Lecture 2 instructional design group-projectpart2

533 views
471 views

Published on

Guided coursework lecture part 2

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
533
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • According to Morrison et al, there are nine key elements to instructional design:Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.State instructional objectives for the learner.Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.Plan the instructional message and delivery.Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.
  • The taxonomy describes 6 levels. These levels are considered a hierarchy each level building on the ones below.Bloom labels the lowest level knowledge and the higher mental abilities are classified into five increasingly more intellectual levels of comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
  • The taxonomy describes 6 levels. These levels are considered a hierarchy each level building on the ones below.Bloom labels the lowest level knowledge and the higher mental abilities are classified into five increasingly more intellectual levels of comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
  • Lecture 2 instructional design group-projectpart2

    1. 1. In this session we will: 0 Review : What stage in the Morrison, Ross & Kemp Model do we find instructional objectives? 0 Discuss: Why does an instructional designer set objectives? Why would this skill be important to you as a teacher? 0 Discover: What are objectives? The classification of objectives and the domains; sequencing objectives 0 Practice: designing and writing objectives and strategies for solving /addressing instructional problems. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 2
    2. 2. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 3
    3. 3. Instruction 0 Instruction is the intentional facilitation of learning toward identified learning goals. 0 Driscoll (1994) defined instruction as “the deliberate arrangement of learning conditions to promote the attainment of some intended goal.” 0 How do you think this definition relates to the outcomes of this course? How will this relate to your career as a teacher? 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 4
    4. 4. Goals, Objectives & Instruction 0 Instruction is a purposeful activity, that is, it is a means to an end. 0 Those ends are often described as the goals and objectives of instruction. 0 We design instruction to achieve a set of educational goals and objectives. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 5
    5. 5. What is a goal? 0 Goals describe the intention of the instruction. It is a statement describing a broad or abstract intent, state or condition (Mager, 1984). 0 EXAMPLE: Students will recognize and value the behaviours of a healthy lifestyle. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 6
    6. 6. Goals vs. Objectives 0 But how will we know when the goal has been achieved? 0 The desired outcome of the instruction must be clearly and unambiguously stated. 0 Objectives are concerned with how and to what degree the instruction will affect the learners. 0 Learning objectives are specific, observable & measurable objectives from which all course components are derived and on which the components are based. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 7
    7. 7. Objectives for learning 0 The approach to developing learning objectives by Mager (1984) is designed to generate performance. 0 A learning objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent. 0 What will these learners be able to do after the experience, that they couldn’t or didn’t do before? How will the learner be different? 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 8
    8. 8. Objectives and Performance 0 A performance objective is a precise statement of a capability that, if possessed by the learner, can be observed as a performance. 0 The purpose of performance objectives is to communicate the aims of the instruction. It helps to provide a foundation for the development of instructional activities and assessment of learning. It is useful when it communicates to the learner what they should be able to do after instruction. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 9
    9. 9. ABCDs of well-stated objectives (Smaldino, Lowther and Russell ,2008) 0 Audience (Identify and describe the learner) 0 Behaviour ( Describe what is expected of the learner after receiving instruction) 0 Conditions (Describe the setting and circumstances in which the learner performance will occur) 0 Degree (Explain the standard for acceptable performance). 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 10
    10. 10. The 5 components of a performance objective (Gagné, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2007) 1. Situation 2. Learned capability 3. Content or Object of Performance 4. Observable part of the behaviour 5. Tools, constraints or special conditions Let’s break these down shall we? 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 11
    11. 11. The 5 components of a performance objective (Gagné, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2007) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 12 1. Situation (context in which the learned outcome will be performed). 0 What will be the stimulus situation faced by the student? What will he be asked to do? What will be the challenge? 0 EXAMPLE: “Given a question on the three states of matter…”
    12. 12. The 5 components of a performance objective (Gagné, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2007) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 13 2) The type of learning being performed (a “learned capability” verb classifying the type of learning) 0 Instructional designers associate “capability verbs” with each category. SEE the CAPABILITY VERB LISTING PROVIDED. 0 EXAMPLE: “Given a question on the three states of matter, the Standard 3 student will be able to DESCRIBE…”
    13. 13. The 5 components of a performance objective (Gagné, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2007) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 14 3) The content or object of the performance 0 What is the new content to be learned? 0 EXAMPLE: “Given a question on the three states of matter, the Standard 3 student will be able to describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases…”
    14. 14. The 5 components of a performance objective (Gagné, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2007) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 15 4) The observable part of the behaviour (action verb) 0 How will the performance be completed...by doing what? 0 EXAMPLE: “Given a question on the three states of matter, the Standard 3 student will be able to describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases by writing adjectives for each state …”
    15. 15. The 5 components of a performance objective (Gagné, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2007) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 16 5) The tools, constraints or special conditions applied to the performance (acceptable performance). 0 Must he do this with a specific tool? Within a specific timeframe? With no fewer than 2 errors? 0 EXAMPLE: “Given a question on the three states of matter, the Standard 3 student will be able to describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases by writing adjectives for each state with little or no error.”
