Lecture 1 instructional design group-project


Published on

Main points as discussed in the course text. You are expected to read the relevant chapters for details.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • According to Morrison et al, there are nine key elements to instructional design:

    Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
    Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
    Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
    State instructional objectives for the learner.
    Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.
    Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
    Plan the instructional message and delivery.
    Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
    Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.
  • What is the problem we are asked to solve?
    Will instruction solve the problem?
    What is the purpose of the planned instruction?
    Is an instructional intervention the best solution?
  • It identifies the needs relevant to a particular job or task. What problems are affecting learner performance?
    It identifies critical needs.
    It sets priorities for selection an intervention
    It provides baseline data to assess the effectiveness of the instruction.
  • What is the problem we are asked to solve?
    Will instruction solve the problem?
    What is the purpose of the planned instruction?
    Is an instructional intervention the best solution?
  • * State how this problem can be addressed explicitly by ‘teaching” or “instruction”
  • Context is a collection of factors that inhibit or facilitate instruction and learning.
  • I recommend writing 10 lines ( 2 full sentences for each category).
  • I recommend writing 5 lines for each category.
    Orienting questions: 1) Do students see the need for knowing and mastering this content? Are they motivated? Are they accountable for mastering the content? (Some students only do certain tasks if they know they will receive a grade, if they won’t they often ignore the task).

    Learners are more likely to transfer the knowledge if they see that it is readily applicable.

  • A noun is the name of a person, animal, place of thing ( is another example).
  • In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. / Gender is an important concept in the Spanish Language.
  • In Spanish, the definite article can be masculine or feminine.
    Singular Masculine nouns must be accompanied by “el”. For example: el bocadillo.
    Singular Feminine nouns must be accompanied by “la”. For example: la joya.
  • Step 1: Choose a pot with the greater volume than the water you want to boil…
    Step 2: Pour fresh cold tapwater into the pot.
    Step 3: Turn the burner to high, place the pot on the burner etc.
  • Let’s look at Bill Nye the Science Guy.
    Can you analyse this and pull out some facts, concepts, principles, rules and procedures?
  • Lecture 1 instructional design group-project

