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Instructional Design - Lecture 2 Part 1 - Learning Theories

Instructional Design - Lecture 2 Part 1 - Learning Theories






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    Instructional Design - Lecture 2 Part 1 - Learning Theories Instructional Design - Lecture 2 Part 1 - Learning Theories Presentation Transcript

    • InstructionalDesignTheories involved in the ID processSankarsingh, C. EDFN201B
    • Lecture 2• Learning Theories• Instructional Theories• Motivational Theories• Communication Theories• General Systems TheoriesEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.Lecture 2 (PART ONE) : Learning Theories5/15/2013 2
    • Learning theoriesWe use theories about the ways people learn asa reference when designing instruction. Ithelps us to understand how others mayunderstand the world around us.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.
    • Get in the heads of…• “Instructional designers perceive thinkingas a complex process that includes variousinterconnected elements and thereforecannot be encapsulated in one neat andtidy description or theory”• Brown, A. & Green, T. A. (2011). The Essentials ofInstructional Design: Connecting fundamental principles withprocess and practice. Boston: Pearson.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 5
    • Information ProcessingTheory (Miller, 1956)Tries to explain how thebrain worksSensory receptors transmitinformation from theenvironment to the centralnervous systemThe information attains abrief registration in one ofthe sensory registers and istransformed intorecognizable patterns thatenter SHORT TERMMEMORY.This is known as SELECTIVEPERCEPTION.Unless rehearsed, it’sdumped. STM has arelatively brief duration,less than 20 secs.7+/-2 bits of info can beaccommodated at a giventime.Information that is“remembered”/ “to beremembered” istransferred to Long termmemory by ENCODINGEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 6
    • Let’s take a lookEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 7
    • 14062259143Chunking is a memory strategy that involvestaking individual units of information andgrouping them into larger units. The meaningbehind these “chunks” causes increasedretention. We put items into clusters or"chunks" so that the items are learned ingroups rather than separatelyEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.1-406-225-9143
    • StrategyRehearsal• Rehearsal is a term for therole of repetition in theretention of memories. Itinvolves repeatinginformation over and overin order to get theinformation processedand stored as a memory.• http://www.lumosity.com/app/v5/personalization/memoryRehearsal• Rehearsal is a term for therole of repetition in theretention of memories. Itinvolves repeatinginformation over and overin order to get theinformation processedand stored as a memory.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 9
    • Dale’s Cone of Learning(Edgar Dale, 1960)A visual metaphor for the idea that learning activities can beplaced in broad categories based on the extent to whichthey convey concrete referents of real-life experiences.The cone charts the average retention rate for variousmethods of teaching.The further you progress DOWN the cone, the greater thelearning and the more information is likely to be retained.Incorporates several theories related to Instructional Designand learning processes.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 10
    • Let’s take a lookEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 11
    • Multiple Intelligences Theory(Howard Gardner, 1983)Posits that there are 9ways people understandthe world.We have nine differentkinds of intelligence thatreflect different ways ofinteracting with theworld.Each person has a uniquecombination, or profile.No two individuals havethem in the same exactconfiguration -- similar toour fingerprintsEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 12
    • Let’s take a lookEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 13
    • HOWARD GARDNERS NINEMULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES:1. Linguistic Intelligence: the capacity to uselanguage to express whats on your mind and tounderstand other people.2. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence: the capacityto understand the underlying principles of somekind of causal system,; or to manipulatenumbers, quantities, and operations.3. Musical Rhythmic Intelligence: the capacity tothink in music; to be able to hear patterns,recognize them, and perhaps manipulate them.4. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence: the capacity touse your whole body or parts of your body(your hands, your fingers, your arms) to solve aproblem, make something, or put on some kindof production.5. Spatial Intelligence: the ability to represent thespatial world internally in your mind -- the way asailor or airplane pilot navigates the large spatialworld, or the way a chess player or sculptorrepresents a more circumscribed spatial world.Spatial intelligence can be used in the arts or inthe sciences.6. Naturalist Intelligence: the ability todiscriminate among living things (plants,animals) and sensitivity to other features of thenatural world (clouds, rock configurations.7. Intrapersonal Intelligence: having anunderstanding of yourself; knowing who youare, what you can do, what you want to do, howyou react to things, which things to avoid, andwhich things to gravitate toward.8. Interpersonal Intelligence: the ability tounderstand other people.9. Existential Intelligence: the ability and proclivityto pose (and ponder) questions about life,death, and ultimate realities.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 14
    • Yet...?EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 15
