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Science works!3 tx_prelims-watermark

  1. 1. Science Works! 3 TEXTBOOK
  2. 2. Science Works! 3TextbookPhilippine Copyright 2012 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the PhilippinesEditorial, design, and layout by University Press of First AsiaNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic ormechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval systems, withoutpermission in writing from the copyright owner. Exclusively distributed by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INC 4/F SEDCCO 1 Bldg. 120 Thailand corner Legazpi Streets Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel. No.: (632) 893-8501 * Fax: (632) 817-8700 ISBN 978-971-46-0308-0AuthorsAntonio V. Coloma is currently studying for his master’s degree in teaching science at EARIST State College (formerlyEulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology). He obtained his bachelor’s degree in secondary educationmajor in general science from Manuel L. Quezon University. He is presently the science coordinator of PAREF NorthfieldSchool for Boys in Quezon City.Claudine F. Guiking obtained her bachelor’s degree in behavioral science from Miriam College in Quezon City. She tookup some graduate units in education at the University of the Philippines–Diliman before continuing her master’s degree ineducation with emphasis on international studies at the Philadelphia Biblical University, Asia Pacific Extension. She has sevenyears of teaching experience in both preschool and grade school.Julie Ann M. Miñon received her bachelor’s degree in secondary education major in general science, cum laude, fromPhilippine Normal University. She is also a licensed teacher. Currently, Ms. Miñon teaches science subjects from grade schoolto high school at Miriam College.ReviewerSusan P. Pirante has completed her academic requirements for her master’s degree in teaching science at Mindanao StateUniversity (MSU)–Marawi. She finished her bachelor’s degree in science major in biology from MSU–Marawi and herbachelor’s degree in elementary education from Iligan Capitol College. Ms. Pirante is also a registered nurse and a licensedteacher. She has been teaching science subjects for 22 years. At present, she teaches at Ubaldo D. Laya Memorial CentralSchool, Iligan City.ConsultantAntom V. Revilla finished his master’s degree in biology from Centro Escolar University. He obtained his bachelor’s degreein forestry, cum laude, from the University of the Philippines–Los Baños. Mr. Revilla was a supervisor of Christian BibleBaptist School of Excellence and Development. He taught general science, biology, and scientific research at San BedaCollege–Manila from 1991–2008. He was also the subject area coordinator of the Natural Science Department of the saidcollege from 2002–2008.
  3. 3. To the Pupil Discovery and learning are part of your everyday life.Whether you are playing or studying, you are able to understandand learn about the things around you. This book, ScienceWorks! 3 is meant to teach you different science concepts andskills in an exciting way. Science Works! 3 will help you to be actively involvedin learning concepts about the human body, plants, animals,Earth, sun, and many more. Science concepts and skills are bestlearned by engaging in activities and performing experiments.These activities will lead you to create your own questions,conduct your own investigations, and develop your ownsolutions to problems through reasoning and observation. This book, which has been designed especially for you,includes the following components: Sci-tionary presents an activity that introduces you to words or terms that you will encounter in the lesson. Jump Start lists a set of guide questions that are expected to be answered as you go along the lesson. Feed Your Mind provides the discussion of the science concepts to be learned in the lesson. Science in Action presents experiments, cooperative learning activities, and individual or group projects that will apply the science concepts you have learned in Feed Your Mind.
  4. 4. Learning Area Integration relates a particular science lesson to the other subject areas such as English, mathe- matics, and social studies. This will help you appreciate how science is applied to other fields of study. Rundown lists the important science concepts that should be remembered at the end of each lesson. Brain Challenge presents 5 to 10-item quiz about the lesson. Chapter Checkup includes exercises that cover all the topics discussed in a chapter. Your Move presents an activity that will allow you to apply what you have learned to a real-life situation. Aside from the components given, some lessons in thisbook include these additional sections: Incredible Facts presents interesting or extraordinary facts and trivia related to the science concept. Proudly Pinoy features notable Filipino people, culture, products, and inventions. Sci-tainment includes fun games and activities related to the science concept. Exploring the Web provides links to online activities or exercises that you may access to help reinforce and enrich your learning. Begin your journey and discovery now! Use what you willlearn in this book and apply them to your everyday life.
  5. 5. Table of ContentsUNIT 1 The Human Body and the Changes of Growing UpChapter 1 The Sense Organs ................................................................................ 2Lesson 1 The Sense of Seeing..................................................................................... 2 2 Common Eye Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Eyes .................................................................................................. 7 3 The Sense of Hearing .................................................................................13 4 Common Ear Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Ears .................................................................................................19 5 The Sense of Smelling ................................................................................24 6 Common Nose Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Nose ................................................................................................29 7 The Sense of Tasting ...................................................................................34 8 Common Tongue Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Tongue .............................................................................................39 9 The Sense of Feeling ..................................................................................44 10 Common Skin Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Skin .................................................................................................49Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................................55Chapter 2 The Changes of Growing Up .............................................................. 58Lesson 1 Changes in Your Height and Weight ...........................................................58 2 Changes in Your Social and Mental Development .......................................64 3 Healthy Eating Habits ................................................................................68 4 Getting Fit and Relaxed ..............................................................................72 5 Common Diseases That Can Affect You ......................................................77 6 Practicing Good Health Habits ...................................................................81 7 Protecting Yourself from Abuse ..................................................................85Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................................89Your Move ......................................................................................................................91UNIT 2 Living Things: Plants and AnimalsChapter 3 Plants around You ............................................................................. 94Lesson 1 Parts of Plants ............................................................................................94 2 Classifying Plants .......................................................................................99 3 Where Plants Live ....................................................................................104 4 Growing New Plants ................................................................................110 5 Plants Need Care .....................................................................................115Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................120Chapter 4 Amazing World of Animals ............................................................. 122Lesson 1 Animal Homes .........................................................................................122 2 Animal Groupings Based on the Food They Eat ........................................128 3 Different Body Parts Animals Use ............................................................133
  6. 6. 4 Animal Adaptations .................................................................................139 5 Animals Have Needs ................................................................................145Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................150Your Move ....................................................................................................................151UNIT 3 Matter, Energy, and ForceChapter 5 Matter around Us ............................................................................ 154Lesson 1 Matter Is Everywhere ..............................................................................154 2 Properties of Materials .............................................................................159 3 Mass and Volume of Matter .....................................................................166 4 Useful and Harmful Materials ..................................................................172Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................177Chapter 6 Light and Energy Sources ................................................................ 179Lesson 1 Sources of Light .......................................................................................179 2 Opaque, Translucent, and Transparent Materials .....................................183 3 Light Bounces and Bends .........................................................................188 4 How Sound Is Made .................................................................................192 5 How Sound Travels ..................................................................................196Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................200Chapter 7 Force and Motion ............................................................................ 201Lesson 1 Force .......................................................................................................201 2 Magnetic Force ........................................................................................205 3 Gravity ....................................................................................................209Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................213Your Move ....................................................................................................................215UNIT 4 Earth, Weather, and SunChapter 8 Soil, Water, and Air ......................................................................... 218Lesson 1 Earth and Its Natural Resources ...............................................................218 2 Soil and Its Uses ......................................................................................223 3 Soil Pollution and Its Prevention ..............................................................230 4 Sources and Uses of Water .......................................................................235 5 Water Pollution and Its Prevention ...........................................................241 6 The Air We Breathe .................................................................................245 7 Air Pollution and Its Prevention ...............................................................249Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................253Chapter 9 Earth’s Weather and the Sun .......................................................... 255Lesson 1 The Weather ............................................................................................255 2 How Weather Affects Us ..........................................................................261 3 Protection from Extreme Weather ............................................................266 4 The Sun ...................................................................................................270 5 Harmful Effects of the Sun .......................................................................273Chapter Checkup ..........................................................................................................277Your Move ....................................................................................................................279Bibliography .................................................................................................................281
  7. 7. 1UNIT The picture shows ________________________________________. Before, I know that ___ ____ ____________________ _____ _____ _________________.Y our body has many parts working together. These body parts help you know the things around you. Your eyesmake you see your surroundings. Your ears enable you to hearsounds. Your nose lets you smell odors. Your tongue allowsyou to taste foods. Your skin helps you feel things. Your eyes,ears, nose, tongue, and skin are your sense organs. In this unit, you will be able to learn about your senseorgans—their functions, the common ailments affecting themand their treatments, and the proper ways of caring for them.You will also understand the changes that happen to yourbody as you grow.
