Science works!2 tm_unit1-watermark

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Science works!2 tm_unit1-watermark

  1. 1. 1 The Human Body CHAPTER 1 Exploring Your Senses Lesson 1 Discovery through Your SensesI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify the five senses; 2. describe how sense organs send messages to the brain by playing a game; 3. show appreciation for the five senses by enumerating their importance in performing daily activities and in protecting a person from danger; and 4. give examples on how sense organs work together.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • creative thinking • problem solving • understanding diversity Materials: shoe box with hole on top, handkerchief as blindfold, small stuffed toy and pencil (touch), vinegar and cheese (taste), alcohol and coffee granules (smell), sound of rooster crowing and sound of phone ringing (hearing), picture of an elephant and a car (sight)III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Tell the class to take out one kind of snack from their lunch bags. Ask them to describe how it looks, feels, and smells. Have them describe how they think it tastes and how it sounds when they take a bite of it. Ask, “What body parts did you use in describing how your snack looked, felt, smelled, tasted, and sounded?” B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Tell the pupils they will play a game called “Pass the Message.” Have them form groups of five. Have each group form a line and every member blindfolded. 3. Ask the first pupil in line to guess the name of the object inside the box you will give using one of his or her senses. Instruct him or her on what action he or she needs to perform (i.e., touch, smell, taste, look, or listen). (Note: The first pupil in line will have to remove his or her blindfold when asked to look at pictures of an elephant and a car.) Teacher’s Manual 1
  2. 2. 4. The first pupil should whisper the name of the object to the pupil after him or her. The message will be passed from one pupil to the next until it reaches the last pupil. Upon receiving the message, the last pupil must go to the blackboard and write the name of the object in the box. 5. Give a point to the team that identifies the object correctly. The pupil in front should go to the end of the line and the next pupil in line will guess the next object. 6. Repeat steps 2–4 until the pupils have guessed all the objects. The group with the most points wins the game. 7. Process the activity by asking the pupils the following questions: a. How were you able to guess the objects? b. Can you describe how the pencil/stuffed toy felt like? What body part did you use to know how things feel? c. Which of the five senses is related to this body part? (point using your hand) d. Can you describe how the car/elephant looked like? What body part did you use to know how things look? (sight) 8. Follow the same format of questioning with the rest of the given samples (vinegar/cheese, alcohol/ coffee granules and sound of rooster crowing/sound of ringing from a phone). 9. Ask the class, “What are the two roles of the persons standing first in line during the game? Why are these roles important? Let us call the persons standing first in line during the game as receptors because they are responsible for detecting/describing things. What is the job of those who received the messages? Let us call them nerves because they carry information for the receptors. What is the job of the persons at the end of the line? Let us call them the brain because they identify the object that is detected or described.” 10. Tell the pupils that they will read their textbooks to learn more about the five senses and their functions. After reading Feed Your Mind, discuss what they have learned about the five senses and receptors. Connect the information they have read with the game they played. Recall the roles and functions the pupils performed during the game. Ask, “In what ways are these roles related to how your senses send messages to the brain to help you describe the things around you?” Afterward, review the concepts in Rundown. 11. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. C. Synthesis Chart 1 The pupils will do the activity Science in Action. Divide the class into groups of five and let them sit around a table. Each group will be given two fruits which they will investigate using their five senses. If the pupils are having difficulty describing the fruits, go around and ask: 1. What is the scent of the fruit like? 2. What is the color of the fruit’s skin? What is the color of its inner part? What is the color of its seeds? 3. What is the taste? 4. What is the texture of the fruit’s skin? What is the texture of its inner part? How about its seeds? Chart 2 Ask, “Which sense organ/s was/were used most often? Which sense organ/s was/were used the least? Which sense organ/s was/were not used at all in observing the fruits?” Questions: 1. Why are your eyes important to you? (Ask the same question with their ears, nose, tongue, and skin.) 2. In what way does your sense of sight help you do things? (Ask the same question about the rest of the senses.) 3. How can your senses protect you from danger? (i.e., avoiding an incoming vehicle, alerts a person of fire, eating or inhaling poisonous substances, etc.)2 Science Works! 2
