Theodore payne 2013 - lecture notes


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Theodore payne 2013 - lecture notes

  1. 1. 5/6/20131© Project SOUNDOut of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. CountyProject SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year)© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne:the legacy of a CA nativeplantsmanC.M. Vadheim and T. DrakeCSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh PreserveMay 4 & 7, 2013Theodore Payne: a man of (and ahead of)his time The man – his personalhistory The context: thehistorical and culturalcontext of his life andactivities His legacy Physical legacy Spiritual legacy© Project SOUNDTPF Archive - Archives and Collections Currently being evaluated: not yet available; will be on-line Included are: Personal papers of Theodore Payne dating from 1893 to 1963; Business records from 1903 including sales ledgers, catalogues ofplants and seeds for sale, planting plans, photographs and plant lists; Professional communications with notable clients, seed businesses inUS/Europe; Paynes writing focusing on S. CA native plants, their location and care; Commentary about his participation in the establishment of majorpublic and private gardens; published papers on urban development in S.California. Additional papers relate to the activities of the Theodore PayneFoundation (TPF) since its founding in 1960. Assorted private papers and collections given to TPF, yet to beevaluated.© Project SOUND
  2. 2. 5/6/20132Theodore Payne was a man who lovedplants: he was passionate about plants(and particularly native plants) hisentire life© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne: the early years 1872 - Born in Northamptonshire,England - June 19, 1982. Father dies when he is very young– never really knew him Shares love of plants with mother,who had studied botany; motherdied when he was 12 Active during boarding schoolyears in botanical society; madecollection of pressed plants. 1888 - Apprenticed to a nurseryfirm at age 16 for thoroughtraining in nursery and seedbusiness. – guaranteed a job oncecompleted© Project SOUND at J. Cheal & Sons Old, respected nursery firm (stillaround today) – probably difficult toget the position & family paid for it Learned all aspects of nursery trade: Propagation Nursery/garden management Garden design & installation Business aspects, including doingflower shows, etc. 1891 - Saw large display of Californianative plants at The Royal BotanicalGardens at Kew in England. After three years, in 1893, Paynecompleted his contract© Project SOUND comes to the U.S. - 1893 He arrived in New York, traveled toChicago where he visited the WorldsColumbian Exhibition, then set out forLos Angeles, California. Upon arriving in California in 1893,worked for a week picking apricots, thenfound a job in charge of the gardens atthe ranch of Madame Helena Modjeskain Santiago Canyon in Orange County,California. At first was nervous – he’d been told itwas ‘wild’; but it was there that he beganhis lifelong interest in California nativeplants, exploring the extensive naturalareas surrounding the Ranch.© Project SOUND
  3. 3. 5/6/20133Life at ‘Arden’ Lots of work in the gardens –even irrigation was a major issue Still time to get out and explore His memoir, Life on theModjeska Ranch in the GayNineties , offers the bestaccount of daily life there.© Project SOUND Payne and Matilija Poppies Madame Modjeska encouraged himto use native plants in her gardens Matilija poppies were growing inthis area when Mr. Payne lived onthe Ranch. He tried valiantly togrow them at the request of Mr.Bozenta, as he called him. He wasnot successful and it wasnt untillater that he learned if he hadburned some straw or dried grassover the ground, he would havebeen successful in germinating theseed.© Project SOUND poppy fascinated him, andin later years he collected theseed for exporting to Europe.1898: Begins work more closely related tohis career ambitions & training At Madam Mojeska’s insistence, he hadsuccessfully domesticated a number ofwildflowers for the ranch garden. Payne leftthe Mojeska Ranch with a new interest inCalifornia native plants and a specialreverence for the rich variety of wildflowershe was discovering in his adopted home. In 1898, Payne left the ranch for a positionwith the Germain Seed Company. He remained with this firm for five years,becoming head of the seed department.© Project SOUNDGermain Seed & Plant Co. – 1889-1957 Founded by Eugene Germain in theearly 1870′s (as Germain Fruit Co.) Location: 326-330 S. Main; LosAngeles based until the 1980’s The firm later exported callas,freesias, amaryllis, cannas, otherbulb plants. By 1884, the firm was exclusively inthe seed business, selling seeds inthe U.S. & abroad. A 1900 catalog listed tree seedsincluding unusual species, manysucculent plants, as well as flowerseeds.© Project SOUND
  4. 4. 5/6/20134Germain’s was agood place to learn How to run a seed business inS. California What seeds people wereinterested in buying The need to teach gardenersthe basics How to write an informativecatalog The importance of advertising Also made useful Europeancontacts on his sales & buyingtrips abroad© Project SOUND © Project SOUND Seed Co. –– some surprisingofferings in the 1905 Catalog Abronia umbellata Collinsia bicolor Delphinium cardinales Delphinium parryi Emmenanthe penduliflora Eschhoztzia Gilia tricolor Clarkia rubicunda & amoena Helianthus californica Lathyrus splendens Lavatera trimestris Layia platyglossa (calliglossa) Limnanthes douglasii Lobelia cardinalis Lupinus nanus Mimulus cardinalis Mimulus moschatus Nemophila menzeisii Phacelia parryii Phlox drummondii Platystemon californicum Romneya coulteri Whitlavia grandiflorum© Project SOUND © Project SOUND Even in the early years ofthe 20th century, nativevegetation was being lostto agriculture and housingat an alarming rate. Theodore Payne, comingfrom England as a youngman, was acutely aware ofthis and was an earlyactivist – in word & in deed
  5. 5. 5/6/201351903 – a nursery and seed company ofhis own  Bought a struggling Los Angelesnursery business from his Britishcountryman, Hugh Evans [EvansNursery] In 1903, Payne opened his firstnursery at 440 S. BroadwayStreet, Los Angeles, California Originally featured traditionalseeds – was active in Eucalypts Began collecting wild flower seedsas a hobby. Collecting trips with like-mindedfriends Gradually added wildflower seedpackets to his offerings© Project SOUND beginning of the 20th century saw anincreased interest in CA native plants General increased interest ingardening associated with theVictorian era Also the Victorian interest in thingsscientific and in collecting There were more people – and morepeople with gardens The plants themselves attracted anumber of key botanists and plants-persons to California And there was a general sense that‘plants were being lost’© Project SOUND1906 – written by Mary Elizabeth Parsons© Project SOUND’s unique about Theodore Payne is that he soldiered on all theway to the 1960’s1905 – Moved his store to a bigger space Moved business to 345 S. Main wherethe office remained until 1931. Began specializing in California wildflowers, native plants and eucalyptus.But continued with non-natives Purchased growing grounds at 33rd St.and Hoover. He became known as a one-personclearinghouse of nursery informationand a source for tracking down specifictrees, plants and seeds. He made regular visits to nurseries upand down the state, keeping up withwhat was being grown or tried in variouslocations.© Project SOUND 1907, native wildflowersand landscapes were hisspecialty.