  8. 8. CHAPTER 1 The Sense Organs Lesson 1 The Sense of Seeing Identify the word(s) being described. Arrange the lettersin the box to form the correct word(s). Write your answer onthe blank.1. The colored circular part of the eye r i i s ______________________2. The dark circle of the eye l u p i p ______________________3. The nerve that carries messages to the brain p t c i o e r v n e ______________________ ______________________ In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the eye? 2. How does a person see?2 Science Works! 3
  9. 9. Look around you. What are the things you see. You cansee things because of your eyes. Your eyes are your senseorgans for seeing. Get a mirror and examine your eyebrow eyes. Look at the colored, round part of your eye, the iris. Irises have eyelid different colors. Some people may have green irises, others have blue. iris Filipinos, like you, usually have black sclera pupil or dark brown iris.The parts of the eye that can At the center of your eye is thebe seen pupil. The pupil is the round openingat the center of the iris where light passes through. Themuscles of the iris control the amount of light passing throughthe pupil. Now, notice the part of your eyes that suddenly closeswhen the light is too bright. This is your eyelids. The eyelidsprotect your eyes from bright light until your eyes are able toadjust to it. Your eyelids are lined with oil-producing glandsfound in the inner edge. They keep your eyes moist and cleanwhen you blink. Do you see the white part of your eyes? It is called thesclera. It protects the inner parts of the eyes and keeps themin correct shape. This time, carefully observe the clear, bulging surface thatcovers the front of your eyes. That is the cornea, the part thatfocuses the light as it makes its way through your eyes. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 3
  10. 10. Behind the corneais the aqueoushumor, a waterlikefluid that provides aqueous lens humoroxygen and nutrients optic nerveto the cornea and the cornealens. Through the pupil, sclera vitreous humorlight rays enter youreyes. These rays travel retina choroidthrough the clear part The parts of the eye that cannot be seen easilyof the eye locatedbehind the iris. This part is called the lens. It focuses theimage on the sensitive part of the retina so you can see thingsthat are near or far. Exploring the Web Read, watch, and learn! Visit the following Web site to find out more about your sense of sight: http://www.childrensuniver- sity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/brainandsenses/eye .asp (accessed on 05 April 2011). This interactive Web site shows how the eyes work. Test your knowledge by taking the quiz after the lesson. Lens TestObjective: Investigate how an eye lens works.Materials: magnifying lens (to be provided by your teacher), ruler, piece of bond paper, meterstick4 Science Works! 3
  11. 11. Procedure: 1. Form a group with four members. 2. With your group, go to a dim corner of a room with a window. 3. Hold the magnifying lens about 2 meters (m) from an open window. Use a meterstick to measure how far you are from the window. 4. From the window, position the bond paper on the opposite side of the magnifying lens. 5. Slowly move the paper back and forth until clear images outside the window appear.Questions: 1. How did the image(s) appear on the paper? 2. What do you think will happen if the lens of your eye gets damaged? How will this affect your sight? Why? The retina receives the light rays from the lens. It isa lining at the back of the eye. The retina has two types ofphotoreceptor cells: rods and cones. Rods are responsible for night vision. They also help yousee black and white shades. Cones are responsible for daylight vision. They allow youto see colors in images. The vitreous humor is a clear, jellylike fluid that fills thespace between the lens and the retina. It permits the light topass through the retina. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 5
  12. 12. The choroid is a layer of blood vessels found between theretina and the sclera. It supplies oxygen and nutrients to theretina. Each of the receptor cells in the retina senses a part of theimage and delivers the message to the brain through the opticnerve, a nerve which connects the eye to the brain. Finally,the brain receives the message and creates an image of theobject, which you are then able to perceive. The eyes are the sense organs for seeing. The eye parts that can be seen are the iris, pupil, eyelids, and sclera. The eye parts that can only be seen using special equipment are the aqueous humor, lens, retina, and optic nerve. Put a check ( ) mark on the blank if the sentence iscorrect. Put a cross ( ) mark if it is wrong._______ 1. The colored part of the eye is called the iris._______ 2. The pupil protects the eyes from bright light._______ 3. The white part of the eyes is the retina._______ 4. The rods are responsible for daylight vision._______ 5. The aqueous humor is a jellylike fluid that fills the space between the lens and the retina.6 Science Works! 3
  13. 13. Lesson 2 Common Eye Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Eyes Look for the given words in the puzzle. Encircle eachword that you will find. glaucoma cataract sty myopia hyperopia e g l a u c o m a p m l s h w f k y d m r m t k j g a o n f z h y p e r o p i a n b n i o k f i l o i s c a t a r a c t f g r x n o m e m d In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the common eye ailments and their treatment? 2. How can you take proper care of your eyes? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 7
  14. 14. If you have visited an eye clinic before, you have probablymet an optometrist (a person who performs basic eyecheckups) or an ophthalmologist (a medical doctor for theeyes). These people help you when you have eye problems orailments. The most common eye ailment is an eye infection called conjunctivitis, better known as sore eyes or pinkeye. A person with conjunctivitis has red, watery, and itchy eyes caused by allergies, bacteria, or viruses. Conjunctivis is contagious, which meansConjunctivitis it can easily be transferred from oneperson to another through direct contact. When you rub youreyes after a hand contact with a person who has conjunctivitis,the germs can be transferred to your eyes. You shouldimmediately inform your parents or elders if you get infectedwith conjunctivitis. A person can also experience aninfection of the eyelid. It is a red swellingalong the edge of an eyelid. This swellingis known as sty (kuliti). Sty is caused bybacteria and therefore may be contagious. Sty To relieve the pain and speed up the rupture of a sty, applywarm compress to the infected area for about 10 minutes,three times a day or as needed. Never press or squeeze a sty toprevent further infection. Ask your parents or elders to consulta doctor if a sty persists for several days.8 Science Works! 3
  15. 15. Some people have a poor vision. Poor vision happens whenlight does not focus correctly on the retina. Poor vision isusually a result of a refractive error, an error in the focusingof light by the eyes. There are three types of refractive errors:nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. Nearsightedness or myopia is when a person sees nearbyobjects clearly, while far objects appear blurred or hazy. Thishappens when the light that enters the eye focuses on a pointin front of the retina. On the other hand, farsightedness or hyperopia iswhen a person sees faraway objects clearly, while nearbyobjects appear to be blurred. This happens when the light thatenters the eye focuses on a point behind the retina. Wearingspecialized eyeglasses or contact lenses will help a nearsightedor farsighted person see objects more clearly. Astigmatism is when the eyes are unable to focus lightevenly because the cornea of one eye is more curved than theother. As a result, whether an object is near or far, the imageproduced is always blurred. Snellen Chart ReadingObjective: Record and compare one’s visual ability with a classmate.Materials: Snellen chart (to be provided by your teacher), small index card, science notebookProcedure: 1. Stand approximately 6 m away from the Snellen chart. 2. Cover one eye with the index card. 3. Read each row of letters in the chart. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 9
