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Rosaceae 2013

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This talk discusses CA native plants in the Rose Family (Rosaceae), It was given in Nov. 2013 as part of the series 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden'

This talk discusses CA native plants in the Rose Family (Rosaceae), It was given in Nov. 2013 as part of the series 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden'

Published in: Self Improvement, Technology

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  • 1. 11/2/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND 1
  • 2. 11/2/2013 A Rose is a Rose: the family Rosaceae C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve November 2 & 5, 2013 © Project SOUND 2
  • 3. 11/2/2013 Roses have always been a source of inspiration A rose by any other name would smell as sweet. Shakespeare A rose is a rose is a rose. Gertrude Stein http://www.easy-drawings-and-sketches.com/draw-a-rose.html © Project SOUND 3
  • 4. 11/2/2013 What do all these plants have in common? Cotoneaster – non-native © Project SOUND 4
  • 5. 11/2/2013 The Rose Family The rose is a rose And was always a rose; But the theory now goes That the apple’s a rose, And the pear is, and so’s The plum, I suppose. The dear only knows What will next prove a rose. You, of course, are a rose, But were always a rose. Robert Frost © Project SOUND 5
  • 6. 11/2/2013 The Roses family: family Rosaceae  Medium size (19th largest) : 75-100 genera and ~ 3000 species  Goes back ~ 90 million years (fossil ‘roses’)  Worldwide distribution except in the arctic; greatest diversity in the north temperate regions.  Trees, shrubs and perennials – only a few annuals http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/rosaceae.htm © Project SOUND 6
  • 7. 11/2/2013 The Rose family is complex taxonomically  Old, widespread family – lots of time to diversify  First classifications were too simplistic – based on fruit characteristics (which can sometime be misleading)  We’ll come back to taxonomy when we discuss fruits next Apr. http://santabarbaraarborist.wordpress.com/2013/02/28/if-shakespeare-was-an-arborist/ © Project SOUND 7
  • 8. 11/2/2013 Economic importance of the rose family  One of the six most economically important crop plant families, and includes: apples, pears, quinces, medlars, loquats, almonds, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries and roses. http://media.mlive.com/newsnow_impact/photo/fli0918-apples29jpgcfa7644879fb210b.jpg  Many genera are also highly valued ornamental shrubs; these include Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Photinia, Potentilla, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Sorbus, Spiraea, and others. © Project SOUND 8
  • 9. 11/2/2013 Like any family, the Rose family has some ‘black sheep’  Several genera are also introduced noxious weeds in some parts of the world, costing money to be controlled.  These invasive plants can have negative impacts on the diversity of local ecosystems once established.  Such naturalised pests include Acaena, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Pyracantha, Rubus and Rosa. Cotoneaster http://goweros.blogspot.com/2011/12/invasivecotoneasters-at-fox-hole.html © Project SOUND 9
  • 10. 11/2/2013 Let’s look at some CA native Rosaceae © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND 10
  • 11. 11/2/2013 CA Wild Rose – Rosa californica http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/wildflower_watch_wk18.htm 11
  • 12. 11/2/2013 Wild roses are important habitat plants  Blooms: http://www.qty.com/anna3.html  Main season: May-Aug (but blooms intermittently in warm season)  Flowers: single pinks; color varies slightly  Important pollen source for bees and other insects  Fruits (hips)  Summer/fall  Edible; good syrups & jellies  goldfinches, bluebirds, grosbeaks, robins, mockingbirds, and sparrows-relish the hips  Plants/foliage http://static.flickr.com/29/37921551_c468a94b4a_m.jpg  Dense, spiny foliage provides good cover and nesting sites for birds 12
  • 13. 11/2/2013 Three classes of CA native wild Rosa  Thicket-Forming Roses: (Subg. Rosa, Sect. Cinnamomeae) 1. Rosa californica 2. Rosa nutkana var. nutkana 3. Rosa pisocarpa 4. Rosa woodsii  Wood and Ground Roses: (Subg. Rosa, Sect. Gymnocarpae)     5. Rosa gymnocarpa 6. Rosa spithamea 7. Rosa bridgesii 8. Rosa pinetorum  Subg. Hesperhodos  9. Rosa minutifolia © Project SOUND 13