  6. 6. 5/6/20136But making a living by selling nativeplants was not easy Scant success attended his initialefforts because customers lackedinterest. He had to advertise. He raised public awareness by: Creating wildflower demonstrationgardens on vacant lots Issuing a catalog of wildflower seeds Exhibiting at flower shows. He published numerous articles onwildflowers, including a two-partcontribution to California Garden in1912.© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne’s experiences at J.Cheal & Sons and Germain’staught him the time honoredmethods of advertising in thehorticultural tradeIn his own words…. ‘When I first came to California, what impressed me perhapsmore then anything else was the wonderful native flora. Butas the years went by it was with deep regret that I saw thewildflowers so rapidly disappearing from the landscape. I made up my mind that I would try to do something toawaken a greater interest in the native flora. Thus it wasthat I began to specialize in the growing of wild flowers andnative plants. I collected seed of a few kinds of wild flowers,grew them and offered the seed for sale. Little or no success attended this first venture, it beinggenerally conceded that it was foolish to waste time on "wildflowers.”© Project SOUNDDemonstrationgardens becomea TP tradition ‘As a demonstration I secured the useof a vacant lot in Hollywood and sowedit with wild flower seeds. I went toWalter Raymond of the RaymondHotel in Pasadena and asked him forthe use of a piece of ground forsowing wild flower seeds. Mr. Raymondreadily consented and the followingspring there was a splendid display.’ ‘I also secured the use of two lots inPasadena, one on Green Street andthe other at the corner of Lake andColorado, which I sowed with wildflower seeds. All these plots weregreatly admired and I receivedcomplimentary letters from manypeople. This was really the beginningof wild flower planting.’© Project SOUND1906 – Publishedfirst catalog Published first catalogCalifornia Native Flower Seeds. Realized that most people didn’tknow how to grow native plantseeds – or use the plants intheir gardens Catalog contained several pagesof general advice – startingseeds, transplanting, etc. A bit of information on eachspecies: characteristics,requirements, garden uses, etc.© Project SOUND
  7. 7. 5/6/20137Example: Coreopsis maritima – Sea Dahlia ‘Perennial 2 to 2 ½ feethigh. Large flowers 3 to 4inches in diameter, muchresembling the Coreopsislanciolata of our gardensbut of a light canary yellowcolor. Very fine forcutting purposes. Pkt 10¢’© Project SOUND – California Wildflowers – TheirCulture & Care ‘A treatise describing upward of ahundred beautiful species with afew notes on their habits andcharacteristics’ Many native plant nurseries haveresorted to printing smallpamphlets to answer FAQs –Theodore Payne was among them ‘California Wildflowers’ was partbook – part seed catalog© Project SOUND : Annual Wildflower mixes wereavailable from T. Payne Shady/partly shady Very dry, sunny places Orange, yellow & cream-colored Blue, purple and lavendershade Low-growing for small beds& borders Perennials for dry banks© Project SOUNDA tradition the Theodore PayneFoundation continues to this dayExamples of 1910 seed mixesShady/Part-shady Nemophylla menziesii Nemophylla maculata Viola pedunculata Collinsia heterophylla Clarkia bottae Clarkia amoena Clarkia unguiculata Clarkia grandiflora Mimulus brevipesPerennials for dry banks Epilobium canum Lupinus arboreus Encelia californica Trichostema lanataum Penstemon heterophyllus© Project SOUND
  8. 8. 5/6/20138Some common garden favorites from 1910 Baby Blue-eyes Five-spot Tidy-tips Purple Owl’s Clover Globe Gilia Bird’s-eye Gilia Chinese Houses Elegant Clarkia Other Clarkias: bottae,amoena Blue-eyed Grass Annual Sunflower CA Poppy© Project SOUNDNative bulbs available in 1910 Bloomeria crocea Brodiaea: grandiflora, Calochortus: alba, catalinae,clavatus, plummerae &spendens Dichelostemma: capitata,coccinea Fritillaria: biflora, lanceolata,recurva Lillium: humboltii, pardalinum,parryi, Tritellia laxa© Project SOUND – native trees and shrubs were justaround the corner ‘I am making a specialty ofgrowing our native treesand shrubs, but as it takesyears to build up a stock ofthese, especially as most ofthem are raised from seed,it is my intention to issueprice lists, from time totime, of the latest I havelarge enough for sale. Thelist will be mailed free onapplication’© Project SOUND© Project SOUNDWhite Alder – Alnus rhombifolia
