Science Works Grade 2

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Science Works Grade 2

  1. 1. Science Works! 2 TEXTBOOK
  2. 2. Science Works! 2TextbookPhilippine Copyright 2012 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the PhilippinesEditorial, design, and layout by University Press of First AsiaNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval systems, without permission in writingfrom the copyright owner. Exclusively distributed by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INC 4/F SEDCCO 1 Bldg. 120 Thailand corner Legazpi Streets Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel. No.: (632) 893-8501 * Fax: (632) 817-8700 ISBN 978-971-46-0306-6AuthorClaudine F. Guiking has a bachelor’s degree in behavioral science from Miriam College in Quezon City. Shetook up some graduate units in education at the University of the Philippines–Diliman before continuing hermaster’s degree in education with emphasis on international studies at the Philadelphia Biblical University, AsiaPacific Extension. She has seven years of teaching experience in both preschool and grade school.ConsultantAntom V. Revilla finished his master’s degree in biology from Centro Escolar University. He obtained hisbachelor’s degree in forestry, cum laude, from the University of the Philippines–Los Baños. Mr. Revilla wasa supervisor of Christian Bible Baptist School of Excellence and Development. He has taught general science,biology, and scientific research at San Beda College–Manila from 1991–2008. He was also the subject areacoordinator of the Natural Science Department of the said college from 2002–2008.
  3. 3. To the Pupil Discovery and learning are part of your everyday life.Whether you are playing or studying, you are able to understandand learn about the things around you. This book, ScienceWorks! 2, is meant to teach you different science concepts andskills in an exciting way. Science Works! 2 will help you to be actively involved inlearning concepts about the human body, plants, animals, Earth,sun, and many more. Science concepts and skills are best learnedby engaging in activities and performing experiments. Theseactivities will lead you to create your own questions, conductyour own investigations, and develop your own solutions toproblems through reasoning and observation. This book, which has been designed especially for you,includes the following components: Sci-tionary presents an activity that introduces you to words or terms that you will encounter in the lesson. Jump Start lists a set of guide questions that are expected to be answered as you go along the lesson. Feed Your Mind provides the discussion of the science concepts to be learned in the lesson. Science in Action presents experiments, cooperative learning activities, and individual or group projects that will apply the science concepts you have learned in Feed Your Mind.
  4. 4. Learning Area Integration relates a particular science lesson to the other subject areas such as English, mathematics, and social studies. This will help you appreciate how science is applied to other fields of study. Rundown lists the important science concepts that should be remembered at the end of each lesson. Brain Challenge presents 5- to 10-item quiz about the lesson. Chapter Checkup includes exercises that cover all the topics discussed in a chapter. Your Move presents an activity that will allow you to apply what you have learned to a real-life situation. Aside from the components given above, some lessons inthis book include these additional sections: Incredible Facts presents interesting or extraordinary facts and trivia related to the science concept. Proudly Pinoy features notable Filipino people, culture, products, and inventions. Sci-tainment includes fun games and activities related to the science concept. Exploring the Web provides links to online activities or exercises that you may access to help reinforce and enrich your learning. Begin your journey and discovery now! Use what you willlearn in this book and apply them to your everyday life.