  • 14. 11/2/2013 Interior Rose – Rosa woodsii ssp ultramontana © Project SOUND 14
  • 15. 11/2/2013 Interior Rose – Rosa woodsii ssp ultramontana  Native to much of w. North America – British Columbia to CA & NM  In CA: High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains http://archive.is/JkiE  Yellow Pine Forest, Subalpine Forest, Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Joshua Tree Woodland, wetland-riparian between 3500 and 11500 feet  Moist or seasonally wet  ? Ssp or var.?? © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND 15
  • 16. 11/2/2013 Interior Rose: much like CA Wild Rose  Size:  5-8+ ft tall  Spreading; can form thickets  Growth form: J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database     Woody shrub Upright to mounded with age Stress deciduous Sparse, straight prickles  Foliage:   Typical rose leaf (compound); smaller than garden rose Medium green; may be yellow in fall  Roots: suckers from roots – not rhizomes (as once thought) © Project SOUND 16
  • 17. 11/2/2013 Flowers: the best a wild rose can offer  Blooms: spring/summer usually May-June in our area  Flowers: ©2008 Thomas Stoughton http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/3214/rosa-woodsii-woods-rose/     Single rose Pale to medium pink Very fragrant – among the best Wonderful tea, potpourri, flavoring  Fruits (hips):   http://web.ewu.edu/ewflora/Rosaceae/Rosa%20woodsii.html Red when ripe The best tasting of any – really premium © Project SOUND 17
  • 18. 11/2/2013 The place of roses in the edibles garden  Seed dispersion – birds & mammals ©2006 Larry Blakely  Some genera in Rosaceae have fruits that are especially tempting – and high in vitamin C  Collect in fall when red and slightly soft – best after first cold snap  Rosehips make delicious: ©2009 Barry Breckling     Tea (dried) Jelly Syrup Etc. © Project SOUND 18
  • 19. 11/2/2013 Quite adaptable  Soils:  Texture: better with medium to coarse/rocky  pH: any local  Light:   ©2001 Gary A. Monroe Full sun (coast) to part-shade (hot, inland) Best flowers/fruits w/ at least morning sun  Water:  Winter: needs good rain/irrigation  Summer: fairly drought tolerant but best with some summer water (Water Zone 2 or 2-3)  Fertilizer: none/light (1/2 strength)  Other: organic mulch OK ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND 19
  • 20. 11/2/2013 Inland Rose: good if you’ve got the right spot  Good for N & E-facing slopes - even with no water  Barriers/hedges/hedgerows  Large shrub at back of beds  Try in a large container © Project SOUND 20
  • 21. 11/2/2013 What makes a rose smell like a rose?  Some roses [Damascus Rose] known for scent – used to make rose oil  It turns out the answer is complex: a number of aromatic compounds are involved http://hildablue.com/2013/03/16/how-to-recognize-quality-rosewater-and-how-to-make-your-own/ Beta-damascenone presence and quantity is considered as the marker for the quality of rose oil.  The unique ones that give the scent are: beta-damascenone, betadamascone, beta-ionone, and rose oxide.  Even though these compounds exist in less than 1% quantity of rose oil, they make up for slightly more than 90% of the odor content due to their low odor detection thresholds © Project SOUND 21
  • 22. 11/2/2013 Many uses of rose scent  Rose oil – ‘Attar of roses’  Perfume distillation  Rose water – easy to make http://www.thecraftycrow.net/2009/07/making-things-from-the-garden.html Many native roses have a lovely rose scent      Jar Rose petals (scented) Hot water Time 1 Tbsp vodka as preservative  Potpourri © Project SOUND 22
  • 23. 11/2/2013 Perhaps you want a real ‘specimen’ wild rose © Project SOUND 23
  • 24. 11/2/2013 Baja Rose – Rosa minutifolia http://qbgdocents.org/Bloom_board/Bloom_Board_May_10/IMG_0796.jpg © Project SOUND 24
  • 25. 11/2/2013 ‘The Thorny Rose Affair – Lenz, 1982   Jones was beginning a significant career as field botanists; Parry lead the expedition – experience in border surveys  4/12 - Rosa minutifolia discovered growing along the side of the road on the protected slopes of the hills just inland from the beach.  Marcus Eugene Jones 1852-1934 April, 1882 – botanizing expedition to Baja The controversy which arose and was to cause so much ill feeling between Jones and others revolved around who first discovered the rose and Jones's accusation that Parry stole his rose. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minutifolia.html Charles Christopher Parry 1823-1890 © Project SOUND 25