  9. 9. 5/6/20139© Project SOUNDWhite Alder – Alnus rhombifolia Western U.S. from Baja to BritishColumbia – east to ID In CA, Coastal mountains andfoothills, Sierra Foothills Locally in Santa Monica & SanGabriel Mtns – below ~ 7000 ft. Usually in rocky or gravelly soilsalong the sides of permanentstreams, in canyon bottomlands andgulches Singly or in small patches,2017,2019 © Project SOUNDCharacteristics ofWhite Alder Size: 40-75 ft tall 30-40 ft wide Growth form: Woody tree; winter deciduous Fast-growing in first decade;good for quick establishment Relatively short-lived – willlast your lifetime One to several trunks; white-gray bark - pretty Foliage: Rounded, medium-greenleaves ; prominent veins Roots: will seek source of water– plant well away from water- andsewer linesCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences© Project SOUNDPlant Requirements Soils: Texture: any – not fussy pH: any local Light: anything from full sun to quiteshady; depends on how much water yougive it. Water: Winter: good, moist soil Summer: fairly regular water; Zone2-3 or 3 – 2 if your neighborwaters Fertilizer: likes a richer soil; finewith fertilizer, etc. Other: Use organic mulch, self-mulch orgrasses Strong roots can wreck sidewalks,concreteWatch for flathead borers – can kill© Project SOUNDWhite Alter: monoeciousmalefemale Blooms: winter or spring; any timefrom Nov. to Apr. in our area Flowers: Small flowers on droopingbranches ‘catkins’ Separate male and femaleflowers – on same tree Female flowers produce smallcone-like structures that containthe seeds – classical Alder Seeds: Papery; wind-borne Vegetative reproduction: can re-sprout from base or roots
  10. 10. 5/6/201310© Project SOUNDGarden uses forWhite Alder As a shade tree – in a lawn As an accent plant – takes a whileto become really large In large installations: parks,schools, commercial plantings Excellent bird habitat tree; goodfor stream beds© Project SOUND* Tanbark Oak – Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. densiflorus Mainly grows on north coast & Sierra foothills ?’relict’ in Ventura and Santa Barbara Co. Moist, humid places in Redwood Forest, Mixed EvergreenForest, Yellow Pine Forest, Red Fir Forest On slopes between 0 and 8000 feet© Project SOUND* Tanbark Oak – Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. densiflorus,4322,4323,4324 Lithcarpus – now we know better The Lithocarpus genus is transitional between chestnuts(Castanea spp.) and true oaks (Quercus spp.), with flowerslike chestnuts and fruits similar to those of true oaks. Thereare hundreds of Lithocarpus species in Asia, but tanoak isthe only North American member of the genus Tanbark-oak was recently moved into a new genus,Notholithocarpus, based on multiple lines of evidence It isnot related to the Asian tropical stone oaks, Lithocarpus,but instead is an example of convergent morphologicalevolution. The North American tanbark-oak is most closelyrelated to the north temperate oaks, Quercus.© Project SOUND
  11. 11. 5/6/201311© Project SOUNDTanbark Oak: apicturesque tree Size: 50-75+ ft tall 30-50+ ft wide Slow-growing Growth form: Evergreen , woody tree Shaded trees are narrow; thosegrown in open sites have broad,open crown Thick, pale, cork-like bark inmature trees – used in tanning Trunk forms a burl – forresprouting Foliage: Leaves thick, leathery medium-green , rounded Young leaves - dense orange hairs Long taprootJ. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences© Project SOUNDFlowers are oak-like Blooms: spring, summer or fall,depending on the weather,elevation, distance from coast Flowers: Trees monoecious – separatemale, female flowers on sametree, usually on new shoots Male flowers: drooping catkins Female flowers: produce acorn-like nut Wind-pollinated Seeds: Take 2 years to develop Vegetative reproduction: mainlysprouting from burls©2004 Kim CabreraAcorn-like nuts with a tough shell 0.79–1.2 in long and 2 cm diameter,very similar to an oak acorn, but witha very hard, woody nut shell more likea hazel nut. The nut kernel is very bitter Highlevels of tannins); requires extensiveleaching to make it edible for humans Protect the nuts from predatation –tho’ squirrels seem immune Contain a comparatively large amountof oil. On this account, tanoak acornswere preferred by local Indians overall other kinds. Can be stored longer than Oak acorns© Project SOUND nuts Important food source (staplefood) where it grew (n. Coast) Were ground, leached, and thenprepared as a soup, cooked mush,biscuits, pancakes, and cakes. or akind of bread. They also roast the acorns and eatthem Traditionally, the seeds wereplaced in a cloth bag and eitherburied in swampy ground orsuspended in a running stream fora few months. Once the tanninshave been removed, the seed wasthen dried, ground into a powder Now, grind first, then leach inseveral changes of hot or coldwater until sweet© Project SOUND
  12. 12. 5/6/201312© Project SOUNDPlant Requirements  Soils: Texture: deep, well-drainedsoils best. pH: slightly acidic best (5.0-7.0) Light: best in part-shade Water: Winter: adequate Summer: best with occasionalto regular irrigation – WaterZones 2 to 2-3 Fertilizer: organic mulch Other: Highly susceptible to SuddenOak Death disease © Project SOUNDGarden uses for Tanoak In a woodland garden,particularly under pines &other large trees In large plantings: campuses,commercial, parks, boulevards ?? Food source; wood source© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College Payne always offered someunusual (rare) seeds to his customersThese were often collected in seed-collecting trips with friends like Dr.Anstruther Davidson© Project SOUND © Project SOUNDCatalina Nightshade – Solanum wallacei©2000 John Game