  5. 5. Table of ContentsUNIT 1 The Human BodyChapter 1 Exploring Your Senses …………………………………………………. ..... 2Lesson 1 Discovery through Your Senses ………………………………………….. ....... 2 2 Exploring the Sense of Sight ..............................................................9 3 Exploring the Sense of Hearing ........................................................ 14 4 Exploring the Sense of Smell …………………………………………… ........ 19 5 Exploring the Sense of Taste ……………………………………………......... 23 6 Exploring the Sense of Touch ………………………………………….. ........ 27 7 The Sense Organs Work Together ……………………………………... ...... 33 8 Caring for Your Sense Organs ......................................................... 37Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................... 42Chapter 2 Knowing Your Body ................................................................. 46Lesson 1 The Foods the Body Needs .............................................................. 46 2 Growth and Change ......................................................................... 51 3 Similarities and Differences among Children.................................... 56 4 Keeping Yourself Healthy and Strong ............................................... 61Chapter Checkup ................................................................................................ 65Your Move ....................................................................................................... 67UNIT 2 Plants and AnimalsChapter 3 Discovering Plants ................................................................... 70Lesson 1 Parts of Plants ................................................................................ 70 2 Groups of Plants ............................................................................. 75 3 Different Plant Habitats .................................................................. 80 4 How Plants Reproduce ................................................................... 84 5 Needs of Plants ............................................................................... 89 6 Uses of Plants ................................................................................. 93Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................... 98Chapter 4 Understanding Animals ..........................................................100Lesson 1 Kinds of Animals ........................................................................... 100 2 How Animals Move ....................................................................... 105 3 What Animals Eat ......................................................................... 110 4 How Animals Reproduce .............................................................. 115 5 How Animals Adapt to Their Environment ................................... 119 6 How People Can Protect Animals .................................................. 125
  6. 6. Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................. 130Your Move ..................................................................................................... 131Unit 3 Matter and EnergyChapter 5 Exploring Matter ................................................................... 134Lesson 1 Understanding Matter ................................................................... 134 2 Properties of Solids ........................................................................ 138 3 Properties of Liquids ..................................................................... 142 4 Properties of Gas .......................................................................... 145 5 Using Matter at Home ................................................................... 148Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................. 152Chapter 6 Discovering Energy and Force ................................................ 155Lesson 1 Forms of Energy ............................................................................ 155 2 How Light Travels ......................................................................... 159 3 Sources of Heat.............................................................................. 164 4 How Sounds Are Produced ............................................................ 168 5 Electricity ..................................................................................... 173 6 The Force of Magnets ................................................................... 177Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................. 180Your Move ..................................................................................................... 183Unit 4 Earth and SpaceChapter 7 Exploring Planet Earth ......................................................... 186Lesson 1 Earth, Our Home .......................................................................... 186 2 Landforms .................................................................................... 191 3 Bodies of Water ............................................................................ 197 4 Earth’s Natural Resources ............................................................. 202 5 Kinds of Weather .......................................................................... 208 6 Elements of Weather .................................................................... 213 7 Caring for Earth ............................................................................ 219Chapter Checkup ........................................................................................... 224Chapter 8 Exploring the Solar System ................................................... 226Lesson 1 The Sun and Earth’s Movement .................................................... 226 2 Phases of the Moon ...................................................................... 232 3 Planets ......................................................................................... 237 4 Other Objects in the Solar System ................................................. 242Chapter Checkup ............................................................................................. 246Your Move ..................................................................................................... 247