  16. 16. 4. Ask a classmate to record all the letters that you missed or read incorrectly. 5. Repeat steps 2–4 with your other eye. 6. Compare your results with your classmate.Questions: 1. Which row number did you find difficult to read? What letter(s) from this row did you read incorrectly? 2. Did both of your eyes have the same result? Which eye showed more incorrect results? 3. What do you think does the Snellen chart test say about your visual ability? As people get older, they mayexperience some eye disorders. Glaucomais an eye disorder caused by an abnormalpressure exerted by the fluids in the eye.It can cause blindness. Glaucoma can be Glaucomavery hard to detect and doctors estimatethat half of the people affected by glaucoma may not knowthat they have it. There is no cure yet for glaucoma. Doctorsusually prescribe eyedrops to control it. Having a regular eyecheckup is very important. Another eye disorder that mostly affects the elderly is cataract. It is caused by the clouding of the lens of the eye. As a person gets older, the old cells in the lens of the eye die. These cells build up over time and form “cloudyAn eye affected by areas” in the lens. As a result, thesecataract “cloudy areas” block one’s vision andmake things look blurred.10 Science Works! 3
  17. 17. The common symptoms of cataract include havingblurred vision or double vision, being unable to see wellat night, changing eyeglasses frequently, and seeing fadedcolors. Cataract does not spread from one eye to another, butit can occur on both eyes. The exact cause of cataract is stillunknown, but it is firmly connected to smoking, diabetes, andtoo much exposure to sunlight. Early symptoms of cataract may be corrected by wearingeyeglasses. Surgery is still the best treatment, in which thedamaged lens is replaced with an artificial one. A personshould see an eye doctor if the symptoms begin to appear.Proper Care of the Eyes For you to appreciate the beauty of the things aroundyou, you need to have a healthy eyesight. Here are somepractices for the proper care of your eyes.1. Always read with enough light. Do not read while lying down or while inside a moving vehicle.2. Rest your eyes when tired. Do not overuse them.3. Do simple eye exercises such as looking up and down, looking left to right, and rolling your eyeballs clockwise and counterclockwise.4. Avoid rubbing your eyes with your fingers.5. Do not look directly at the sun. When you are outside on a sunny day, wear sunglasses or use an umbrella as protection from the sun’s light.6. If you are wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses, always keep them clean. Remove your eyeglasses or contact lenses before you sleep. Sleeping with your contact lenses on can cause blindness.7. Do not hold pointed and sharp objects near your eyes. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 11
  18. 18. 8. Eat foods rich in vitamin A such as carrots, squash, milk products, and eggs. Vitamin A is a nutrient that is good for the eyes.9. Visit an optometrist or an ophthalmologist for a regular eye checkup.• Some of the common eye ailments are conjunctivitis, sty, glaucoma, and cataract.• The eyes can also have refractive errors. There are three types of refractive errors: nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and astigmatism.• People should take proper care of their eyes. Having healthy eyes is important for good eyesight. Match the eye problems in column A with theirdescriptions in column B. Write the letter of the correctanswer on the blank. A B_____ 1. astigmatism a. difficulty in seeing far objects_____ 2. cataract b. clouding of the lens of the eye_____ 3. glaucoma c. difficulty in seeing nearby objects_____ 4. hyperopia d. caused by an abnormal fluid pressure exerted by the fluids in the eye_____ 5. myopia e. one cornea is more curved than the other12 Science Works! 3
  19. 19. Lesson 3 The Sense of Hearing Complete the crossword puzzle below by writing themissing letters. Use the given clues in the box as your guide. 3 E 1 Down 1. The innermost part of the A N ear that sends messages N to the brain (two words) W 3. A waxy substance in the 2 E R R M ear X Across A 2. A thin layer of skin that 4 O T E R vibrates between the outer ear and the middle ear 4. Part of the ear that can easily be seen (two words) In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the ears? 2. How does a person hear? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 13
  20. 20. Your ears are anvilyour sense organs hammer outer middle innerfor hearing. They ear ear ear auditory nervehelp you hearsounds. The human pinna cochleaear is composed ofthree main parts— stirrup ear canalthe outer ear, the eardrum eustachian tubemiddle ear, and theinner ear. Parts of the ear When you look at your ears in front of a mirror, you cansee the outer ear, the part of the ear that is easiest to see. Itis cup-shaped and is found on the side of the head. It collectsand guides the vibrations or sound waves produced by anobject as they travel to the ear. The outer ear is made up ofthe pinna or auricle and the ear canal. The pinna or auricle is a curved structure that collectssound waves. The ear canal is a tube that extends fromthe auricle to the eardrum. It is lined with delicate hairsand glands. These glands produce a waxy substance calledcerumen, commonly known as earwax. It protects the earcanal from infection and traps dirt that enters the ear. The eardrum, also known as tympanic membrane,is a thin piece of skin located at the end of the ear canal. Itvibrates when sound waves traveling from the ear canal hit it.The vibrations produced are then carried to the middle ear.14 Science Works! 3
  21. 21. The middle ear, a hollow chamber filled with air, picks upthe sound waves from the outer ear. The middle ear has threevery tiny bones—the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup. The hammer is located next to the eardrum. The vibrationsof the eardrum cause the hammer to vibrate as well. Then thehammer causes the anvil (the tiny middle bone that connectsthe hammer and the stirrup) to vibrate, which in turn causes thestirrup to move. Finally, the stirrup passes the vibrations to thefluid inside the cochlea. These three tiny bones amplify the soundvibrations and pass them to the inner ear. The inner ear is a fluid-filled structure which not onlycontains the organs for hearing but also regulates the sense ofbalance of the body. The inner ear is made up of three parts—thecochlea, the auditory nerve, and the semicircular canals. The fluid-filled cochlea is a snail- shaped structure in the inner ear. As the stirrup causes the fluid in the cochlea to vibrate, the hairlike nerve endings called cilia move. The cilia then converts the vibrations into nerve signals which are sent to the brain through the auditory nerve. TheCilia lining the cochlea auditory nerve carries messages collectedfrom 25 000 auditory receptors in the ear to the brain. Whennerve signals reach the brain, the brain interprets them and tellsthe sound you hear. The semicircular canals are the fluid-filled loops near thecochlea that help maintain balance. When you move your head,the fluid moves. It pushes against the hairlike nerve endings thatsend nerve signals to your brain. From these nerve signals, thebrain knows the movements your body is making. Thus, youdo not fall or stumble easily while you are playing, walking, orstanding. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 15