  13. 13. 5/6/201313 Endemic to S. Channel Islandsand Baja Coastal Islands: SantaCatalina & Guadalupe Islands Uncommon on slopes and incanyons Chaparral Seeds available from TheodorePayne in 1910© Project SOUNDCatalina Nightshade – Solanum wallacei,7682,7700William Allen Wallace (1815-1893) Gold miner, school teacherbut mostly a newspaperreporter and editor Collected in the vicinity ofLos Angeles around 1854and slightly later ; Sentplants to Asa Gray(Harvard herbarium) Wrote The history ofCanaan, New Hampshire© Project SOUND wallacei From California NativePlants, Theodore Paynes1941 catalog: "A shrubbyplant 3 to 5 feet high withrich green downy foliageand quantities of largeviolet or blue flowers.Effective in masses or as acolor note between othershrubs. Gallon cans, 40c.“© Project SOUND© Project SOUND Size: 3-4 ft tall 4-8 ft wide Growth form: Herbaceous sub-shrub (partsare woody) Mounded, many-branched formtypical of Nightshades Larger than Solantum xanti(Blue Witch) Foliage: Leaves softly hairy, sticky Lush and attractive appearance Note: all parts toxic if eatenLush CatalinaNightshade
  14. 14. 5/6/201314© Project SOUNDFlowers are fantastic Blooms: in spring – usuallyApril-May Flowers: Very pale purple (rare) tobright purple or blue withyellow stamens Flowers typical fornightshade, but larger than S.xanti ? Sweet floral fragrance atdusk Fruit: Typical small, tomato-shapedfruit – birds love them Ripens late spring; darkpurple - toxic if eaten© Project SOUNDPlant Requirements Soils: Texture: well-drained best pH: any local Light: Afternoon shade or dappledsun To fairly shady in very hotgardens Water: Winter: adequate Summer: drought tolerantonce established – WaterZone 1-2, even 2 Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: pinch back new growthfor bushier habitJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database© Project SOUNDGarden accent In water-wise perennial beds; mixwith yellow-flowered For ‘Channel Island’ gardens Under oaks, other trees On hillsides – not fussy at all In large containers Good habitat plant: pollinators, birds – Becoming established Became President ofWildflower Club of SouthwestMuseum. Laid out its native garden. Developed herbarium there. Co-owned ranch in Thermalwith John Ruopp, foreman atModjeska. But he needed a larger forumto promote his beloved nativeplants – and was no doubtinfluenced by his ownmemories of English floralExpositions© Project SOUND
  15. 15. 5/6/201315Native Plant Garden – Exposition Park -1915© Project SOUND California Wild Garden in ExpositionPark: It’s History and Objects - Theodore Payne(1919 S. CA Acad. Of Science) ‘For years I had dreamed of planting a California wildgarden; a garden in which there should be nothing but plantsnative to California; a garden planted after nature’s ownfashion. In the fall of 1913 I conceived the idea of makingsuch a garden at one or both of the large expositions to beheld in 1915 in San Francisco and San Diego. I soon abandoned the idea of San Francisco it being too faraway. Then after some negotiations with the authorities incharge of the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego, Igave this up also, not being able to make such arrangementsas would warrant the undertaking’© Project SOUNDCA Wild Garden, cont. ‘In a letter of Feb. 9, 1914, from Mr. Frank B. Davidson ofthe State Building in Exposition Park, the suggestion wasmade that I should obtain a permit from the Park Board tomake and maintain at my own expense a small growing exhibitof California native plants in the park, somewhere near theExposition Building. A few weeks later I appeared beforethe Board of Park Commissioners and asked permission tomake a California wild garden in this park.’ Site and plans accepted by Board in 1914 County provided funds and did grading, sprinkler installation By March, 1915 scheduled to began the plant installation –irrigation, walkways not done May, 1915 began installation© Project SOUNDExposition Park Originally created in 1872 as anagricultural park, and 160 acreswere set aside for the SouthernDistrict Agricultural Society. In 1913, it was renamedExposition Park according to the“City Beautiful” movement with 4anchor tenants: The Exposition Building (nowCalifornia Museum of Scienceand Industry) National Armory Domed National History Museum Sunken Garden (which in 1928was later renamed the RoseGarden).© Project SOUNDLooking west to Nat. History Museum ~1915Looking east to National Armory
  16. 16. 5/6/201316Theodore Payne described the area About 5 acres; an odd shapedue to the race track Located along Figueroa,between Figueroa and thegrandstand/race track Planned thick stands of largetrees to hide racetrack andFigueroa from the garden Location was Ok - was nearenough the State ExpositionBuilding - and on Figueroa -that it would attract people© Project SOUNDState Exposition Building - 1913Where was Payne’s Wild Garden located?© Project SOUND© Project SOUND © Project SOUND