  7. 7. 1UNIT The pictures show _________________________________________. Before, I know that ________________________________________.H ow do you know about the things around you? Why can you enjoy them? What makes it possible for your bodyto do several things at the same time? Your body works in amazing ways. It allows you toexplore and discover the world. In this unit, you will learnmore about your body. Find out how wonderfully made youare.
  8. 8. CHAPTER 1 Exploring Your Senses Lesson 1 Discovery through Your Senses Find the correct words to complete the sentences. Writein the boxes the letters that match the given numbers. Use thegiven code below. Code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A B C D E F G H I J K L M 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z1. People learn about their surroundings through their . 19 5 14 19 5 192. The 19 5 14 19 5 15 18 7 1 14 19 include the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. They receive messages from the surroundings and send them to the brain.3. 14 5 18 22 5 18 5 3 5 16 20 15 18 19 send information to the brain.2 Science Works! 2
  9. 9. In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the five senses and five sense organs? 2. What can your senses tell you about your surroundings? 3. How do the sense organs send messages to the brain? 4. Why are the five senses important? eye ear The sense organs are parts of your nosebody that you use to understand the mouththings around you. You use them tosee, hear, smell, taste, and touch (feel).You can also sense changes in your skinsurroundings. This is because eachsense organ has nerve receptors. Thesereceptors send messages or informationto your brain. Your brain then tells youwhat you are seeing, hearing, smelling,tasting, or touching (feeling). It tells youhow to respond to things around you.For example, if you accidentally touch something hot, thereceptors in your hand send a message to your brain. Youinstantly pull away your hand so you will not burn it. There are five main sense organs: eyes, ears, nose,tongue, and skin. Your eyes allow you to see things. They can help youidentify colors, sizes, and shapes of objects. You can sense The Human Body 3
  10. 10. light, movement, and position of objects using your eyes. Thisway, you do not bump into objects. Your ears allow you to hear music, voices of peopletalking, alarms, and many other sounds. You use them to tellif a sound is loud or soft. Your nose allows you to detect scents and recognize theodor of things around you. Flowers, perfumes, popcorn, andfreshly baked cookies smell good. The smoke coming fromvehicles, and the odor of clogged canals and spoiled foodsmell bad. Your tongue helps you taste and identify the differentflavors of what you eat or drink. There are different kinds oftastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami.A cake tastes A lemon tastes Patis tastes Ampalaya tastes Cheese tastessweet. sour. salty. bitter. umami. The skin all over your body allows you to feel thetextures of objects. Imagine that you are walking along thebeach on a hot day. The gentle wind is blowing on your face.You can feel the grainy hot sand on your feet. You can feel thecold ice cream in your mouth. You can touch the rough sidesof the ice cream cone with your fingertips. You use your sense organs to explore and understandyour surroundings. You can enjoy delicious food, the soundof music, and the fragrance and colors of a flower because ofyour senses. You can know and respond to changes aroundyou through your senses. For example, by smelling spoiledmilk, you know that it is not safe to drink it anymore.4 Science Works! 2
  11. 11. Using My Sense OrgansObjectives: 1. Identify the five senses. 2. Use the senses to observe and describe given objects. 3. Classify and group given objects through a chart. 4. Enumerate ways in which the five senses help in performing daily activities.Materials: two paper plates, two fruitsProcedure: 1. Observe each fruit. Describe its color, size, shape, and texture. 2. Write the descriptions in the given table. Characteristics Fruit 1 Fruit 2 Color Shape Size Texture 3. Look at your list of characteristics in the table above. Group the characteristics according to the senses you used to observe them. Sense Sense Sense Sense Sense of of of of of Hearing Sight Smell Taste Touch Fruit 1 Fruit 2 The Human Body 5
  12. 12. Language Look at the words you wrote to describe the fruits. They describe how the fruits look, feel, taste, and smell. These words are called adjectives. Use adjectives to describe other objects around you. You learn about the world through your five senses. The five senses are sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch (feel). Sense organs have nerve receptors that send messages to the brain. You see with your eyes. You can tell the colors, shapes, and sizes of objects. You hear sounds with your ears. You can tell if sounds are loud or soft. You smell with your nose. You can identify different odors. You taste with your tongue. You can tell if a food is sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami. You touch (feel) with your skin. You can tell if an object is hot, cold, soft, hard, rough, or smooth.6 Science Works! 2