  • 26. 11/2/2013 Baja Rose – Rosa minutifolia  Otay Mesa east of San Diego (rare) and n. Baja (pretty common)  Chaparral, north-facing Diegan Sage Scrub ; common constituent of the coastal scrub community in northern Baja http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/map_minutifolia.html http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_Calif.html © Project SOUND 26
  • 27. 11/2/2013 Baja rose: small leaves & many prickles  Size:   4-6 ft tall 5-6 ft wide  Growth form:  ©2010 Anna Bennett   Upright to mounded stems; tangled, dense Young foliage often red-tinged Many stout, straight prickles – this one is really prickly (one proposed name: Rosa horrida  Foliage:   http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_twig_full.html Compound rose leaves, but small (< ¼ “ leaflets) and wrinkled – very unusual Drought-deciduous; re-leaf with first rains © Project SOUND 27
  • 28. 11/2/2013 Botanical terms: thorns vs. prickles  Thorn: a modified branch with a sharp point [pyracantha]  Prickle: a sharp pointed outgrowth of the epidermis (the outer ‘skin’ ) of a stem [example: rose] http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_twig_full.html © Project SOUND 28
  • 29. 11/2/2013 Flowers are bright & showy  Blooms: very early – usually Jan-Apr in w. L.A. County; tied to rain cycle  Flowers: Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database    Single rose flowers Often very bright pink, magenta color; fragrant Great for insect pollinators  Fruits :  Edible, but small and rather prickly; birds & critters don’t seem to mind  Vegetative reproduction: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Rosa_minutifolia © Project SOUND 29
  • 30. 11/2/2013 Growing roses from seed  Choose very ripe hips  Let them soften several days in water ©2010 Anna Bennett  Remove the seeds; sterilize with 5% bleach solution  Clean remaining pulp from seeds  Stratify: I use moistened coffee filters (1:1 water: hydrogen peroxide) – several months in fridge  Plant & cross your fingers http://www.hazmac.biz/050801/050801RosaMinutifolia.html © Project SOUND 30
  • 31. 11/2/2013 Requirements: think coastal Baja  Soils:  Texture: adaptable – even clays  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water: Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Winter: need adequate water  Summer: like a little summer water, esp. at monsoon time (August)  Fertilizer: likes poor soils  Other: much more adaptable to garden conditions than one might expect – even grown N. CA gardens http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/ina/roses/minut_habitat_full.html © Project SOUND 31
  • 32. 11/2/2013 Baja Rose: drier parts of the garden   Rock gardens, and climbing over boulders  Barrier hedge  http://commons.wikimedia .org/wiki/Rosa_minutifolia Erosion control on slopes With desert chaparral plants:  Backs of beds  Try in large container Enceliafarinosa, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Fremontodendron mexicanum, Mirabilis californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia apiana, and Simmondsia chinensis © Project SOUND 32
  • 33. 11/2/2013 Not all ‘Roses’ look like roses – until you know what to look for © Project SOUND 33
  • 34. 11/2/2013 Rose family members share some physical characteristics: leaves  Generally arranged spirally, but sometimes opposite  Simple or pinnately compound (either odd- or even-pinnate).  Leaf margin is most often serrate. http://www.hiltonpond.org/ThisWeek080501.html  Paired stipules are generally present (primitive feature)  Spines may be present on the midrib of leaflets and the rachis of compound leaves. © Project SOUND 34
  • 35. 11/2/2013 Rose family members also share some floral traits  Generally "showy“  They are radially symmetrical and almost always hermaphroditic (both male & female parts in same flower).  Generally have five sepals, five petals and many spirally arranged stamens. http://montana.plant-life.org/families/Rosaceae.htm Flowers in ‘parts of 5’  The bases of the sepals, petals, and stamens are fused together to form a characteristic cup-like structure called hypanthium.  Often arranged in racemes, spikes, or heads © Project SOUND 35