  22. 22. How You Hear How do you hear your favorite song? When an object,such as a radio, makes a sound, it sends vibrations throughthe air. The vibrations then travel to your ear canal and hitthe eardrum. These vibrations cause the hammer, anvil,and stirrup in the middle ear to move. As these three bonesmove, they also cause the fluid inside the cochlea to vibrate.Then, the cilia in the inner ear changes the vibrations intonerve signals which are sent to the brain through the auditorynerve. The brain interprets the signals and tells the soundsyou hear. Exploring the Web Learn more about the parts and function of your ears. Visit http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/ science/brainandsenses/ear.asp (accessed on 05 April 2011) and take a test about how your ears work. Let’s Hear It!Objective: Demonstrate how sound is heard.Materials: metal spoon, kite string (50 centimeters)Procedure: 1. Tie the handle of the metal spoon at the center of the string.16 Science Works! 3
  23. 23. 2. Wrap the ends of the string gently around both your index fingers. Make sure that the strings are of the same length. Put the tip of your index finger in each ear. 3. Lean over so that the spoon hangs freely. Then tap it against the side of the table.Questions: 1. What happened in the experiment? Were you able to hear any sound? 2. How were you able to hear the sounds?• The ears are the sense organs for hearing.• The ears are divided into three main parts—the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear.• The outer ear is made up of the pinna or auricle and the ear canal.• The eardrum is a thin piece of skin located between the outer ear and the middle ear.• The middle ear is made up of three tiny bones—the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup.• The inner ear is made up of the cochlea, the auditory nerve, and the semicircular canal. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 17
  24. 24. A. Label the parts of the ear. Write your answer on the blank. 1. _____________ 4 2. _____________ 3. _____________ 1 4. _____________ 6 5. _____________ 2 5 6. _____________ 3B. Write T on the blank if the sentence is true. If it is false, change the underlined word(s) to make the sentence true. _______ 1. The cochlea is lined with tiny hairlike cells called auditory nerves which carry nerve signals to the brain. _______ 2. The three small bones in the middle ear are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. _______ 3. The eardrum is also called the auricle. _______ 4. The snail-shaped structure in the inner ear is called cochlea. _______ 5. Next to the eardrum is the stirrup.18 Science Works! 3
  25. 25. Lesson 4 Common Ear Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Ears Use the code below to form the correct word(s). Replaceeach number with a letter based on the given code. Writeyour answer on the blank.Code: A B C D E F G H I J K L M 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 251. ________________________________ 13 18 1 1 18 13 15 112. ________________________ __________________ 3 13 18 13 18 11 26 10 8 18 23. ___________________________ _____________________ 10 21 13 10 9 1 2 24 3 13 18 13 18 11 In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the common ear ailments and their treatment? 2. How can you take proper care of your ears? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 19
  26. 26. There are some people who have trouble hearing. Otherscannot hear at all. Hearing loss or hearing impairmentis a condition where one or both ears have been damaged,causing a person to hear only some sounds or nothing at all.Exposure to loud music and noise for long periods of time isone of the causes of hearing loss. People with hearing impairments usuallyuse hearing aids to help them hear sounds.Hearing aids are small electronic devicesthat amplify or increase the loudness ofsounds. They can be worn behind the ear orinserted into the ear canal. Hearing aid Aside from loss of hearing, certain ailments may happen tothe ears. What are some of the common ear ailments? A person may experience hearing ringing or buzzing soundsin the ear. This abnormal hearing of ringing sounds is calledtinnitus. It can be a sign of an ear infection or injury causedby very loud sounds. It can also be a side effect of taking oralmedications such as aspirin. One of the most common ear ailments isexternal otitis, also known as swimmer’s ear.It is usually caused by bacteria or foreign objectstrapped in the ear canal. The common symptomsof external otitis are pain and itchiness in theouter ear. The outer ear also becomes swollen External otitisand may produce a pus (thick, yellowish fluid) discharge. External otitis can be prevented by keeping the earsthoroughly dry after swimming or taking a bath. Whenremoving dirt from the ears, use a thin, damp cloth. Externalotitis can also be treated through proper medication.20 Science Works! 3
  27. 27. Otitis media (luga) is an ailment affecting the middle ear.Pus builds up behind the ear which causes redness, swelling, and pain. Otitis media can be treated with medication such as antibiotics (substances that kill harmful bacteria which cause the infection). If not given immediate attention, otitis media can cause hearing impairment and even deafness.Otitis media I Hear a SoundObjective: Determine the direction of the source of sound.Materials: chair, big handkerchief, pen, paperProcedure: 1. Form a group with five members. 2. Place a chair in the middle of a room. Using the handkerchief, blindfold one member and let him or her sit on the chair. The rest of the members will form a large circle around the blindfolded member. 3. One member in the circle will clap his or her hand twice. 4. The blindfolded member must point to the direction of the source of sound. The other members will record the result in the chart on the next page. 5. After the blindfolded member listens with both ears, he or she will cover his or her right ear and then left ear, and do steps 3 and 4 again. 6. Do steps 2–5 until all members have been blindfolded. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 21
  28. 28. Put a check ( ) mark in the box if the blindfoldedmember correctly determined the direction of the source ofsound. Otherwise, put a cross ( ) mark. Member With Both Ears With Right Ear With Left Ear 1 2 3 4 5Questions: 1. Were you able to locate correctly where the sound came from with two ears or with just one ear? 2. How were the results similar or different between the hearing ability of your right ear and left ear? 3. How does having a limited hearing ability affect your daily life? Give examples.Proper Care of the Ears To prevent having ear ailments, it is very important tokeep your ears healthy. Here are some ways on how to takeproper care of your ears.1. Clean your ears regularly. Gently remove dirt by using a clean, damp cloth.2. Do not put small or sharp objects inside your ears.3. Avoid listening to very loud sounds.4. Always keep your ears dry.5. Avoid swimming in dirty pools or bodies of water.6. Have your ears examined at least once a year by an ear doctor specialist.22 Science Works! 3
  29. 29. • Α hearing aid is a small electronic device that amplifies or increases the loudness of sounds.• Tinnitus is an abnormal hearing of ringing sounds.• External otitis or swimmer’s ear is a common ailment that affects the outer ear.• Otitis media is an ailment that affects the middle ear.• Taking care of the ears can help prevent some ear ailments. Match the words in column A with their descriptions incolumn B. Write the letter of your answer on the blank. A B_____ 1. otitis media a. also known as swimmer’s ear_____ 2. hearing aid b. abnormal hearing of ringing_____ 3. tinnitus sounds_____ 4. external otitis c. condition in which both ears_____ 5. hearing loss have been damaged d. locally known as luga e. small electronic device used to amplify sounds The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 23