  17. 17. 5/6/201317© Project SOUNDThe ‘Wild Garden’ as described by TP Series of ‘groves’ planted at the intersections ofmajor walkways; natural appearing with understoryplants (262 species in all); key role of wildflowers Sycamore Grove Oak Grove Redwood Grove Big Tree Grove Monterey Pine Grove Torrey Pine Grove 8 ‘crops’ of weeds were grown and removed beforeseeding wildflowers© Project SOUND© Project SOUND‘Wild Garden’ ‘In the spring of 1916 the wild flowers commenced to bloomand in a few weeks the whole garden was a mass of yellowand orange and blue and purple shades. Thousands of peoplevisited it daily and on Sundays the walks could hardlyaccommodate the crowds. There were species of trees,shrubs and flowers collected from all parts of the state. Tosee these growing and to study them in their naturalhabitats, it would be necessary for the student to travelmany hundreds of miles besides spending much money andtime. A label was provided for each species in the gardengiving first the botanical name and below it the commonname of the plant. This label was placed…near the walk sothat it could be easily read by the public.’ ‘All the schools of the city used it for their botanicalclasses. Students also came from Pasadena, Long Beach andother nearby towns’© Project SOUND
  18. 18. 5/6/201318 ‘Artists painted pictures of it, everyday students and nature loversvisited it, birds, bees and butterfliesmade it their home. As visitors came down the main paththey felt the breath of the wild andforgot they were almost in the heartof a big city. “Why its just wild”they would exclaim. This spontaneous expression of theirfeelings was very gratifying to mefor I felt that I had really achievedMY WILD GARDEN .© Project SOUNDSeveral newspapers and magazines wrote descriptions of the gardenand I received many very complimentary letters concerning it.’The ‘Wild Garden’ put Theodore Payneon the map A corner was turned when his five-acre “Wild Garden”won popular acclaim and international press coverage. He launched a lecture tour on “Preserving the WildFlowers and Native Landscapes of California.” After a wealthy homeowner in Montecito hired Payne tolandscape her large estate in 1919, native plantingsbecame even more fashionable. Over the next 20 years, Theodore Payne narrowed hisnursery business until he was devoting himself almostexclusively to native plants and wildflowers (even throughthe Great Depression)© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne made many importantcontacts through local scientific andnursery societies S. CA Acad. of Sciences – Botany section– long-time on Board of Directors S. CA Horticultural Institute CA Botanical Society S. CA Botanists Natural Club of S. CA Los Angeles Co. Horticultural Association(Pres.) S. CA Arboricultural Association (Pres.) And many, many others© Project SOUNDDr. AnstrutherDavidson -1860-1912 Scottish by birth; M.D. by training Botanical activities were carried outprincipally through the SouthernCalifornia Academy of Sciences andthrough its Bulletin. Served as the second president ofthe society (1892 to 1894). He was among the founders of thesociety and served as treasurer, asa member of the board of directorsand of the publication board. Inshort he was an active associate forforty-one years. Wrote ‘Plants of Los Angeles’;‘California Plants in Their Homes’© Project SOUND an important local collector,ecologist and early colleague ofTheodore Payne
  19. 19. 5/6/201319Partnership with Ralph D. Cornell - 1919 Formed 5-year partnership withRalph D. Cornell – later to beknown as the ‘Dean of AmericanLandscape Architecture’ Firm designed large landscapeprojects, some including: Pomona College Occidental College Torrey Pines Park. Washington Park for City ofPasadena.© Project SOUNDRalph D. Cornell,landscape architect1908-1972 Attended Pomona College andHarvard Graduate School ofLandscape Architecture Friendship with TP – firstintroduced when a student atPomona 1912 essay “Wanted: A GenuineSouthern California Park,” Supervising landscape architect,UCLA, 1937-72 Landscape architecture projectsincluded Pomona College (the ‘collegein a garden’), Rancho Los Cerritos(1931), Los Angeles Music Center,and La Brea Tar Pits© Project SOUND friends/Oddpartners as Cornellbecame moremainstream “In any institutional planting, thelandscape or decorative valuesare matters of first and lastimportance, since school groundsare planted primarily to achievedecorative effects.” In landscape architecture, in hiseyes, “plants become a means toan end more often than they,themselves are the achievementone seeks.” Thus, whether or not plantingswere appropriate or would requirehigh levels of irrigation was in hismind subordinated to the goal ofcreating “pleasing composition andattractive appearance”© Project SOUND in life, Cornell returned to his earliertenants – for which he’s now better known© Project SOUND ‘Cornell championed designrestraint, thoughtfulindigenous plantings, andpreservation of the nativelandscape as a culturalnecessity for posterity.’