  3. 3. IV. Remediation In their notebooks, have the pupils name the five sense organs. Tell them to list three examples that their eyes can see, ears can hear, nose can smell, tongue can taste, and skin can feel.V. Enrichment Guide the class in doing the following activity. Materials: cardboard, round-headed fastener, colored markers, pencil Procedure: 1. Cut a circle about 15 cm in diameter on a cardboard. 2. With the remaining piece of cardboard, draw an arrow 1 cm wide and 5 cm in length. Cut the arrow and set it aside. 3. Make five divisions in the circle by drawing a line. Draw the five sense organs on each division. 4. Punch a hole at the center of the circle and at the end of the arrow. 5. Place the arrow and the circle together and fasten them at the holes with the round-headed fastener. 6. Try to spin the arrow if it works. Loosen or tighten the fastener if the arrow does not spin properly. 7. Call on two pupils. To play this game, spin the arrow and wait for it to stop at a particular sense organ. The pupil must think of an example or situation where people use this sense organ (e.g., I use my ears when I hear the phone ringing, I use my eyes to tell the colors is see from a rainbow, etc.). The pupil gets a point if his or her answer is correct. Instruct the players to take turns in spinning. Lesson 2 Exploring the Sense of SightI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify the parts of the eyes and describe the function of each part; 2. use the sense of sight to observe, analyze, compare, and describe objects; and 3. tell the importance of the eyes.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • critical thinking • problem solving Materials: five picture cards showing three small blue marbles on a table, one large gray carabao at the farm, two tall giraffes in the zoo, twelve long red roses in a vase, and five red ladybugs on a leaf; masking tape)III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Ask the class to name at least 10 objects that they see around them. Call on some pupils to write their answers on the board. Then, ask the following questions: Teacher’s Manual 3
  4. 4. • Do these objects have something in common? (shape, color, etc.) • Can you find a way to group these objects based on their similar characteristics? • How are you able to describe and name the things around you if you cannot hear, taste, or feel them? (Infer that they can use their eyes.) • What are the ways your eyes tell you about your surroundings? (shape, color, size, distance, etc.) B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Draw five columns and five rows on the board. Tape one picture card in each row of the first column. Write the word number on the topmost part of the second column, size on the third column, shape on the fourth column, and color on the fifth column. Call on pupils to write a description for each picture according to its characteristics. They will then make up a sentence using these descriptions to tell what they see in the picture (e.g., I see three small, round, blue marbles on the table). Repeat the process with the remaining pictures. Ask the class to name different kinds of sizes (big, tiny, long, short, etc.), shapes (circle, round, rectangular, square, etc.), and color (pink, red, etc.). 3. Ask the pupils to cover their eyes. Explain that light is needed for people to see. Let the pupils find out how their eyes work by reading their textbooks. Discuss the parts and function of each part of the eye. 4. Say, “Some people are born with or develop eye problems due to damage on certain parts of their eyes. Recall the different eye disorders stated in the textbook. Do any in your family have eye problems? How do they cope with them?” 5. Tell the pupils to do the activity in Science in Action. Discuss their experiences after the activity. Ask some pupils to answer the given questions in the activity. 6. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. C. Synthesis Tell the pupils to form groups of four. In a piece of paper, each group will draw the parts of the eyes and label these parts. Each member must pick a part of the eye and write its function using his or her own words below the drawing. When all the groups are finished, have each group discuss their output with another group.IV. Remediation Let the pupils give one example of an object for each description. Shape Color Size circle red big square blue small triangle green long rectangle yellow shortV. Enrichment 1. Raise the pupils’ awareness about visual impairment by reading the life story of Helen Keller. Visit the Braille Bug Web site (http://www.afb.org/braillebug/Braille.asp) and explain what Braille is and how it works. 2. Print a copy of the Braille alphabet (http://www.afb.org/braillebug/braille_print.asp). Ask the pupils to copy the Braille alphabet on a piece of cardboard. Put glue on the dots and let these dry. Have the pupils feel the dots and identify the letter. 3. Let the pupils write their names or send notes to their classmates in Braille.4 Science Works! 2