    • Educational Theory(Jerome Bruner, 1915)No child is too young to learn. Whenone learns basic information first, itbecomes easier to learn more difficultinformation.Learning is the act of categorizing bylearning from pastknowledge/experiences.People construct models of the worldas contextual experiences. As peoplegain more experiences theycategorize them with differentmodels. The models they createenable them to predict what willhappen when they have new, butsimilar experiences.When people encounter theunexpected or unknown they mustincorporate them or create newmodels to understand the world.• it is seldom somethingoutside the learner that isdiscovered. Instead, thediscovery involves aninternal reorganisation ofpreviously known ideas inorder to establish a betterfit between those ideasand regularities of anencounter to which thelearner has had toaccommodate.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 16
    • Try this...• Aoccdrnig to rseerach at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosnt mttaer in waht oredrthe ltteers in a wrod are, the olnyiprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsatltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can bea total mses and you can sitll raed itwouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae thehuamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter byistlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanighuh?EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 17
    • Model of School Learning(John Carroll 1963)What is the appropriatetime needed to learn?Assumes that studentsdiffer in the amount oflearning time they need.If these differences are tobe adequately addressed,considerable skill inclassroom management isrequired of teachers.• http://www.slideshare.net/NoorlydaAbdLatip/john-carrolls-model-of-school-learningEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 18
    • 6 Important Variables1. Academic Achievement is the output (as measured by various sorts standardachievement tests)2. Aptitude is the main explanatory variable defined as the "the amount of time astudent needs to learn a given task, unit of instruction, or curriculum to anacceptable criterion of mastery under optimal conditions of instruction andstudent motivation” . "High aptitude is indicated when a student needs a relativelysmall amount of time to learn, low aptitude is indicated when a student needsmuch more than average time to learn" (Carrol: 1989: 26).3. Opportunity to learn: Amount of time available for learning both in class andwithin homework.4. Ability to understand instruction: relates to learning skills, information needed tounderstand, and language comprehension.5. Quality of instruction: If quality of instruction is bad, time needed will increase.6. Perseverance: Amount of time a student is willing to spend on a given task or unitof instruction. This is an operational and measurable definition for motivation forlearning.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 19
    • Caroll’s ModelEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 20
    • Social Learning Theory(Bandura, 1977)• People learn from oneanother via observation,imitation & modeling.• Often referred to as abridge betweenbehaviorist and cognitivelearning theories.• Necessary conditions foreffective modeling:attention, retention,reproduction andmotivation• “People learn throughobserving other’sbehaviors, attitudes andoutcomes of thosebehaviors.”• “Most human behavior islearned observationally.From observing others,one forms an idea of hownew behaviors areperformed. This codedinformation serves as aguide for action.”EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 21
    • Let’s get a better view…• HAVE YOU HEARD OF THEBOBO DOLLEXPERIMENT?• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zerCK0lRjp8• “What the children saw,they did”EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 22
    • Social Development Theory(Lev Vygotsky, 1978)• Social interaction precedes development• Consciousness and cognition are the end products ofsocialization and social behavior• Key concepts: the MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER (MKO)& the ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) The distance between a learner’s ability to perform a taskunder guidance and this ability to do it independently.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 23
    • Advanced Organizers(Ausubel, 1960)• Information presented by an instructor that helps thestudent organize new incoming information.• Achieved by directing attention to what is important in thecoming material, highlighting relationships, and providing areminder about relevant prior knowledge.• Advance organizers make it easier to learn new material ofa complex or otherwise difficult nature, provided thefollowing two conditions are met: 1. The student must process and understand the informationpresented in the organizer—this increases the effectiveness ofthe organizer itself. 2. The organizer must indicate the relations among the basicconcepts and terms that will be used.EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 24
    • Types of Advanced Organizers• A cognitive instruction strategy used to promote learningand retention of new information and could be in the formof a statement.• “Comparative organizer” : activate existing schemas.• Act as reminders to bring into the working memory whatyou may not realize is relevant.• is used both to integrate as well as discriminate. It“integrates new ideas with basically similar concepts incognitive structure, as well as increases discriminabilitybetween new and existing ideas which are essentiallydifferent but confusably similar”EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 25
    • Types of Advanced Organizers• “Expository organizers” provide new knowledge thatstudents will need to understand the upcominginformation”• Used when the new learning material is unfamiliar to thelearner.• provide an anchor in terms that are already familiar to thelearner.• Let’s think of some examplesEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 26
    • Group formationActivity/DiscussionWhat does this all mean?How might this information be used in your IDprojects?How will you infuse these beliefs in yourproposed project?EDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C.
    • Teaser:manageexpectationsof thelearnerNEXT UP:Lecture 2 PART 2Instructional TheoriesEDFN201B SANKARSINGH, C. 5/15/2013 28