  20. 20. 5/6/2013201922 – Move to a bigger, more rural nursery Moved nursery to 10 acres at 1969-99 Los Feliz Blvd. onland he purchased. There were several Japanese-Americannurseries there at the time.© Project SOUND© Project SOUNDCanyon Gooseberry – Ribes menziesii©2008 Zoya Akulova Coastal Ranges and Sierrafoothills from Central Ca tosouthern OR Found in moist or marshyareas growing with willowsas well as dry hillsides Redwood Forest, MixedEvergreen Forest,Chaparral between 0 and3500 feet© Project SOUNDCanyon Gooseberry – Ribes menziesii From California NativePlants, Theodore Paynes1941 catalog: "Looselybranching shrub usually 5to 8 feet high. Flowerspurplish brown and white.Succeeds best in partialshade. Deciduous in latesummer. Gallon cans, 60c."© Project SOUND
  21. 21. 5/6/201321© Project SOUNDCanyon Gooseberry Size: 4-8+ ft tall 6-8 ft wide Growth form: Woody , deciduous shrub Many-branched stems – veryprickly Loose habit – less stiff thanour Fuschia-floweredGooseberry Foliage: Typical rounded, aromaticleaves if the gooseberries©2012 Jean Pawek© Project SOUNDFlowers are fantastic Blooms: early spring – usuallyFeb. or Mar. in our area Flowers: Small purple-red and whiteflowers – similar to Fuschia-flowered Gooseberry Plants are covered withflowers in a good year – veryshowy , pretty A hummingbird favorite©2012 Jean PawekBerries Ripen in summer Ripe berries are dark red-purple - pretty Spiny (like all gooseberries) Edible (particularly ifcooked) – but not thetastiest of our native Ribes Birds gobble them up – sothey won’t go to waste© Project SOUND©2008 Jorg Fleige© Project SOUNDPlant Requirements Soils: Texture: well-drained pH: any local Light: Part-shade; remember that thisspecies is from less sunnierclimates than ours Water: Winter: adequate Summer: summer water tricky;best with indirect water (plant10-15 ft. from a lawn) Fertilizer: none needed if organicmulch used Other: use organic mulch; don’tplant near pines (harbors white pineblister rust)©2012 Jean Pawek© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College
  22. 22. 5/6/201322© Project SOUNDShade garden In shady corners of the garden Gives a woodsy feel N sides of buildings/walls Excellent for wildlife As a barrier plantPhoto credit: randomtruth / / CC BY-NC-SA Flowering GooseberryRibes speciosum© Project SOUND* Fendlers Meadow Rue – Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum© 2008 Keir Morse© Project SOUND* Fendlers Meadow Rue – Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum California from Baja/San DiegoCo. to Oregon Mostly coastal in S. CA; rare inthe Sierra foothills Locally in Santa Monica and SanGabriel Mtns. Grows along streamsides andother moist places, in forests andopen woodlands < 4000 ft.,6569,6571,6573
  23. 23. 5/6/201323© Project SOUNDCharacteristicsof Meadowrue Size: 2-3 ft tall 2-3 ft wide Growth form: Herbaceous perennial Drought deciduous; dies back toroot in summer/fall Looks somewhat like a MaidenhairFern; mounded habit Foliage: Rounded leaflets – very unusualand attractive; somewhat likeColumbine Note: foliage/roots toxic ifeaten; Infusion of leaves used externally– applied to sprains, pains. Roots: fibrous © Project SOUNDFlowers are fantastic Blooms: mid- to late spring -usually Apr-June in our area Flowers: On tall, slender stalks abovethe foliage Plants dioecious (separatemale & female plants) Male flowers slightly moreshowy; neither has petals Pink-yellow flowers danglelike little, fluffy bells –nothing else like it! Seeds: small; carrot-like© Project SOUNDPlant Requirements Soils: Texture: well-drained; fine insandy or clay pH: any local Light: Part-shade to quite shady;great for N. side of buildings Water: Winter: adequate water Summer: more water will keepit green longer; probably bestwith Water Zone 2 to 2-3 inshade Fertilizer: none to light doses fine;organic soil amendments Other: organic mulches (leaf mulchworks well); low maintenance© Project SOUNDMeadowrue: perennial filler For its interesting foliage, inshady areas of the garden Around bases of drought-tolerant trees, oaks Delicate appearance – uselike you would ferns As an attractive pot plantThalictrum fendleri and Erigeron glaucus
  24. 24. 5/6/201324By the mid-1920’s arespected native plantsman 1926 - Provided ideas and 80%of original plant materials forBlaksley (now Santa Barbara)Botanic Garden. Laid out by Frederic Clements,Elmer Bissell, and ErvannaBowen Bissell – but originalinspiration was Payne’s gardens The gardens contributorsincluded nationally-significanthorticulturists and designersKate Sessions, Lester Rowntree,Theodore Payne, Carl Purdy, andE.O. Orpet One aim was to showcase thebeauty of California nativeplants and their suitability foruse in private gardens and waterconservation© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne also appreciated thegarden potential of local desert plants© Project SOUND© Project SOUND* Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescensUSDA-NRCS PLANTS Database© Project SOUND* Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens SW north America from TX & COto CA and s. to northern Mexico In CA, mostly in foothills of drydesert mountains, 3000-7000 ft. Dry slopes, canyons, cliffs Creosote bush scrub, chaparral,coastal sage scrub and foothillwoodland Forestiera: named after CharlesLe Forestier (?-1820), an 18thcentury French physician andnaturalist, pubescens: with soft, downy hair Other common names are ElbowBush & New Mexico Privet,5250,5251