  5. 5. Lesson 3 Exploring the Sense of HearingI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify the parts of the ears and describe the function of each part; 2. explain how the sense of hearing works. 3. use the sense of hearing to observe, analyze, compare, and identify different sounds through an activity; and 4. illustrate the importance of the sense of hearing in daily life;II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • creative thinking • problem solving Materials: objects that produce sounds such as bell, stick, ball, and paper; wooden spoon; pencil; thick book; seven soda bottles of the same size and shape; water; poster showing the parts of the earIII. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Ring a bell under a table and ask the pupils to guess what you did. Make more sounds and let the pupils guess what objects made those sounds. Ask, “Which of the five senses do you use to hear sounds?” Tell the class that without their ears it is hard to identify things going on around them. Let the pupils touch their throat while you instruct them to perform the following actions one by one (e.g., say your full name, sing, laugh, or hum a tune). Ask, “What happened to your throat as you talked, sang, and laughed?” Tell the class that sound is produced when things vibrate or move back and forth very fast. B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Say, “The sense of hearing tells you many things about your surroundings.” 3. Tell the pupils to close their eyes as you clap your hands 8 times and tap your foot 10 times. Ask, “What do your ears tell you about the sounds you hear?” 4. Drop a pencil and a thick book on a table. Compare the sounds produced by each object. Ask, “What makes soft sounds and loud sounds?” 5. Ask, “How is sound created? How does sound travel from the ears to the brain? What sounds are not good for the ears?” Explain the parts of the ear and their functions by showing an illustration of the ear. 6. Ask the pupils to do the activity in Science in Action. 7. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. C. Synthesis Ask the students to draw three things that show why their sense of hearing is important to them. Then, review the concepts in Rundown. Teacher’s Manual 5
  6. 6. IV. Remediation Tell the pupils to list three objects each in their notebooks that make a loud sound and a soft sound.V. Enrichment Fill seven soda bottles with different amounts of water. Let the pupils predict which bottle will produce the lowest or highest tone. Blow the top of each bottle. Remind them that sound is made by the air vibrating in the bottle. Have the pupils arrange the sounds from lowest to highest. Next, hit the bottles with a wooden spoon. Discuss high and low tones in relation with the amount of water in the bottles. Lesson 4 Exploring the Sense of SmellI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify the parts of the nose and describe the function of each part; 2. use the sense of smell to observe, analyze, compare, and describe different scents through an activity; and 3. tell the importance of the sense of smell.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • critical thinking • problem solving Materials: four numbered containers with scented cotton balls inside (vinegar, cologne, dishwashing liquid, rotten egg)III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Pass around the class four containers with scented cotton balls in them. Ask the pupils to smell it one by one. Tell them to think of words that describe the scent of each cotton ball. Let the pupils classify the scents as to pleasant or unpleasant smell. B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Ask, “Would you eat items in those containers which you classified as having an unpleasant smell? Why? What does their smell tell you about how you think they might taste like? Can you give an example where your sense of smell gave you an idea of what is happening around you even without seeing it?” You may cite examples to stimulate the pupils’ ideas (e.g., I know that my dad is grilling barbeques outside because I can smell it). 3. Ask the students to read Feed Your Mind and discuss the parts of the nose and how it works. Describe pleasant and unpleasant odors. Let the students describe the best smell and the worst smell they have experienced. Ask, “How did it make you feel?” Ask them to give other examples of things with pleasant or unpleasant odors. 4. Let the students perform Science in Action. Discuss their answers afterward. 5. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge.6 Science Works! 2
  7. 7. C. Synthesis Divide the class into groups with three members each. Tell the groups to discuss their answers to the following question: “Why is the sense of smell important? How does it help you enjoy life?” Call on volunteers to discuss what their group had talked about.IV. Remediation Tell the pupils to interview three of their classmates. Have them ask each classmate to give them an example of a pleasant and unpleasant odor. Let them write the respondents’ answers in their notebooks.V. Enrichment Let the pupils draw or paste pictures of things that they like and don’t like to smell on a piece of bond paper. Tell them to separate and group these pictures as to having a pleasant or an unpleasant odor. Lesson 5 Exploring the Sense of TasteI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify the parts of the tongue and describe the function of each part; 2. infer the five basic tastes through a food identification activity; 3. use the sense of taste to observe, analyze, and compare given foods; and 4. explain the importance of the sense of taste.