    16. 16. FINISHED performance objective “Given a question on the three states of matter, the Standard 3 student will be able to describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases by writing adjectives for each state with little or no error.” ( using the 5 component approach) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 17
    17. 17. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 18 Situation Learned Capability Verb Content Action Verb Tools, Constraints or Special Conditions Given a mathematical expression involving two fractions the Standard 1 student will be able to DEMONSTRATE the procedure for addition by writing the solution with 100% accuracy Given a mathematical expression involving two fractions the Standard 1 student will be able to IDENTIFY the location of the denominator by circling the corresponding values correctly with a green coloured pencil Given an English word from a vocabulary list The Standard 5 student will be able to RECALL the Hispanic equivalent by stating the corresponding answer correctly and with the appropriate pronunciation
    18. 18. Poor Objectives vs. Well-written Objectives POOR: The student will demonstrate metric measurement of length. Better: Given a metric ruler, the students will measure the length of common linear objects to the nearest millimeter. What’s missing though? 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 19
    19. 19. Classification of Objectives 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 20 0 Bloom’s taxonomy has been used by educators as a common point of reference for setting instructional objectives.
    20. 20. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 21
    21. 21. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 22
    22. 22. 3 Domains of learning 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 23 0 Bloom’s Taxonomy is divided into 3 domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. 0 For your course project you will be expected to write objectives across ALL 3 domains. 0 REVIEW YOUR TEXT & HANDOUT FOR THE TAXONOMIES and associated capability verbs across the 3 domains. 0 Hyperlink Resource 1 0 Hyperlink Resource 2
    23. 23. The Cognitive domain 0 The domain receiving the most attention in instructional programs is the cognitive domain which includes objectives related to information or knowledge. 0 The taxonomy describes 6 levels. These levels are considered a hierarchy each level building on the ones below. 0 Bloom labels the lowest level knowledge and the higher mental abilities are classified into five increasingly more intellectual levels of comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 24
    24. 24. The Psychomotor domain 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 25 0 Encompasses the skills requiring the use and coordination of skeletal muscles, as in the physical activities of performing, manipulating and constructing. 0 No taxonomy is universally accepted for this domain (Simpson, 1972; Kibler, 1981; Heinrich, Molenda & Russell, 1993). 0Imitation 0Manipulation 0Precision 0Articulation 0Naturalization
    25. 25. Performance objectives 0 Given a verbal set of instructions, the student will be able to carry out a test for acidity by placing the litmus paper into the beaker on the table as instructed. 0 After reading Bob goes to the dentist, the student will be able to create a poster depicting the three rules for healthy teeth by writing in upper-case with the felt-tip markers on the cardboard cutouts provided. 0 WHY? 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 26
    26. 26. More examples: 0 Given a verbal set of instructions, the student will be able to perform the dissection of as apple by cutting the item with the knife provided in two equal halves. 0 Given a verbal set of instructions, the student will perform the dissection of a bean by rubbing and splitting the bean in two equal halves without damage to the inside shoot. 0 WHY? 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 27
    27. 27. The Affective domain 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 28 0 Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia (1964) organized the affective domain into 5 levels. 0 The levels of the affective domain form a continuum for attitudinal behaviour, from simple awareness and acceptance to internalization, as attitudes become part of an individual’s practicing value system. 0Receiving 0Responding 0Valuing 0Organizing 0Characterizing
    28. 28. Example 0 After viewing the short video on the dangers of unhygienic practices and preparing food, the student will agree to wash their hands before beginning the preparation of the lunch activity. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 29
    29. 29. Group (Project) work Let’s say your UNIT is composed of 3 lessons. The knowledge, skills and attitudes of lesson 3 should build on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of lesson 2 which should build on lesson 1 1. Develop a Major Objective for each lesson in your project. 2. Then develop subordinate objectives in each domain under Major Objective for each lesson. 3. There must be a progression across levels as the lessons advance. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 30
    30. 30. Knowledge, Skills & Attitude must BUILD upon each other for your UNIT. Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 MO 1 MO2 MO3 SO1-cognitive SO2-cognitive SO3-cognitive SO1-psychomotor SO2-psychomotor SO3-psychomotor SO1-affective SO2-affective SO3-affective 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 31 Instructional sequencing of your objectives is important and will be graded!
    31. 31. Like this: Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Major Objective Major Objective Major Objective Subordinate objective (cognitive domain level 1) Subordinate objective (cognitive domain level 2) Subordinate objective (cognitive domain level 3) Subordinate objective (psychomotor domain level 1) Subordinate objective (psychomotor domain level 2) Subordinate objective (psychomotor domain level 3) Subordinate objective (affective domain level 1) Subordinate objective (affective domain level 2) Subordinate objective (affective domain level 3) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 32
    32. 32. Organized in a “progressive nature” like this: Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Major Objective COMPREHENSION Major Objective APPLICATION Major Objective ANALYSIS • Subordinate objective (knowledge/ comprehension) • Subordinate objective (imitation) • Subordinate objective (receiving) • Subordinate objective (application) • Subordinate objective (manipulation/ precision) • Subordinate objective (responding) • Subordinate objective (analysis) • Subordinate objective (articulation) • Subordinate objective (valuing) 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 33
    33. 33. Knowledge, Skills & Attitude must BUILD upon each other for your UNIT. Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 At the end of lesson 1, the student will be able to name the three states on matter. At the end of lesson 2 the student will be able to explain the characteristics of the three states of matter. At the end of lesson 3 the student will be able to identify the three states of matter in his physical environment. SO1-cognitive SO2-cognitive SO3-cognitive SO1-psychomotor SO2-psychomotor SO3-psychomotor SO1-affective SO2-affective SO3-affective 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 34
    34. 34. Next up: Assemble your group and draft out all your objectives in a table similar to the one presented. Instructional Strategies. 04/08/2013 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 35

    ×