  13. 13. A. Complete each sentence. Choose the correct answer from the words in the box. sense organs hearing nose nerve receptors smell taste 1. Your ___________________ include your eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. 2. Your sense of _______________ tells you if a sound is loud or soft. 3. You can tell the flavor of food with your sense of _______________. 4. Your nose helps you ________________ good and bad odors. 5. Sense organs have ________________ that send messages to your brain. The Human Body 7
  14. 14. B. Circle the object that you can describe or name using the given sense organ. tongue eyes skin nose ears8 Science Works! 2
  15. 15. Lesson 2 Exploring the Sense of Sight The following list of words are the parts of the eye. Lookfor these words in the puzzle and circle them.1. lens O F Y Z X S L Y X Q2. iris P M G J J L E J L L3. retina T U G K A A N E G T4. pupil E N P B N Q S R K I R D E I R I S E V I N Y T N L B V T N L C E A A A I H A S T V X K G I U G L P T P H B Y I A K L V D U R E T I N A D O W In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the eye? 2. How do your eyes help you see? 3. What are some conditions that affect one’s eyesight? 4. Why is your sense of sight important? The Human Body 9
  16. 16. The eye is the sense organ for seeing. With your eyes, youcan see shapes, colors, and sizes of objects. You can find lightand tell direction and distance.cornea optic nervepupil vitreous(opening) lens gel retinairis pupil irisciliary body The eye has many parts that help you see. The iris isthe colored part of the eye. The opening in the center of theeye through which light goes in is the pupil. It controls theamount of light that enters the eye. The light that passesthrough the pupil will then strike the lens. The lens focusesthe light rays to the retina, the lining of the inner eye. Theretina detects images and colors of objects. These images areturned into signals that are sent to the brain. The brain thentells you what you are seeing. Some people cannot see things well because they havevision or eyesight problems. Nearsightedness is a conditionin which things that are near can be seen clearly, but thosethat are far appear blurred or unclear. Farsightedness is acondition in which things that are far can be seen clearly,but those that are near are hard to see. Astigmatismmakes images appear blurred or unclear. Nearsightedness,farsightedness, and astigmatism can be easily corrected bywearing eyeglasses or contact lenses.10 Science Works! 2
  17. 17. Incredible Facts Helen Keller (27 June 1880–1 June 1968) was just a baby when she became both blind and deaf. In spite of her disabilities, she learned how to read and speak, and use sign language. She wrote many books and toured 39 countries to raise awareness and money for the visually impaired. Learn more about Helen Keller by visiting the Braille Bug Site on http://www.afb.org/ braillebug/hKmuseum.asp (accessed on 20 June 2011). Impaired VisionObjectives: 1. Describe the common disorders of the eye. 2. Explain how eye disorders can affect people’s daily activities. 3. Tell the importance of your sense of sight.Materials: sunglasses, petroleum jelly, handkerchief, book, sheets of paperProcedure: 1. Rub a thin film of petroleum jelly on a pair of sunglasses. 2. Wear the sunglasses and do the following activities: • Read a page from a book. • Make a paper airplane. • Write your name on a sheet of paper. • Walk from one end of the classroom and back to your seat. The Human Body 11
  18. 18. Questions: 1. How will you describe your vision while you were wearing the sunglasses? 2. Which activity did you find the most difficult to do? 3. Which activities can you do even if your vision is blurred? • The eyes are your sense organs for seeing. They let you see sizes, shapes, colors, positions, and distances of objects. • The eye has many parts. These include the iris, pupil, lens, and retina. • Nearsightedness is a condition in which things that are near can be seen clearly, but those that are far appear blurred or unclear. • Farsightedness is a condition in which things that are far can be seen clearly, but those that are near are hard to see. • Astigmatism is a condition that causes things to appear blurred. Math Your eyes tell the shapes, colors, and sizes of objects. Observe different objects in your school. Identify their shapes and colors. Look for objects with the same shape. Then compare their sizes. Do this activity with a friend to double the fun. Observe objects together. Find the smallest square-shaped object or the biggest circular object. Have fun observing objects with your eyes!12 Science Works! 2
  19. 19. How well can you recognize the shapes in the picture?Color the round objects red, the square objects brown, therectangular objects blue, and the triangular objects orange. The Human Body 13
  20. 20. Lesson 3 Exploring the Sense of Hearing Rearrange the letters to form the correct words. Use thegiven clues as guide.___________ 1. r d m r e u a – it vibrates when sound waves reach it___________ 2. d m i l e d e r a – it contains three tiny bones___________ 3. i v r b t n o a i – very fast back-and-forth movement___________ 4. u e r t o r a e – acts like a funnel and catches sound waves In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the ear? 2. How do your ears help you hear? 3. What are some conditions that affect one’s hearing? 4. Why is your sense of hearing important? Your ears help you hear sound. Sound is made whenthings vibrate or move back and forth very fast. Touch yourthroat and speak. Do you feel movements in your throat?14 Science Works! 2
