology best support thesemethods? How can I prepare students adequatelyto use technologies?Design Integration StrategiesWhat teaching strategies and activitieswork best?
+TIP MODELPhase 4 Adequate hardware, software, media?What equipment do I need? How manycomputers per student? Time to use resources? Do I need tobook the lab in advance? Special needs? Trouble shooting?Prepare the instructional environmentAre essential conditions in place tosupport technology integration?
+TIP MODELPhase 5 Were objectives achieved? What do students say? Could improving the environmentimprove results?Evaluate and revise integrationstrategiesWhat worked well, What could beimproved?
+Effective Technology Integrationrequires: Trained Personnel Access to Hardware, Software & Other Resources Appropriate Teaching & Assessment Approaches Technical Assistance Shared Vision for Technology Integration Standards Curriculum Support Required Policies
+Next Week:Teaching and Learning withInternet TechnologiesReview this class on Blackboard