  • 36. 11/2/2013 Rose family members also exhibit some variability: fruits & seeds  Many fruits of the family are edible.  There are many different types of fruit; we’ll discuss these more in April 2014 Hawthorn © Project SOUND 36
  • 37. 11/2/2013 Some common CA Rosaceae genera           Adenostoma – chamise Amelanchier – serviceberry Argentina – silverweed Cercocarpus – mountain mahogany Chamaebatiaria – desert sweet Crataegus – hawthorn Fallugia – Apache plume Fragaria – strawberry Geum – avens Heteromeles – toyon © Project SOUND 37
  • 38. 11/2/2013 Some common CA Rosaceae genera           Holodiscus – oceanspray Horkelia – horkelia Lyonothamnus – Catalina ironwood Potentilla – cinquefoil Prunus – plum Purshia – bitterbrush Rosa – rose Rubus – blackberry Sorbus – mountain ash Spiraea – spirea © Project SOUND 38
  • 39. 11/2/2013 Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia 39
  • 40. 11/2/2013 Heteromeles arbutifolia 'Davis Gold'  Similar in all ways to redberried form except has yellow fruits when ripe  Reportedly also more disease resistant http://redwoodbarn.com/images/toyonyellow.jpg Note that the leaves and flowers are what you’d expect for Rose family 40
  • 41. 11/2/2013 *Redshanks – Adenostoma sparsifolium © Project SOUND 41
  • 42. 11/2/2013 *Redshanks – Adenostoma sparsifolium    Coastal CA from San Luis Obispo Co. to Baja Locally: Santa Monica, San Gabriel Mtns. dry, well-drained slopes and mesas at elevations from 1,000 to 7,000 feet (most 1,500 to 5,000 feet ) http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6681,6683 Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND 42
  • 43. 11/2/2013 Redshanks: large chaparral shrub/tree  Size:   6-18+ ft tall 10-15 ft wide  Growth form:   © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College   Large woody shrub/tree Many trunks/branches with shreddy red bark on older limbs – ‘born to burn’ Nice natural shape – rounded Moderate growth rate; lives 100+ years  Foliage:  Sclerophyllous leaves: thick, linear/narrow, sticky  Roots: has lignotubers (sprouting ©2004 Steven Perkins roots) © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences 43
  • 44. 11/2/2013 Medicinal uses of Redshanks  Used externally in the treatment of arthritis. http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ADSP  Infusion of leaves used in the treatment of colds and chest complaints, and also as a mouth wash to treat toothaches.  An infusion of dried leaves or branches used in the treatment of stomach ailments, inducing either bowel movements or vomiting.  Crushed twigs have been mixed with oil and used as a salve http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Adenostoma_sparsifolium.htm © Project SOUND 44
  • 45. 11/2/2013 What a flower show!  Blooms: in summer – usually June-Aug.  Flowers:   http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-sparsifolium   Small white/cream flowers Clearly rose flowers when you look closely On dense flowering branches – plant covered with blooms in a good year Very important pollinator plant  Vegetative reproduction: in some areas, most reproduction is now vegetative; sprouting roots © Project SOUND 45
  • 46. 11/2/2013 Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: adaptable; often grows in shallow soils in nature – likes well-drained  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water: Steven Perkins @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Winter: needs good rains or irrigation – normally gets more than here.  Summer: summer dry to occasional ‘summer monsoon’  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: organic mulch In Santa Monica Mtns http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Adenostoma_sparsifolium.htm © Project SOUND 46
  • 47. 11/2/2013 Redshanks: dramatic  Often trimmed up as a small tree to accent its form, distinctive bark  Has nice natural shape as a large shrub J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Adenostoma_sparsifolium  Not for fire-prone areas http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=26425 © Project SOUND 47