  21. 21. The air around you is full of vibrations called soundwaves. The outer ear works like a funnel. It catches soundwaves and move them through the ear canal. At the end ofthe ear canal is the eardrum. The eardrum vibrates when thesound waves reach it. The eardrum passes these vibrations tothe three tiny bones in the middle ear. Vibrations cause tinyreceptors in the middle ear to wiggle. These vibrations createsignals that are sent to the brain. outer ear middle ear inner earSound wavesenter the outerear. ear canal eardrum three tiny bones An illness, an ear infection, a head injury, or exposure toextremely loud sounds can damage some parts of the ear andcan cause hearing loss. Hearing loss or hearing impairmenthappens when one or two ears can hear only a little soundor no sound at all. The word deafness is also used to refer tohearing loss. People with hearing impairment need patience andunderstanding. You may need to speak more slowly or learnother ways to speak with them. Although their conditionis unique, you will discover that they are no different fromeveryone else. The Human Body 15
  22. 22. Incredible Facts Did you know that sound can be measured? The loudness of sound is measured in decibels (dB). The sound of a person’s normal breathing is 10 dB. Heavy city traffic produces noise that registers 85 dB. Find out the decibel levels of different sounds to avoid sounds that can damage your ears. Visit http://www.nidcd.nih .gov/health/education/decibel/decibel.asp (accessed on 13 June 2010). Using Your Ears Objectives: 1. Listen to and identify the source of sound. 2. Give the importance of having two ears. Materials: meterstick, chalk, notebook, pencil, blindfold Procedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Pupil 1 will be the first to be blindfolded. He or she will stand in one area of the room. Pupil 2 will mark this area using a piece of chalk. 3. Using the meterstick, your teacher will measure 2 meters away from the spot where pupil 1 stands. He or she will mark this spot A. Your teacher will measure again 2 meters away from spot A and mark this as spot B. He or she will measure again 2 meters away from spot B and mark this as spot C.16 Science Works! 2
  23. 23. 4. Pupil 2 will stand in any of spots A, B, or C and call out the name of pupil 1. Pupil 1 will identify the source of the sound by shouting A, B, or C. 5. Pupil 2 will change his or her spot eight times. Each time pupil 2 changes his or her spot, he or she will call out the name of pupil 1. Pupil 1 Pupil 2 A B C 2 meters 2 meters 2 meters 6. Pupil 2 will record the number of correct answers of pupil 1. 7. Repeat steps 3 and 4. This time, pupil 1 will cover his or her right ear with his or her hand. 8. Switch roles with your partner and repeat the activity.Questions: 1. When was it easier to identify the source of sound, when ear was covered or not covered? Why? 2. How were your results similar or different from your partner’s results? 3. How would your life change if you could hear only with one ear? How about if you could not hear at all? The Human Body 17
  24. 24. • The sense organ for hearing is the ear.• Sound is made when things vibrate or move back and forth very fast.• Sound waves travel through the ear and cause vibrations. There are parts inside the ear that change these vibrations. These vibrations create signals that are sent to the brain.• Continuous exposure to loud sounds is harmful and can cause hearing loss. Label the parts of the ear. Choose your answers from thewords in the box. ear canal eardrum inner ear middle ear outer ear 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.18 Science Works! 2
  25. 25. Lesson 4 Exploring the Sense of Smell Draw a line to match each word in column A with itsmeaning in column B. A B1. nasal cavity scent or smell2. nostril nice or enjoyable3. odor unlikable or horrible4. pleasant opening of the nose through which you breathe5. unpleasant part of the nose that warms and filters the air you breathe in In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the nose? 2. How does your nose help you smell? 3. Why is the sense of smell important? You learn about the world by seeing with your eyes andhearing with your ears. What does your nose do? You can alsotell what is happening around you by your sense of smell. Youknow when something is burning or when your favorite foodis cooking because you can smell their scents. The Human Body 19
  26. 26. The air around you can carry odors or scents. Some odorssmell good or pleasant, such as the scent of perfume. Otherssmell bad or unpleasant, such as the scent of rotten eggs.You can recognize places and things by how theysmell. The scent of an object blends or mixeswith the air. The scent enters your nostrilswhen you breathe in through your nose.The scent makes its way up to the roofof your nasal cavity (the part of thenose that warms and filters the air youbreathe in). The scent is turned intosignals that are sent to the brain. Thebrain tells what the smell is. It mightbe a pleasant smell like popcorn, or anunpleasant smell like dirty socks. Have you noticed that you cannot recognize the smell ofobjects when you have a cold? The inside of your nose has aslippery and sticky lining called mucus. When you have acold, mucus becomes thick. It covers tiny hairs in your nose.This prevents your nose from smelling things around you.Your sense of smell is connected to your sense of taste. This iswhy food seems tasteless when you have a cold. Using Your NosePrecaution: Pupils with asthma or allergy should not do this activity.20 Science Works! 2