  30. 30. Lesson 5 The Sense of Smelling Identify the word(s) being described. Arrange the lettersin the box to form the correct word(s). Write your answer onthe blank.1. The two holes of the nose s o l r t i n s ______________________2. The passageway of air entering the nose l a n s a v t i y c a _______________ __________________3. The nerve in the nose that carries messages to the brain f a c o r t l y o r v e e n _________________________ _______________ In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the nose? 2. How does a person smell?24 Science Works! 3
  31. 31. You smell many thingsevery day. Your nose is yoursense organ for smelling.It helps you recognize apleasant odor such as thesmell of perfume and anunpleasant odor like thesmell of rotten garbage. Your nose has twoimportant tasks—to breathein air and to smell things.Do you know the parts of your nose and their functions? The nose is divided into cartilage two narrow passages by a bones thin wall of soft bone and olfactory nerves cartilage. Air enters through nasal cavity the nostrils (two openings or holes) that lead the air into the nasal cavity (a hollow nostrils passageway of air in and out of the nostrils). The nasalParts of the nose cavity is lined with a mucousmembrane that contains tiny hairs, known as cilia, which filterthe objects that enter the nose. On top of your nasal cavityare nerve cells, called olfactory receptors, that recognizethe scent particles. Then these cells send signals through theolfactory nerve to the brain. The brain then interprets thesesignals so you can now smell that delicious chicken or avoidthat rotten egg. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 25
  32. 32. Your sense of smell affects your daily life. Smelling letsyou enjoy eating more because of the aroma of foods. It alsohelps you detect harm such as preventing you from eatingspoiled foods. Smelling is as important as your other senses.Your sense of smell is actually connected to your memory andemotions. For example, the smell of popcorn may remind youof being at a movie house or cinema with your family. Thesmell of your favorite food can also make you happy. Exploring the Web Take a quiz about the parts and function of the nose on this Web site: http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/_bfs_NOSEquizsource. html (accessed on 05 April 2011). Intensity of SmellObjective: Investigate why the intensity of smell changes over time.Materials: 5 milliliter (mL) cologne, 1 tablespoon coffee granules, 5 mL shampoo, small plastic container with coverProcedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Place each item in separate containers. Label each container as 1, 2, and 3. 3. Pupil A will open the first container and hold it close to pupil B’s nose. 4. Pupil B will take one or two sniffs and note the strength of the smell of the item by encircling the number in the chart on the next page.26 Science Works! 3
  33. 33. 4. Pupil A will close the container. After 5 seconds, repeat steps 2 and 3 two times using the same container. Pupil B will note the strength of the smell of the item after sniffing it. 5. Do the same procedure for containers 2 and 3. Item Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Cologne 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Coffee 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Shampoo 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1Questions: 1. How would you describe the strength of the smell of the cologne, coffee, and shampoo at the time when you first sniffed them? 2. How did the strength of the smell change after the second and third trials? 3. Why do you think the strength of the smell changed over time?• The nose is the sense organ for smelling.• The nose consists of the nostrils, nasal cavity, olfactory receptors, and olfactory nerve. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 27
  34. 34. Match the parts of the nose in column A with theirdescriptions in column B. Write the letter of your answer onthe blank. A B______ 1. cilia a. hollow passageway of air______ 2. nostrils b. tiny hairs that filter the air______ 3. nasal cavity c. cells that recognize the scent particles______ 4. olfactory nerve d. nerve in the nose that carries signals or messages to the brain______ 5. olfactory receptors e. two openings of the nose where air enters28 Science Works! 3
  35. 35. Lesson 6 Common Nose Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Nose Find the given words in the word puzzle. Encircle eachword that you will find. common cold runny nose nosebleed n c r h i o l p f n x o f u a w d e g s c t s k n b n t y u m h n e g n o r d s d w c t b a y g c d y g l i h l f n t e i p r j l s e c o m m o n c o l d e b s f r s y d n l c d k e m l h o g i b e In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the common nose ailments and their treatment? 2. How can you take proper care of your nose? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 29
  36. 36. Look at the picture on the right.What do you think is happening to thechild? Just like the other sense organs, thenose can be affected by many ailments.What are these ailments? When you are sneezing a lot and you have a sore throat,cough, and fever, you probably have a common cold. Thisailment affects the nose. It is caused by a virus (tiny germs thatcarry illnesses) that can spread in the air through sneezing andcoughing. A virus can also be transferred from one person toanother through saliva or mucus (a sticky discharge comingfrom the nose). To prevent yourself from having a cold, avoid contactwith someone who has it. Wash your hands before eatingor touching your face. Washing your hands thoroughly killsgerms. If you happen to have a cold, get plenty of rest, drinkplenty of fluids that are rich in vitamin C, and gargle a glassof warm water with salt. Avoid spreading the virus. Use ahandkechief or a tissue when you sneeze. Make sure to coveryour mouth when you cough, too. Runny nose occurs when the nasal passages becomeswollen due to an irregular discharge of mucus. Runny nosecan be caused by a cold, influenza or flu, allergies to dust orpollen, and irritants like cigarette smoke or perfume. Whenyou have a runny nose, you might have trouble breathingbecause of the presence of mucus. Blow your nose gently usinga clean tissue or towel. Drink plenty of water to help thin themucus. You may also use nasal sprays prescribed by a doctor.30 Science Works! 3
  37. 37. Rhinitis is the swelling of thenasal cavity caused by airborneirritants or allergens. The mostcommon allergens are pollen, dustmites, molds, and animal dander(hair, feather, or skin particles).Symptoms of allergic rhinitisinclude repetitive sneezing, nasalcongestion, runny nose, itchy eyesand nose, and sore throat. The best treatment for this ailmentis to avoid contact with allergens. Taking medication such asantihistamines and decongestants may help, but it is best toconsult a nose specialist for a checkup. Sinusitis is the swelling of the sinuses (air-filledchambers in the skull around the nose) caused by viruses,fungi (molds), and allergies. Symptoms of sinusitis includenasal obstruction, fever, headache, facial pain or pressure,sore throat, fatigue, pain in the upper teeth, and bad breath. A nosebleed usually occurs when the lining in the nosebecomes really dry due to dry weather. Constant picking of the nose and blowing it very hard can also cause nosebleed. To stop the nose from bleeding, stay calm, sit down, and lean forward. Then gently pinch the area along your nostrils and the bridge of your nose. Hold that position for five minutes. Another way to stop nosebleed is to apply ice pack or cold compress on your nose. When the bleeding stops, do not bend and avoid blowing out any of the blood remaining in The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 31