  25. 25. 5/6/201325© Project SOUNDDesert Olive is veryundemanding Soils: Texture: any, but well-drained best pH: any local (6.0-8.0) Light: full sun to part-shade; Water: Winter: needs enough for ground-water replenishment Summer: regular water first year;then Zone 1-2 to 2 Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: tolerates heat, high winds,moderate soil salinity© Project SOUNDDesert Olive makes alovely tree Use as a substitute for non-nativewhite-bark ornamentals like Olive,Aspen, Melaluca Great plant for front yard,background areas, along roadways –very tough and need little water Management: Start selective pruning in firstyear Limit to 1-5 stems; prune out therest Selectively prune each winter toprovide open habit© Project SOUNDCan be pruned andshaped, even hedged Can be sheared to areasonable hedge Mix with other species inmixed hedge or hedgerow Very adaptable and useful –could probably even beespaliered Limit water to providebetter shape & Cornus glabrata© Project SOUND* Bigelow’s Beargrass/Nolina – Nolina bigelovii
  26. 26. 5/6/201326 Hillsides and canyons of SoutheasternCalifornia, western Arizona, S. NV, BajaCalifornia and Sonora, Mexico. Desert hillsides, Creosote Bush scrub –often in very dry areas of Mojave & SonoranDeserts Especially prevalent along the LowerColorado River Valley© Project SOUND* Bigelow’s Beargrass/Nolina – Nolina bigelovii©2006 Aaron Schusteff bigelovii © Project SOUNDBigelow’s Nolina: like a very large bunch grass Size: 6-10 ft tall (with floweringstalk) 4-6 ft wide Growth form: Grass-like perennial sub-shrub Many (to 150) leaves, initiallyin basal rosette, but mayreach 5-6 ft in older plants Leafy stalk is stout, somewhatwoody Foliage: Leaves narrow, strap-like , 1-3ft long (depends on water) Often blue-green color No spines – unlike Yucca©2005 James M. Andre© Project SOUNDFlowers like Yucca Blooms: in spring (Apr-June) Flowers: Mature plants flower – notevery year Stout flowering stem abovethe foliage – like a crossbetween Yucca and PampasGrass in appearace Small, cream-colored flowers –sweetly scented ?toxins – sapoginens – causephotosensitive rash Seeds: papery capsules; wind-borne Vegetative reproduction: off-sets (pups)©2003 Charles E. Jones!i=350681445&k=5GK6jMP© Project SOUNDOne tough plant! Soils: Texture: well-drained pH: any local Light: Full sun to light shade Water: Winter: adequate Summer: very drought tolerantonce established; Water Zone1 or 1-2. Needs fall dry period Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: Rock mulch – or none Very low maintenance – plantand ignore©2006 Aaron Schusteff
  27. 27. 5/6/201327© Project SOUNDNolina: nice accent Nice accent plant in any drygarden Right at home in desert gardens,rock gardens, hot places Leaves used green or bleached inbasketry; young flowers stalkscan be baked and eaten© Project SOUND* Banana Yucca – Yucca baccata Southwestern U.S. into N.Mexico Great Basin, Mojave, SonoranDesert mountains Dry slopes and washes inJoshua Tree woodland (CA)and Pinyon-juniper woodland(elsewhere)© Project SOUND* Banana Yucca – Yucca baccata©2010 Lee Dittmann,8681,8682The Yuccas: Plants of many uses ~ 40 yucca species, all native to theNew World. Most have dry hard fruits; fruits ofbanana yucca are fleshy andsucculent. Besides food, yuccas have manyother traditional uses. The leaf blades can be woven intobaskets, used to make brushes, orwith the fleshy leaf tissue removedthe remaining stiff fibers can bemade into a combination needle andthread. The roots are prized as a naturalsoap.© Project SOUND
  28. 28. 5/6/201328© Project SOUNDBanana Yucca: dramatic accent Size: 2-6 ft tall (flower stalk taller) 2-10 ft wide (spreads slowly) Growth form: Evergreen perennial ‘sub-shrub’ –typical Yucca form Many strap-like leaves in basalrosette Foliage: Leaves 1-3 ft long – depends onwater Sharp spines on tips Roots: forms offsets (‘pups’) alongrhizomes; long-lived© Project SOUNDFabulous Yucca flowers Blooms: in spring ; usuallyApril to June Flowers: Along a stalk slightly abovethe leaves – depends onavailable moisture Flowers: cream with pink-purple blush Large for Yucca – 1-3inches – and rather fleshy Truly amazing – verypretty Flowers last ~ 2 weeks Pollinated by the nocturnalpronuba mothBanana Yucca saves it’s resources… Extended water storage isachieved through thickenedleaves and leaf bases. Banana yucca experiencescrassulacean acid metabolism(CAM), allowing carbohydratestores built up in the summerand early spring to assistduring the reproductive periodin late spring. 3-year reproductive cycle inwild; ?? In garden© Project SOUND…for flowering and producing it’s unusualfruits Thick, fleshy fruits resemblesmall bananas – hence thecommon name Contain many large flat blackseeds Are considered a SW delicacy Most often baked or roasted,then eaten like a sweet potato© Project SOUND
  29. 29. 5/6/201329© Project SOUNDEasy Yucca to grow  Soils: Texture: well drained; rocky-sandy best pH: any local Light: full sun to light shade –sun-tolerant Water: Winter: good rains orirrigation Summer: drought tolerant;looks best with monthly water Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: requires little care –bestif mostly ignored; carefully removespent stalks (wear eye protection;long leather gloves)©2010 Lee Dittmann© Project SOUNDDramatic accent Desert-themed or rock gardens As a spiny deterrent plant Large containers Habitat or edibles garden Where ever you would plant aYucca or Agave Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Gardens 1927 - Assisted Mrs. SusannaBixby Bryant with siting anddesign of original RanchoSanta Ana Botanic Garden inOrange County – small role. Helped to relocate the Gardento Claremont in 1951. 1920-30’s - Maintained privateestate landscapingcommissions throughoutSouthern California: BeverlyHills, Bel Air, Pasadena, andSanta Barbara© Project SOUND on n. side of Santa Ana Cynin what is now Yorba Linda1939 – Native Plant Garden at Cal Tech Created native plantgarden with ~176 speciesat California Instituteof Technology, Pasadena(later site of NormanChurch Laboratory). Continued publishingarticles and speaking aboutloss of wild flowers in manyvenues – gardening andscientific© Project SOUND