  27. 27. Objectives: 1. Observe and compare the ability of your nose to detect scent. 2. Tell the importance of the sense of smell.Materials: variety of items with distinct scent (for example, cologne, kalamansi peeling, shampoo, bagoong), plastic containers (one for each item), notebook, blindfoldProcedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Pupil A will be the first to be blindfolded. Pupil B will hold the items and record his or her partner’s answers. 3. Pupil B will hold the first item under pupil A’s nose. (Note: Do not bring the item very close to your partner’s nose. Your partner may be allergic to some of the items.) Pupil A will identify the item. Pupil B will record his or her partner’s answers. 4. Repeat step 2 for the other items.Questions: 1. Was it easy for you to identify what the items are by using your sense of smell? 2. How were your results similar or different from your partner’s results? 3. How would your life be if you cannot smell? The Human Body 21
  28. 28. • The sense organ for smelling is the nose.• The air carries scent and enters your nose when you breathe in air. The scent travels up your nose and is turned into signals. These signals are sent to your brain. Your brain tells you what the smell is.• Your nose can tell whether an odor is pleasant or unpleasant. Complete each sentence. Circle the correct word insidethe parentheses.1. Your (ear tongue nose) tells the smell of things around you.2. Your sense of (hearing taste sight) is connected to your sense of smell.3. Pineapple, mango, and orange have a (pleasant unpleasant) smell.4. Baby powder smells (pleasant unpleasant).5. Dirty clothes smell (unpleasant pleasant).22 Science Works! 2
  29. 29. Lesson 5 Exploring the Sense of Taste Arrange the letters to form the correct words. Use thegiven clues as guide.____________ 1. a i v s a l – a clear liquid, containing water produced in the mouth____________ 2. s t a t e u b d s – they send messages to the brain about how something tastes In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the tongue? 2. How does your tongue help you taste? 3. Why is your sense of taste important? As you enter your house, you notice that your mother isbaking your favorite chocolate brownies. Snack time! You canimagine the taste of those warm brownies already. But howdo you taste food? You taste with your tongue. Your sense of taste helps youenjoy food. It also warns you if something is not safe to eat. Take a close look at your tongue using a mirror. You willsee that it is not smooth. Your tongue is covered with tiny The Human Body 23
  30. 30. “bumps” called papillae. Inside them are taste buds. You have about ten thousand of them! Your taste buds can sense different kinds of taste such as sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Umami is the meaty or savory taste you get mostly from cheese or meat. When you put food in your mouth, your teeth begin to break the food into papillae tiny pieces. The food mixes and dissolves with your saliva. Your saliva spreads the flavor of food all over your tongue. Your taste buds pick up the taste and send the message A picture of an onion- to the shaped taste bud. brain. Your brain tells you the taste of the food you are eating. Incredible Facts Dysgeusia is a condition in which a person cannot identify tastes of food correctly, has a poor sense of taste, or cannot taste anything at all. Some people lose their sense of taste as they get older. Others have dysgeusia because of an illness.24 Science Works! 2
  31. 31. Taste Bud ChallengeObjectives: 1. Identify different food items using the sense of taste. 2. Use the sense of taste in comparing different flavors of food.Materials: 5 different food samples (for example, sugar, salt, instant coffee, kalamansi extract, cheese), water, plastic cups (one for each food sample), a box of toothpicks, blindfold or big handkerchiefProcedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Pupil A will be the first to be blindfolded, while pupil B will help his or her partner. 3. Pupil B will dip a toothpick in the first food sample. He or she then places it on the tongue of pupil A. Pupil A will tell the taste and name the food sample. 4. Pupil B will record his or her partner’s answer in the table below. Pupil A will rinse his or her mouth between tastes by drinking water. 5. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the other food samples. Food Sample Taste Name of Food Sample 1 2 3 4 6. Switch roles with your partner. The Human Body 25
  32. 32. Questions: 1. Were the food samples easy or difficult to identify when you were blindfolded? Why? 2. How were you able to differentiate the taste of one food sample from the other?• The sense organ for taste is the tongue.• Your tongue has many taste buds embedded in it. They send signals to the brain.• The tongue can taste five basic tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Color the sweet foods red and the salty foods yellow.Check the sour foods. Box the bitter foods. Circle the foodthat tastes umami.26 Science Works! 2