    1. 1. In this session we will: 0 Review : what is meant by instruction? What is instructional design? What does an instructional designer do? 0 Discuss: why is knowledge of instructional design relevant to teachers? 0 Discover the components of analysis w.r.t. instructional design 0 Practice defining and writing an instructional problem statement, a context analysis and a content analysis. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 2
    2. 2. Instruction 0 Instruction is the intentional facilitation of learning toward identified learning goals. 0 Driscoll (1994) defined instruction as “the deliberate arrangement of learning conditions to promote the attainment of some intended goal.” 0 How does this relate to you? How do you think this definition relates to the outcomes of this course? 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 3
    3. 3. Instructional Design 0 Instructional Design is the practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skills more efficient, effective, and appealing. 0 The process consists broadly of : 0 determining the current state and needs of the learner, 0 defining the end goal of instruction, & 0 creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 4
    4. 4. Instructional Designer: A problem-solver? 0 Smith and Ragan (2004) wrote that an instructional designer is somewhat like an engineer. 0 Tries to design solutions that are functional but also appealing and attractive to the end-user. 0 Has established problem-solving procedures that he uses to guide him in making decisions about his designs. 0 Think about the roles of learning theories and instructional models . How are these applicable to the problem-solver? 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 5
    5. 5. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 6
    6. 6. Design is problem-solving 0 The term ‘design’ implies a systematic or intensive planning and ideation process prior to the development of something of the execution of a plan in order to solve a problem. 0 Fundamentally, design is a type of problem-solving. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 7
    7. 7. Your subMission 0 As a teacher, the ability to analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate (ADDIE) instructional approaches and strategies to facilitate your students’ learning is fundamental. 0 Human beings perceive and process information every waking minute. Some is filtered out, and some is incorporated into what we know and remember. 0 How will you control whether or not an individual learns or benefits from your instruction. Can you? 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 8
    8. 8. Morrison, Ross & Kemp (2004) 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 9
    9. 9. (1) Instructional Problem 0 In this course you will be expected to submit an Instructional Problem Statement. 0 Think of a concept that is often difficult for young learners to grasp. Why is this the case? What are the factors preventing them from grasping it? What exactly is the area of difficulty? Can you pinpoint the source of the confusion? How do you propose to solve this by teaching? 0 Answering these questions will help you to identify and define your instructional problem. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 10
    10. 10. Identify the NEED for Instruction 0 Instruction is an appropriate solution to a problem when there is a NEED for it. 0 A needs assessment is a tool for identifying the problem and then selecting an appropriate intervention. 0 Burton & Merrill (1991) identified 6 categories of needs. 0 A normative need is identified by comparing the target audience against a national standard. Normative needs in education include national achievement test norms (*) 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 11
    11. 11. What instructional problem might this video be addressing? 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 12
    12. 12. Example 0 Topic: Grammatical gender in the Spanish Language 0 Subject area: Spanish 0 Problem: Native English-speaking Students do not pay attention to grammatical gender for objects in their study of Spanish as a Second Language. They have difficulty in accurately applying this rule because it only applies to humans and animals in their mother tongue. Oftentimes, they altogether eliminate the use of the indefinite or definite articles with Spanish nouns or they qualify everything as “masculine” inclusive of feminine nouns. This course is designed to provide first-time learners of Spanish with the skills to identify associate and correctly apply the appropriate articles to masculine and feminine nouns in Spanish. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 13
    13. 13. For your submission you must: 1. Identify the topic 2. Identify the subject area 3. State the problem [Example given] 4. Give a rationale [*This problem can be solved by teaching learners to identify, to memorize and to apply grammatical rules about masculine and feminine nouns.] 5. Identify major Subordinate Skills [prerequisite skills or knowledge are required to be able to adequately perform that step.] 0 Students must know the two types of gender “masculine” and “feminine” 0 Students must be able to define a noun. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 14
    14. 14. (2) Learner and Contextual Analysis 0 In this course you are expected to submit a learner and contextual analysis 0 Learner and contextual analyses are used to identify constraints to the design and delivery of the instruction. 0 The context refers to all the present variables that impact on instruction and learning, it may be the environment, learner attitude or capability or instructor’s competence. 0 It is important for you to know what problems you may have to overcome with the target audience and to enable you to contemplate and to develop strategies to deal with them. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 15
    15. 15. For your submission you must 0 Define and describe the current target audience. 0 Use all 5 categories to do so: General Characteristics (Age, Gender, Demographics, etc.) Entry Competencies (Std 2 completion, minimum requirement, grad with overall B score etc.) Academic Background (history of performance, strong and weak areas, special talents etc.) Social Characteristics ( social standing, personalities etc.) Learning Styles (audio-visual, spatial, kinesthetic, musical etc.) 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 16
    16. 16. For your submission you must ALSO 0 Define and describe the current learning environment 0 Use these 3 categories to do so by answering questions such as: 0 Orienting Context (5 lines) How do the learners feel about the topic, its relevance, its usefulness in their lives? What sorts of incentives will you give them to learn? Do all the learners have to reach the same goal? What do learners already know that will help them learn the new information and skills? 0 Instructional Context (5 lines) What physical conditions in the environment are required? What is available? Will the learners need to be brought together in a central location? How much time is available for training? How much time does your course require? 0 Transfer Context (5 lines) What tools, resources, opportunity and support do learners need to be successful in your proposed course? What is available? Will the content you teach be READILY APPLICABLE in their lives? 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 17
    17. 17. (3) Content Analysis 0 Content analysis is intended: to identify and isolate single idea or skill units for instruction, to act as an objective decision rule for including or excluding topics for instruction, & to provide guidance to sequence topics in instruction. 0 Content analysis becomes the basis for writing performance objectives, performance measurements, sequencing instruction and other design decisions. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 18
    18. 18. (3) Content Analysis 0 In this course you are expected to submit a content analysis. 0 Content analysis has to do mainly with the identification of content domains. 0 Content analysis is the process of breaking down large bodies of subject matter or tasks into smaller and instructionally useful units. 0 These "instructionally useful units" may include facts, concepts, processes, procedures, or principles. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 19
    19. 19. What is a fact? 0 FACTS: A fact is an arbitrary association between two things. Learning a fact requires only the memorization and recall of the fact. 0 Names, symbols, labels, places, dates, definitions, descriptions of objects or events. 0 FACTS are the building blocks or tools of the subject (the “vocabulary” the learner must master for understanding). EXAMPLE: Christopher Columbus discovered Trinidad & Tobago in 1498. NOW THINK OF YOUR OWN EXAMPLE 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 20
    20. 20. What is a concept? 0 Concepts are categories used for grouping similar or related ideas, events, or objects. 0 Concepts are used to simplify information by grouping similar ideas or objects together and assigning the grouping a name. 0 EXAMPLE: The concept of “Fruits” is a concrete concept that includes: mangoes, pommecythere, portugal etc. 0 EXAMPLE: The concepts of “Crime” or “Peace” are abstract NOW THINK OF SOME EXAMPLES 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 21
    21. 21. What are principles or rules? 0 Principles and rules describe a relationship between two concepts. 0 Rules also describe laws, instructions etc. 0 EXAMPLE: "I before E, except after C" is a mnemonic rule of thumb for English spelling. 0 EXAMPLE: All the angles of a triangle add up to 180 degrees. NOW THINK OF SOME EXAMPLES 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 22
    22. 22. What are procedures? 0 A procedure is an ordered sequence of steps a learner must execute to complete a task. 0 Example: 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 23
    23. 23. For your submission you must 0 Outline ALL INFORMATION required for the mastery of your proposed topic. 0 Identify, break down and sequence the content in 4 categories for your proposed unit of instruction : • FACTS • CONCEPTS • PRINCIPLES and RULES • PROCEDURES 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 24
    24. 24. Ask Yourself 0What skills and information are necessary for the identified needs? (i.e. to solve the instructional problem) 0What subject content needs to be taught? 0How can the subject content items be structured? organized? sequenced? linked? 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 25
    25. 25. Try this example: Procedures Fill an ice tray with warm water. Place the tray in the freezer. Leave for 1 hour. Remove the tray from the freezer. How to make turn a liquid (like water) into a solid (like ice) Principles & Rules All matter can change from one state to another. Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius. Concepts Matter is anything that takes of space or has mass. Solids are… Liquids are… Gases are… There are many types of liquids (juice, oil, skin cream, milk, water, etc.). The same can be said of solids and gases. Facts All the material on earth is in three states. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 26
    26. 26. In your group of 4-5 persons 0 Meet and decide on your instructional problem topic. 0 Clear the topic with your Instructor BEFORE proceeding. 0 Submit the names & emails of the group members to your Instructor. 0 Next week: your group will submit the analysis with the 3 elements covered in this session. 30/05/2014 SANKARSINGH IDES2001 27