  30. 30. 5/6/201330 Showcasing the delights of the Southern California landscape,this original 8-acre garden was designed and dedicated in 1959by a core group of California native plant lovers who wanted tocause a revival of interest in California flora, educate schoolchildren in native plants and create a demonstration landscapefor home owners.© Project SOUND – Descanso GardensThe hand of Theodore Paynecan still be seen today Many people contributed to thecreation of this new garden: Theodore Payne led the way bydonating 1,000 plants andplaying a major role in its design. Percy Everett of Rancho SantaAna Botanic Gardens offeredmany plants and expertise aswell. Today, some of those originalplantings are still here and manyothers have been added throughthe years.© Project SOUND you haven’t visitedthe DescansoGardens ‘CA NativeGarden’ you’ve got togo see it!© Project SOUND sure to appreciate Theodore Payne© Project SOUND
  31. 31. 5/6/2013311960 - Theodore Payne Foundation Founded and incorporated in 1960,the Theodore Payne Foundationpromotes the understanding andpreservation of California nativeflora. founded and incorporated upon Paynesretirement to carry on his lifes work. Our mission is: To promote and restore Californialandscapes, and habitats To propagate and make availableCalifornia native plants and wildflowers To educate and acquire knowledge aboutCalifornia flora and natural history© Project SOUND "Well I hope for the Foundation that we’ll be able to grow a largevariety of native trees and shrubs and wildflowers and bulbs andferns and everything and supply them to the people at reasonablerates; to give some to schools and Boy Scouts and Campfire Girlsand so on. Also to enter into a campaign of education; educate thepeople to the value of these beautiful things that God’s given usin this beautiful California." © Project SOUND – end of active career as seedsman,but still a teacher After 58 years in business, turnedover stock of seeds, plants andequipment to The Foundation tocarry on his work and vacated LosFeliz property. Continued to lecture, consult – andwrite his memoirs© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne Wildlife Sanctuary - 1961 Dedication of 320 acres in Antelope Valley near Llano as ‘TheTheodore Payne Wildlife Sanctuary’ by LA Co. Board ofSupervisors The sanctuary supports thick stands of Joshua trees and CreosoteBush Scrub and provides hiking opportunities and lovely landscape.© Project SOUND
  32. 32. 5/6/2013321963 – Theodore Payne dies Dedication of temporary site forFoundation at Whittier Narrows, Jan. 19. “Man of the Year” Award by CaliforniaGarden Clubs, Inc. Died in Los Angeles on May 6. Papers and library donated to Foundation.© Project SOUNDBut that’s hardly the end of the story…© Project SOUNDTheodore Payne Foundation continues toinspire a new generation of gardeners© Project SOUND‘Demonstration Gardens’ – a long tradition© Project SOUND
  33. 33. 5/6/201333Theodore Payne’s Legacy Introduced into cultivation over 430 species ofwild flowers and native plants during his lifetime.© Project SOUNDA selection of plants introduced intocultivation in California© Project SOUND Acer negundo Adenostoma fasciculatum Adenostoma sparsifolium Aesculus californica Agave desertii *Alnus rhombifolia Artemisia californica Atriplex canescens Atriplex lentiformis ssp. lentiformis Atriplex polycarpa Brickellia californica Calycanthus occidentalis Ceanothus crassifolius Ceanothus cuneatus var. cuneatus Ceanothus cyaneus Ceanothus impressus Ceanothus leucodermis Ceanothus megacarpus var. megacarpus Mimulus aurantiacus Mimulus cardinalis Nolina bigelovii Nolina parryi Oenothera californica Oenothera elata ssp. hookeri Olneya tesota Penstemon azureus Penstemon centranthifolius Penstemon heterophyllus var.heterophyllus Penstemon palmeri var. palmeri Penstemon spectabilis var.spectabilis Philadelphus lewisii Pickeringia montana var. montana Pinus attenuata Pinus monophyllaImagine your garden without… Delphinium cardinale Dendromecon rigida Dudleya pulverulenta ssp.pulverulenta Encelia californica Encelia farinosa Epilobium canum ssp. canum Eriogonum arborescens Eriogonum cinereum Eriogonum crocatum Eriogonum fasciculatum var.fasciculatum Eriogonum giganteum var. giganteum Eriogonum grande var. rubescens Eriogonum parvifolium© Project SOUNDMother Nature’s BackyardDemonstration Garden1/3 of plants introduced by TPSo get out and see a new (to you) garden© Project SOUND
  34. 34. 5/6/201334Try growing a new native plant from seed© Project SOUNDRead about Theodore Payne Theodore Payne in His Own Words:A Voice for California Native Plants.Pasadena: Many Moons Press for theTheodore Payne Foundation, 2004. “Theodore Payne,” in Victoria Padilla,Southern California Gardens.Berkeley: University of CaliforniaPress, 1961, 162-167. Or listen to same tapes of talks andinterviews on the TPF web page© Project SOUNDMost of all, share Theodore Payne’s loveof our state treasures with others© Project SOUND