  33. 33. Lesson 6 Exploring the Sense of Touch Complete the crossword puzzle. Read each clue below.Choose your answer from the words in word bank. 1 Word Bank 2 cold 3 dermis epidermis 4 heat pain 5 pressure skin 6Across2. Discomfort due to injury or sickness4. To make or become warm or hot5. The bottom layer of the skin6. The top layer of the skinDown1. This covers the entire body2. Force exerted on an object3. Having little or no warmth The Human Body 27
  34. 34. In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. What are the parts of the skin? 2. How does your skin help you feel? 3. Why is your sense of touch important? hair The skin is thesense organ for touch. Itcovers your entire body. epidermisYour skin is made up oftwo layers. The top layeris called the epidermis.The bottom layer is dermiscalled the dermis. Theskin has receptors thatfeel pressure, heat,cold, and pain. Whensomething comes incontact with your skin, these nerve receptors send signalsto your brain. The brain tells you the effect of the touch andtells your body how to respond to that touch. For example,your brain tells you whether to grip or gently hold an object. Your sense of touch or feeling also protects you. You cansense heat and cold. The nerve receptors in your skin warnyou to pull your hand quickly from a hot stove or not to gripsharp objects.28 Science Works! 2
  35. 35. You can tell thedifference between roughand smooth, soft and hard,or wet and dry objectsbecause of your sense oftouch. Some parts of yourskin are more sensitive thanothers. Your fingertips andcheeks respond to heat andcold more quickly than your Careful hand pressure is used in moldingelbows or knees do. a clay jar. Receptor TesterObjectives: 1. Name the parts of the body that are most sensitive to touch. 2. Observe and find out if sensitivity to touch varies in different parts of the body. 3. Tell the importance of your skin.Materials: one paper clip, ruler, pencilProcedure: 1. Work with a partner for this activity. 2. Carefully untwist the paper clip and then form it into a U shape. (Ask the help of your teacher in doing this.) Use a ruler to measure the space between the ends of the The Human Body 29
  36. 36. U-shaped paper clip. Make sure the ends are exactly 1 centimeter (cm) apart. 3. Have your partner close his or her eyes. Gently touch your partner with the bended paper clip on the first body part given in the table below. Ask your partner whether he or she feels one or two points of the paper clip. 5. Record your partner’s answer in the table. Write “1” under the given body part if your partner feels only one point. Write “2” if your partner feels two points. 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the other parts of the body given in the table below. 7. Switch roles with your partner. Body Part Back of Fingertip Wrist Cheek Leg the Hand SensitivityQuestions: 1. Which part of your body is the most sensitive? Why? 2. Which part of your body is the least sensitive? Why?30 Science Works! 2
  37. 37. Incredible Facts A team of scientists from Sweden and Italy has developed Smart Hand. This is a robotic hand that offers a sense of touch for people who lost their hands. This device has 4 motors that enable the hand to move. It also has 40 receptors that let the person feel the object that the robot touches. Robot hand lets its user feel and touch objects.• The skin is your sense organ for touch or feeling.• The skin can sense heat, cold, pain, and pressure.• Some parts of the body, such as the cheeks and fingertips, are more sensitive to touch than the other parts. How does each object feel? Color two objects that thegiven word can describe. cold The Human Body 31
  38. 38. hard hot rough smooth soft32 Science Works! 2
  39. 39. Lesson 7 The Sense Organs Work Together Write the missing letters to complete the words.1. The r i n controls everything in your body.2. Some organs can o k together to help you do some activities.3. The senses o l e t information from your surroundings. In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. Do the sense organs work together? 2. Which sense organs work together in specific activities? Your five sense organs work together to help you do yourdaily activities. For example, when you eat, your eyes lookfor the food on the table. Your nose smells it. You can tell ifit is hot or cold with your hand. Your tongue tastes the food.Your ears can sometimes hear the sound of crispy food beingchewed. The Human Body 33
  40. 40. Your senses collectinformation from your taste touchsurroundings. Each of your hearingsense organs has parts that smellsend information to your sightbrain. The brain tells youwhat you have seen, heard,smelled, tasted, and touched. Areas in the brain where each of the five senses is located. Senses Helping Each OtherObjectives: 1. Identify the sense organs you use in doing certain activities. 2. Use the five sense organs to do different activities.Materials: sugar, evaporated milk, 2 bananas, crushed ice, chocolate powder, 1 liter drinking water, fork, plastic knife, spoon, plastic cups, sheet of paperProcedure: 1. Work together in groups to make a chocolate banana drink. Use the given ingredients under Materials and write your own steps. 2. Copy the table on the next page on a separate sheet of paper. Write in the table the steps you followed and the sense organs you used for each step.34 Science Works! 2
  41. 41. Steps Sense Organ(s) UsedQuestions: 1. Were the steps you followed the same as those of the other groups? 2. How did your senses help you prepare the chocolate drink?• The sense organs work together to give you information about your surroundings.• Each sense organ has parts that send messages to the brain. The brain tells you what you see, hear, smell, taste, and touch (feel). The Human Body 35