  38. 38. the nostrils to prevent another nosebleed. Taking vitaminsand minerals such as vitamin A, zinc, and iron can also helpprevent nosebleed.Proper Care of the Nose The nose can be easily affected with different allergensand pollutants. Therefore, it is important to keep it clean andhealthy. Here are some ways to take proper care of the nose.1. Cover your nose when you smell a foul odor.2. Avoid blowing your nose very hard. 3. Do not put anything inside your nose. 4. Clean your nose regularly and gently by using a clean and moist cloth. 5. Visit a doctor if you experience something painful in your nose. The Tale of the Ailing NoseObjective: Create a storybook to describe the signs of common nose ailments.Materials: pencil, different art materials, pieces of bond paperProcedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Choose one ailment affecting the nose.32 Science Works! 3
  39. 39. 3. Research in the library or the Internet about this ailment. 4. Create a storybook that will tell a story to children about this ailment. Make it attractive and interesting. 5. Include in your storybook the causes, symptoms, and treatment of this nose ailment, and the good habits children should practice to keep them from having this ailment. 6. Be ready to share your storybook with the class.• The common nose ailments include common cold, runny nose, rhinitis, sinusitis, and nosebleed.• The nose can be affected by certain ailments. It is important to keep it clean and healthy. Match the descriptions in column A with the noseailments in column B. Write the letter of your answer on theblank. A B_____ 1. occurs when there is an a. common cold irregular discharge of mucus b. runny nose_____ 2. the swelling of the sinuses c. rhinitis_____ 3. caused by a virus d. sinusitis_____ 4. the swelling of the nasal cavity e. nosebleed_____ 5. occurs when the lining of the nose becomes dry The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 33
  40. 40. Lesson 7 The Sense of Tasting Look for the given words in the word puzzle. Encircleeach word that you will find. sweet salty bitter sour umami y s b i t t e r s f o s w e e t u x c u g y b x h l u e r d h e r i s r u p s a l t y g t k u m a m i p s m In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the five kinds of tastes? 2. How does the tongue work?34 Science Works! 3
  41. 41. Get a mirror and open your mouth. What do you see?Your tongue is your sense organ for tasting. It is a strong,movable muscle that you use for tasting food. Aside fromtasting food, the tongue also plays other important roles—tohelp you chew, to help you swallow, and to let you pronounceletters or words. How does your tongue work? Observe your tongue again. Do you see the “bumps”on the upper surface of your tongue? These tiny bumpsare called papillae (singular, papilla). The papillae containyour taste buds. Your tongue and the roof of your mouth arecovered with thousands of taste buds. Also arranged amongthe taste buds are taste receptors which help you identify thedifferent flavors of foods. The taste buds can identify five kinds of tastes. These aresweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (meaty taste). When youeat food, your saliva helps break down the food into smaller pieces. The taste receptors located in your taste buds send messages to your brain through the sensory nerve. Then, your brain tells you the taste taste buds of the food you are tongue eating.The tongue The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 35
  42. 42. Incredible Facts As you grow, your taste buds begin to disappear from the sides and the roof of your mouth, leaving taste buds mostly on your tongue. Some of your taste buds become less sensitive. Others may not even work anymore. Free TasteObjective: Group foods by using the sense of taste.Materials: big handkerchief, marshmallows, mangoes, slice of cheese, oranges, cocoa powder, sugar, coffee, salt, calamansi extract, soy sauce, vinegar, medicine dropper, spoons, small plastic containersProcedure: 1. Form a group with five members. Take turns in tasting five varied flavors of food or liquid samples. (Note: Do not taste food that you are allergic to.) 2. Begin by collecting and preparing all the food or liquid samples you are going to use. 3. Blindfold a member of your group and let him or her taste a food or liquid sample. Use the medicine dropper for the liquid samples. 4. Ask the member to pinch his or her nose as you place a food or liquid sample on his or her tongue. Ask him or her to name the food sample. Record the results in the table on the next page.36 Science Works! 3
  43. 43. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the rest of the group members. 6. Remember that when choosing the food and liquid samples, select a variety of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami flavors. 7. Complete the food tasting chart below. Name of the Correct Sample Taste Food (yes or no) 1 2 3 4 5Questions: 1. What have you noticed when you tasted the food and liquid samples with a blindfold on? Did they taste better or not? 2. What happened when you pinched your nose? Did you lose your sense of taste?• The tongue is the sense organ for tasting.• The papillae contain the taste buds that have taste receptors to identify different tastes.• The five kinds of tastes are sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 37
  44. 44. A. Put a check ( ) mark on the blank if the sentence is correct. Put a cross ( ) mark if it is wrong. ________ 1. The “bumps” on the upper surface of the tongue are called papillae. ________ 2. Umami taste is found in salt and coffee. ________ 3. Saliva helps break down food into smaller pieces. ________ 4. Your taste buds are found inside the papillae. ________ 5. The tongue is a strong immovable muscle.B. Answer the following questions. Write your answer on the blanks. 1. What is your favorite food? Describe its taste. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 2. Why is your tongue important? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________38 Science Works! 3
  45. 45. Lesson 8 Common Tongue Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Tongue Use the code below to form the correct word(s). Replaceeach number with a letter based on the given code. Write youranswer on the blank.Code: A B C D E F G H I J K L M 7 16 14 23 2 12 25 15 21 11 8 17 4 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 5 26 3 20 22 1 24 13 6 18 9 19 101. _______________________________ 26 22 7 17 24 15 22 13 1 152. ________________________________________________ 1 24 22 7 18 16 2 22 22 19 24 26 5 25 13 23. ________________ _________________________________ 16 17 7 14 8 15 7 21 22 19 24 26 5 25 13 2 In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the common tongue ailments and their treatment? 2. How can you take proper care of your tongue? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 39
  46. 46. You use your tongue constantly. This is why it is morelikely to experience some ailments if you do not take care of it. A tongue may suffer from sores, or what we commonlyknow as singaw. Some sores may tell more serious healthproblems such as allergies and tuberculosis. A person witha tongue sore usually experiences swelling of the tongue ora burning sensation on his or her tongue, resulting to loss ofappetite and even fever. The pain and discomfort felt willcause difficulty in chewing, drinking, and swallowing. If youhave a tongue sore, gargle water with salt in it. If the sore lastslong, go to a doctor for a checkup. The color of the tongue can be related to other diseasesthat a person might be suffering. A healthy tongue is usuallypink and covered with papillae. However, a normally pinktongue may become discolored. If the person has a pale,smooth and swollen tongue, he or she may have iron-deficiency anemia. The tongue can also suffer from an oral thrush or candidiasis. Oral thrush is an infection of the mouth and tongue caused by a fungus (a harmful organism). A person who suffers from oral thrush will have white spots on his or her tongue. These white spotsOral thrush can be painful and may bleed slightlywhen scraped or irritated. This ailment is more likely to occuramong infants and people wearing dentures or false teeth.Taking antifungal medications prescribed by a dentist or amedical doctor will help stop the infection.40 Science Works! 3