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • creative thinking • critical thinking • problem solving Materials: cookie, picture cards of different foods (ice cream, cake, mango, santol, lemon, guyabano, bagoong, popcorn, soy sauce, ampalaya, coffee, cocoa powder, cheese, fried chicken,t and pork chop)III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Show a large piece of cookie. Ask, “If you cannot see, in what ways can you identify or describe this object? What part of your body helps you select and enjoy your food?” Discuss the pupils’ answers. B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Ask the student to read Feed Your Mind. Discuss the taste buds of the tongue and how they help people taste and distinguish different tastes. 3. Let the pupils give examples of food that taste sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Next, have them classify the picture cards according to their taste and put each on the board under its taste. Teacher’s Manual 7
  8. 8. 4. Tell the class to perform the activity in Science in Action. 5. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. C. Synthesis Tell the pupils to answer the following questions on a piece of paper. • What would happen to you if you lost your sense of taste? • How does the sense of taste help you select and enjoy your food?IV. Remediation Have the pupils list in their notebooks three examples of foods which represent each basic taste.V. Enrichment Tell the pupils to think of five foods that are sweet, sour, salty, bitter, or umami (e.g., chocolate, green mango, ampalaya, etc.). Instruct them to conduct a survey among their classmates on which among the food choices they like most. They will put a happy face for every classmate that chooses the same food. Tally the scores to find out which basic food taste is best liked by the class. Lesson 6 Exploring the Sense of TouchI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify the parts of the skin and describe the function of each part; 2. use the sense of touch to observe, analyze, and infer the sensitivity of skin in different parts of the body through an activity; 3. distinguish different characteristics of objects by using the sense of touch; and 4. explain how the sense of touch works.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • creative thinking • problem solving • critical thinking Materials: 12 wide-mouthed containers, water (warm, cold, and tap water), shoebox with hole on top, different sizes and textures of objects (noodles, pebbles, beans, stones, crayons, pieces of cloth, cotton, scraps of foam, marbles, eraser)III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Ask the pupils what part of their body they use to see, hear, taste, smell, and feel? Give examples of objects that are soft/rough/smooth/cold/hot/sharp/hard to the touch.8 Science Works! 2
  9. 9. B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Divide the class into four groups. Prepare three containers per group. Fill the first container with cold water; the second with tap water, and the third with warm water (make sure the water is not too hot). Appoint a leader for each group who will ensure that rules, instructions, and proper behavior are observed during the activity. 3. Each pupil should put his or her hand in the container of cold water and describe how it feels. Then he or she will put his or her hand in the container of tap water and describe how it feels. Lastly, he or she will put his or her hand in the container with warm water and describe how it feels. 4. Place several objects with various shapes, sizes, and textures in a closed shoe box with a hole on top. Give each group a box. One pupil will reach into the box and identify an object using only his or her sense of touch. Let the pupil show the object to his or her group mates then another pupil will get a bigger or smaller object than the first. Ask a pupil to reach in the box and look for something rough. Then ask another pupil to get a smooth object. Let a pupil look for something hard/soft. 5. Discuss the different characteristics of the objects that the pupils felt with their hands (hot, cold, rough, smooth, hard, soft, etc.). 6. Let the pupils read Feed Your Mind. Discuss the lesson by asking, “What are the parts of your skin? How do these parts help you feel things?” 7. Ask the pupils to do the activity in Science in Action. 8. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. C. Synthesis Have the pupils read the concepts in Rundown.IV. Remediation Ask the pupils to list and draw in their notebooks their 10 favorite things (a toy, food, etc.) they have at home. Have them write a description of how each thing feels.V. Enrichment Tell the pupils to draw on a piece of bond paper one example each of an object that is rough, smooth, soft, hard, hot, and cold. Let them label and color their drawings. Post their outputs on the wall of the classroom. Lesson 7 The Sense Organs Work TogetherI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify which senses they use in doing their daily activities; 2. use all the senses to observe, analyze, compare, and describe objects through an activity; and 3. explain how senses work together.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating Teacher’s Manual 9