  42. 42. Put a check ( ) mark under the sense organs that worktogether in each activity. Activity Eyes Ears Nose Tongue Skin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.36 Science Works! 2
  43. 43. Lesson 8 Caring for Your Sense Organs1. __ __ r __ a __ – a yellowish wax produced in the ear2. s __ __ __ c r __ e n – a kind of lotion that protects the skin from sunburn3. __ o __ s __ __ r i __ e – to add moisture to something In this lesson, you will be able to answer the followingquestions: 1. How can you take care of your sense organs? 2. What are the things that can cause harm to your sense organs? 3. Why should you take care of your sense organs?Caring for Your Eyes Do you know that your eyes can actuallyclean themselves? This happens when youblink. Blinking helps wipe the dust particlesout and wash your eyes with tears. Do not rub your eyes when theyfeel itchy. Rubbing can scratch your The Human Body 37
  44. 44. eyes. Gently wash your eyes with clean water to lessen orstop the itch. If you are going out especially on a sunny day, wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the harmful rays of the sun. Use good lighting when reading, writing, or using the computer. Make sure the light is not too bright.Caring for Your Ears When listening to music usingheadphones or earphones, turn the volumeat a level that will not harm your ears.Avoid sleeping with your headphones orearphones on. Use a damp cloth to clean your outerears. Avoid using cotton tips to clean your earcanals. They can push the earwax deeper in your ears. Yourear canals have a way of pushing the earwax out of your ears.Caring for Your Nose Keep your nose clean by wiping it gently with tissue. Avoid nose-picking, rubbing, and blowing your nose hard. Do not insert tiny objects in your nose. Blow your nose gently using tissue or handkerchief. Throw used tissue in the trash can and wash your hands with soap and water after.38 Science Works! 2
  45. 45. Caring for Your Tongue Brush your teeth regularly. Use a tongue scraper to clean your tongue. Cleaning your tongue keeps your breath fresh and clean. Avoid eating or drinking too hot or too spicy foods as these may burn or irritate your tongue. Incredible Facts The Chinese were the first to use a toothbrush. They used a cattle-bone for the handle and wild boar (pig) hair for bristles. The wild boar hair was too stiff. It made the gums bleed so they changed it to horse hair. The invention of nylon (strong elastic material used in plastic) bristles in 1937 changed the face of toothbrush.Caring for Your Skin Your skin covers and protects your entire body. There areseveral ways you can take care of your skin. Take a bath regularly. Give your body a light scrub tokeep your skin healthy and clean. Use water and soap towash your skin. Cover any cut or woundon your skin with a medicatedgauze and an antiseptic to keepdirt out and to prevent infection. Moisturize your skin so itwill not be dry, itchy, and flaky.Choose lotions that do not havestrong scents. The Human Body 39
  46. 46. Long exposure to the sun (between 9:00 AM to 3:30 PM)can cause sunburn. Sunburn can be very painful. Wear a hat,a pair of sunglasses, and a long-sleeved shirt to protect youfrom the sun. Apply sunscreen if you will stay outdoors forquite a long time. Eat healthy foods to help sharpen your five senses. Keepyourself safe and clean, and get plenty of rest and sleep toavoid getting sick. Always remember that a healthy body is ahappy body. Caring for My SensesObjectives: 1. Identify the things that cause harm to your sense organs. 2. Name ways of caring for your senses.Materials: 3 pieces of bond paper, coloring materials, pencil, old magazinesProcedure: 1. Make a booklet showing ways to care for your sense organs. 2. Cut each bond paper in half. Fold and staple the pieces of bond paper at the middle to make a booklet. 3. The front page of the booklet is the title page. Use one page for each sense organ. 4. Cut out pictures showing different ways of caring for your sense organs from magazines. You may also draw your own pictures. Describe each picture.40 Science Works! 2
  47. 47. • You need to care for your sense organs so that they will work properly.• Wear sunglasses and apply sunscreen lotion to protect your eyes and skin from the sun whenever you go out during the day.• Eating healthy foods, exercising, getting enough sleep, and maintaining cleanliness will keep your sense organs and entire body healthy. Circle the picture of the child who shows care for his orher sense organs. eyes ears nose The Human Body 41
  48. 48. tongue skinA. Which sense organ is used to describe each object? Write the letter of the correct answer on the blank. a b c d e ______ 1. The kalamansi juice is sour. ______ 2. The loud sound of our school bell tells me it is lunch time. ______ 3. A crab’s shell is rough and hard. ______ 4. My dog is big and has a brown fur. ______ 5. My sister’s perfume has a floral scent.42 Science Works! 2
  49. 49. B. Put a check ( ) mark on the picture that gives the correct answer. 1. Which is not a proper way of caring for the eyes? 2. Which practices are harmful to your ears? The Human Body 43
  50. 50. 3. Which of the following should you use to clean your nose? 4. Which of the following shows proper care for the tongue?44 Science Works! 2
  51. 51. 5. Which of the following shows proper care for the skin?C. Color the sense organs that work together in each activity. 1. nose ears tongue skin eyes 2. ears eyes skin tongue nose The Human Body 45

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