  47. 47. When a tongue becomes swollen and turns to a darker shade of red, a person may have a strawberry tongue. People with a red tongue usually develop enlarged taste buds that appear similar to the dots on a strawberry. Vitamin deficiency and scarlet fever are possibleStrawberry tongue causes of strawberry tongue. Consult adoctor immediately if your tongue looks red. Have you seen a person with a black,hairy tongue? Black hairy tongue iscaused by too much bacteria growth inthe mouth. It occurs when the papillaegrow longer than usual, making the tonguelook “hairy.” The overgrown papillae getstained with food and collect bacteria,making the tongue look dark or black. Thisailment is most likely to occur in people Black hairy tonguewho have poor oral hygiene. People whoare taking antibiotics or receiving chemotherapy, and thosewith diabetes may also be more likely to have a black hairytongue. Practicing good oral hygiene such as gently brushingthe teeth and tongue regularly is the best way to treat blackhairy tongue. You should also consult a doctor or a dentist forproper medication.Proper Care of the Tongue Keeping your tongue clean and healthy is very important.Here are some practices on how to take proper care of yourtongue.1. Using a tongue scraper, scrape your tongue gently after brushing your teeth. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 41
  48. 48. 2. Chew your food slowly to avoid biting your tongue.3. Do not eat foods or drink liquids that are too hot or too cold.4. Gargle with a mild mouthwash after brushing your teeth and scraping your tongue.5. Visit a dentist regularly. Caring for Your TongueObjective: Create a brochure to describe the signs of common tongue ailments.Materials: bond paper, colored pens, markers, pencil, art materialsProcedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Choose a tongue ailment. 3. Research in the library or the Internet about your chosen ailment. 4. Design a brochure that will inform people about this tongue ailment. 5. Provide drawings or pictures to illustrate the tongue ailment. 6. Include in your brochure the causes, symptoms, and treatment of the tongue ailment, and the healthy practices that will prevent people from having this ailment. 7. Be ready to show your brochure to the class.42 Science Works! 3
  49. 49. • The tongue can be affected by certain ailments.• Tongue ailments can be avoided through proper oral hygiene.• Tongue sore (singaw), oral thrush, strawberry tongue, and black hairy tongue are some ailments affecting the tongue. Write T on the blank if the sentence is true and F if it isfalse. _____ 1. Having white spots on the tongue tells that a person has a strawberry tongue. _____ 2. Practicing good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent tongue ailments. _____ 3. Discoloration in the tongue may tell other diseases a person might be suffering. _____ 4. Oral thrush commonly affects adults. _____ 5. Slowly chew your food to avoid tongue ailments. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 43
  50. 50. Lesson 9 The Sense of Feeling Identify the word being described. Arrange the letters inthe box to form the correct word. Write your answer on theblank.1. The sense organ of touch k n i s ______________________2. The uppermost layer of the skin p e d i s e m i r ______________________3. The thickest layer of the skin m r i s d e ______________________ In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the three layers of the skin? 2. Why is your skin important?44 Science Works! 3
  51. 51. The skin is the largestsense organ. It is foundall over your body. Your epidermisskin protects your muscles dermisand internal organs. It alsoprevents germs and dirt subcutaneousfrom getting inside your fatty tissuebody. The skin is made Layers of the skinup of three layers—theepidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The topmost layer of the skin that you can see is the epidermis. On top of the epidermis is a layer of dead skin cells that constantly shed and are replaced by a new layer of skin cells. The nails that protect the tip of your fingers and toes areA magnified image of dead skin cells actually hardened and thickenedon the epidermis epidermis. The dermis is the thickest layer of the skin. It liesunderneath the epidermis. The dermis is filled with manytiny nerve endings, which give you information about thethings that your body comes in contact with. These nerveendings carry the information to the brain through the spinalcord. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 45
  52. 52. The dermis contains nerves, blood vessels, root hairs,sweat glands, and oil glands. Sweat glands regulate your bodytemperature. Sweat comes out of your body through the pores(tiny holes in the skin). Sebaceous glands are glands thatproduce an oily substance called sebum, which is the skin’snatural oil. Your hair grows from the dermis. It can be found on yourentire body, except on your palms, lips, and soles of your feet. The subcutaneous fatty tissue is the innermost layerof the skin. It is mainly made up of fats, which help keep thebody warm and absorb shock. The nerve endings, also known as skin receptors, can tellyou if something is hot or cold, soft or hard, rough or smooth,and wet or dry. Your body has about 20 different types ofskin receptors that all send messages to the brain. The mostcommon skin receptors are those that detect heat or cold,pain, and pressure. Incredible Facts Your skin is very sensitive. But not all areas of the skin have equal sensitivity. The most sensitive areas of the skin are those on the hands, lips, face, neck, fingertips, and feet. Touchy-Feely Double TroubleObjective: Use the sense of touch to identify objects.Materials: 2 marbles, 2 pieces of sand paper, 2 paper clips, 2 balls, 2 bottle caps, 2 paper bags46 Science Works! 3
  53. 53. Procedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Place one marble, sand paper, paper clip, ball, and bottle cap in a paper bag. Then put the remaining items in another paper bag. 3. You should have one set of objects in one paper bag and the matching objects in the other bag. 4. Without looking, reach inside the first paper bag for an object and find its pair in the other paper bag. 5. Take turns in picking out pairs of objects in the bags.Questions: 1. What helped you match the objects in the paper bags even without looking at them? 2. Were some objects difficult to match? Why? Language Soft, hard, smooth, rough, slippery, wet, dry, hot, and cold are words used to describe how things feel to the touch. These words are called adjectives. Adjectives are words that describe people, places, and things. How will you describe the following things: ice cream, towel, mirror, pillow, and apple? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 47
  54. 54. • The skin is the sense organ for feeling.• The skin is made up of three layers—the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fatty tissue.• The skin has nerves, blood vessels, root hairs, sweat glands, and oil glands. Match the words in column A with their descriptions incolumn B. Write the letter of your answer on the blank. A B_____ 1. subcutaneous a. thickest layer of the skin fatty tissue b. topmost layer of the skin_____ 2. pores c. the skin’s natural oil_____ 3. epidermis d. innermost layer of the skin_____ 4. dermis e. tiny holes in the skin_____ 5. sebum48 Science Works! 3
  55. 55. Lesson 10 Common Skin Ailments and Their Treatment, and the Proper Care of the Skin Complete the crossword puzzle below by writing themissing letters. Use the given clues in the box as your guide. 1 4 P Down2 C 3 B I S 1. The growth of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads E R 3. A pus-filled swelling on the skin L 4. A very dry skin covered A with scales S Across 2. An infection caused by mites In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the common skin ailments and their treatment? 2. How can you take proper care of your skin? The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 49