  10. 10. • data gathering • critical thinking • problem solving Materials: six blindfolds, six small plastic containers, six samples of food (chocolate powder, sugar, evaporated milk, banana, water, ice candy) III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation 1. Divide the class into groups of six. Call on a volunteer from each group. 2. Blindfold the volunteers. Ask each to use their other senses to identify the food sample given to them. 3. The volunteers will write the name of the food sample in their notebooks without telling their group. 4. Ask the next pupil in the groups to come forward. Repeat the same procedure until all the pupils in each group have identified all the food samples. 5. Let all the first volunteers reveal their answers to the class. Then call on the second pupils from the groups, the third, and so on. Show the food samples and check which group got them all correctly. B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Ask, “How difficult or easy was it to identify an object without seeing it? How helpful were your other senses in identifying the food samples? What does this say about your senses?” 3. Tell the class to read Feed Your Mind and discuss the concepts afterward. 4. Ask, “How do your senses help you do your everyday activities? How do they help you avoid danger? Why do your senses need to work together?” C. Synthesis 1. Have the pupils do the activity in Science in Action. 2. Ask, “How does having other group members help out make the task easier in making your chocolate banana drinks? How are your senses similar with your group members in this activity?” 3. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. IV. Remediation Tell the pupils to draw two activities they like to do on a piece of bond paper. Let them show their work in front of the class by describing the senses they used for each activity. V. Enrichment Guide the class in doing the following activity. Materials: notebook, pencil Procedure: 1. Go for a walk in the school ground or cafeteria. Look for an object that you like to observe. 2. Use your five senses to describe the object and write it in your notebook. Object: _______________________ Sense of Sight It looks like _______________________________________________________________. Sense of Touch It feels like ________________________________________________________________.10 Science Works! 2
  11. 11. Sense of Hearing It sounds like ______________________________________________________________. Sense of Smell It smells like _______________________________________________________________. Sense of Taste It tastes like _______________________________________________________________. Lesson 8 Caring for Your Sense OrgansI. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils will be able to 1. identify ways of protecting and caring for their sense organs; 2. name things that cause harm to the sense organs; 3. demonstrate the basic care for the sense organs; and 4. explain the importance of caring for the sense organs.II. Target Science Process Skills/21st Century Skills • observing • classifying • inferring • communicating • data gathering • critical thinking • problem solving Materials: pictures of eyes (red irritated eye, soar eyes), ears (dirty or infected), nose (nose bleeding), skin (burns, sunburn, wound), and tongue (irritated tongue)III. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Ask, “Have you ever experienced feeling any discomfort in your eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin (itching, sunburn, colds/runny nose, etc.)? What caused these discomforts? What was done to ease or cure the discomfort?” B. Presentation of the Subject Matter 1. Tell the pupils to answer Sci-tionary. 2. Show several pictures of common problems affecting the eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue. Ask, “Why do you think some people get these kinds of problems? Have you, or has anyone you know of, experienced having these problems? How can you prevent them?” 3. Let the students read Feed Your Mind. Afterward, discuss the proper ways of dealing with common problems affecting the five senses. 4. Divide the class into five groups. Assign a problem situation for each of the senses to each group. Give the class 15 minutes to come up with a skit on how they can show care for their assigned sense organ in the given situation. Call on each group to perform in front of the class. (You may refer to the following Web sites for the topics or situations: http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/ index.html#cat113 and http://kidshealth.org/kid/watch/index.html#cat113) Teacher’s Manual 11
  12. 12. C. Synthesis 1. Ask the students do the activity in Science in Action. 2. Process the activity by letting the pupils answer the question “If you were a sense organ what would you be and why do you need care?” 3. Have the pupils answer Brain Challenge. IV. Remediation Have the pupils interview five classmates about how they take care of their five sense organs. Let them draw and write in their notebooks one example for each of the five senses. V. Enrichment Tell the pupils to answer Chapter Checkup.12 Science Works! 2

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