  56. 56. The skin protects the body. Because it is exposed, it canbe affected with different ailments. Have you experienced having a blister, a corn, or acallus? A blister is a small fluid-filled lump on the surfaceof the skin. It can be caused by contact with very hot objectsor it can be an allergic reaction to insect bites. A corn is athickened part of the skin caused by too much pressure. It isusually found on the side of toes. A callus is a patch of hardskin usually found on the palms and on the soles of the feet. Acne is the most common skin diseasethat affects adolescents and young adults.This is characterized by the growth ofpimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on theskin. It starts when the pores in the skinbecome clogged with sebum. Acne commonlyoccurs on the face. Acne Boil, locally known as pigsa, is an infected, pus-filledswelling on the skin that starts in a hair follicle or oil gland.Most boils are caused by a germ that enters the body througha tiny opening in the skin. The most common areas for boils to appear are on the face, neck, armpits, shoulders, and buttocks. One of the ways to ease the pain and help draw the pus out is to apply a warm, moist compress on the affected area. Wash the boil with an antibacterial soap, apply an ointment, and cover it with a bandage. If an infected person experiences high fever and chills,Boil (pigsa) he or she should immediately see a doctor.50 Science Works! 3
  57. 57. Psoriasis is a noncontagious skinailment that causes redness and drynessof the skin. The dry skin is covered withscales or flakes usually found on the elbows,knees, and scalp. A person with psoriasis islikely uncomfortable because of itchiness ofthe skin. There is no cure for psoriasis, butdoctors prescribe ointments to help ease the Psoriasisitchiness. Have you experienced getting a sunburn? Sunburn isthe reddening of the skin caused by too much exposure tosunlight. Peeling of the skin usually follows several days later.To protect your skin, limit your sun exposure between 10:00 AMto 3:00 PM. During these times, the light coming from the sunis most intense. Apply sunscreen on your skin to avoid gettingsunburned. Incredible Facts There are some people who are very sensitive to sunlight. When exposed to sunlight, they experience itchiness and painful skin redness, and swelling. They may even get blisters. This skin condition is a type of cutaneous porphyria, also known as “vampire disease.” Prickly heat or bungang-araw is an itchy,red rash on the skin. It usually occurs when aperson sweats more than usual. The trappedsweat causes irritation and discomfort. Aperson with prickly heat should keep hisor her skin cool and dry. Applying powder,calamine lotion, or antihistamine cream onthe affected area also helps. Prickly heat (bungang- araw) The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 51
  58. 58. Scabies or galis is an itchy,highly contagious skin infectioncaused by mites that burrow into theskin. Avoid contact with a personwho has scabies. Get medical helpimmediately once infected. Tinea versicolor or an-an is askin ailment that causes the affected Scabies (galis aso)skin to change color and become either lighter or darker than the surrounding skin. It is usually found on the skin covering the shoulder, back, and chest. Antifungal creams can be used to stop the quick spread of this ailment. Atopic eczema or dermatitis refers to the inflammation of the skin that makes it reddish, itchy, dry, andTinea versicolor (an-an) scaly. It is a chronic (long lasting)ailment that often develops other allergic conditions such asasthma and high fever. Prescibed creams and ointments canbe applied to the affected area to control the itching. Athlete’s foot or alipunga is causedby a fungus that develops in the moistareas between the toes and parts of thefoot. It can spread from one personto another. A person with athlete’sfoot can experience scaling, flaking,and itching in the affected area. It isimportant to keep your feet dry and coolto avoid getting athlete’s foot. Athlete’s foot (alipunga)52 Science Works! 3
  59. 59. Proper Care of Your Skin The best way to take care of your skin is to keep it cleanall the time. Practicing proper hygiene prevents skin ailments.Here are some ways of caring for your skin.1. Take a bath every day. Use clean water and a mild soap.2. Always wear clean clothes.3. Use an umbrella, apply sunscreen, and wear protective sunglasses when doing outdoor activities.4. Drink lots of water every day.5. Take enough rest and sleep.6. Eat foods rich in vitamins and minerals.7. Exercise regularly.8. Avoid using another person’s personal things such as towel, comb, and handkerchief.9. Consult a dermatologist (a skin doctor) if you have recurring or long-lasting skin problems. Skin Problems and Proper Care of the SkinObjective: Create a poster that informs people about a skin ailment and how to treat it.Materials: white cartolina, colored markers, pencil, crayonsProcedure: 1. Form a group with four members. 2. Choose one skin ailment and make a poster about it. 3. Include information about the skin ailment, its symptoms, causes, and treatment. 4. Go to the library for additional resources. You may also use the Internet. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 53
  60. 60. 5. Discuss among your group mates how you can come up with a creative design for your poster. 6. Include appropriate photos or drawings in your poster. 7. Make the poster informative and attractive. 8. Display your poster in your school hallway.• The common skin ailments include acne, boil, psoriasis, sunburn, prickly heat, scabies, tinea versicolor, atopic dermatitis, and athlete’s foot.• Proper hygiene and healthy habits are important to keep the skin healthy. A. Match the skin ailments in column A with their descriptions in column B. Write the letter of your answer on the blank. A B ______ 1. acne a. itchy, red rash on the skin ______ 2. boil b. results from overexposure to sunlight ______ 3. sunburn c. infected pus-filled swelling on the skin ______ 4. athlete’s foot d. fungal infection on the foot ______ 5. prickly heat e. characterized by pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads54 Science Works! 3
  61. 61. B. Put a check ( ) mark on the blank if the sentence tells a way of taking proper care of the skin. Put a cross ( ) mark if it does not. ______ 1. Use your own towel always. ______ 2. Wear the same shirt for several days. ______ 3. Exercise regularly. ______ 4. Wash your face using a mild soap and clean water. ______ 5. Play outside under the heat of the sun.A. Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 1. Which part of the eye focuses light? a. cornea b. iris c. lens d. pupil 2. What do you call the curved structure in the ear that collects sound waves from the air? a. anvil b. cochlea c. eardrum d. pinna 3. Which part of the nose serves as a passageway of air? a. nostril b. nasal cavity c. olfactory nerve d. olfactory receptor The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 55
  62. 62. 4. What do you call the “bumps” on your tongue? a. sclera b. cone c. papillae d. rod 5. What is the thickest layer of the skin? a. dermis b. epidermis c. sweat gland d. subcutaneous fatty tissueB. Match the ailments in A with the sense organs that they affect in B. Write the number of your answer inside the correct box in B. A B 1 – rhinitis eyes ear 2 – cataract nose tongue 3 – psoriasis 4 – candidiasis skin 5 – otitis media56 Science Works! 3
  63. 63. C. Check ( ) the pictures that show proper care of the sense organs. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Human Body and the Changes of Growing Up 57

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