  • 48. 11/2/2013 Holly-leaf & Catalina Island Cherries Prunus ilicifolia http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantprofiles/Prunus_ilicifolia.htm 48
  • 49. 11/2/2013 Holly-leaf & Catalina Island Cherries Prunus ilicifolia  Holly-leaf Cherry (ssp. ilicifolia): southern North Coast Ranges, Central- & Southwestern California (except Channel Islands) to Baja  Catalina Island (ssp. lyoni): Channel Islands and mainland Baja California  Both: shrubs grow in the moister areas of dry chaparral shrub lands and foothill woodlands. 49
  • 50. 11/2/2013 The biggest difference is in the leaves  Holly-leaf Cherry:     Has serrated leaf margins More shrub-like 10-25 ft tall (usually) 10-20 ft wide  Catalina Island Cherry:     Has smooth leaf margins More tree-like 20-40+ ft (usually) 10-20 ft wide http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Rosaceae/Prunus_ilicifolia.html http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/catalinacherry.html 50
  • 51. 11/2/2013 Holly-leaf Cherry in nature  Often found in canyons and on north-facing slopes  alluvial fan sage scrub, chaparral, coast live oak riparian forest, coast live oak woodland, coastal sage scrub, sycamore riparian woodland, walnut woodland  Most often interspersed with other shrubs  Usually fairly slow growing  May live up to 100+ years http://www.coestatepark.com/prunus_ilicifolia_at_coe.htm 51
  • 52. 11/2/2013 © 2006 BonTerra Consulting Catalina Island Cherry on Catalina 52
  • 53. 11/2/2013 Attractive flowers & berries  Blooms:  Mar-May  Flowers small, white, clustered  Showy, lightly scented  Excellent for native pollinators  Fruits (cherries) Ripe Sept-Oct Red to dark red Big pit; sweet flesh Many birds, animals love them!  Are edible – with preparations     http://www.ecnca.org/Plants/Photo_Pages/Prunus_ilicifolia.htm 53
  • 54. 11/2/2013 You can grow your own from seed…or buy one at our fall plant sale  Fresh seed – fall  Be patient – seeds may take 4-9 months to sprout – or may sprout right away http://www.lifeandleaf.com/category/leaf/seed/ 54
  • 55. 11/2/2013 Native Cherries in the garden…almost anywhere  Make a nice, small evergreen tree  Can be pruned to suit many garden needs:  Shrub  Hedge  Screen  Great choice for scent and habitat gardens – get a lot for your money  Fine in large containers & planters  Fine on slopes/banks  Hardy: good for roadways, commercial plantings http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/images/new_botimages/large/0511_j.jpg 55
  • 56. 11/2/2013 Good hedge/screen plants  Many plants in Rosaceae – esp. those with edible fruits - can be pruned and shaped extensively  Hedged  Espaliered  So you can have native fruit trees even in a small space  More on these in 2014 56
  • 57. 11/2/2013 Native Rosaceae span a range of water requirements  Many (especially those from S. CA) are remarkably drought tolerant once established  Some actually are better with less water:  Slower growth  Better health – decreases risk of fungal and other diseases/pests  Others are ‘opportunists’  Some just need regular water to look nice in the garden © Project SOUND 57
  • 58. 11/2/2013 *Antelope Bush – Purshia tridentata ©2009 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND 58
  • 59. 11/2/2013 *Antelope Bush – Purshia tridentata  British Columbia to CA/NV/CO  San Gabriel & Bernardino Mtns. (particularly on the desert side)  Dry slopes in many plant communities with 12 to 36 inches precipitation http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgibin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77219 ©2005 Steve Matson  Lewis & Clark Expedition sent back first specimen – used by Frederick Pursh who first described it (1814) ©2010 Lee Dittmann © Project SOUND 59
  • 60. 11/2/2013 Antelope Bush: drought tolerant shrub  Size:   4-10 ft tall to 8 ft wide; usually 4-5  Growth form:  ©1987 Gary A. Monroe   Woody shrub; two forms:  Taller, mounded shrub  Low-growing (< 4 ft.) ‘groundcover’ form Many branches – dense Natural layering  Foliage:   Small, three-lobed leaves Shiny green above; light below  Roots: deep taproots; often associated w/ N-fixing bacteria ©2003 Michael Charters http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Purshia_tridentata © Project SOUND 60
  • 61. 11/2/2013 Flowers for pollinators  Blooms: late spring/early summer depending on weather  Flowers:    Small, rose-type, cream or yellow Profuse bloomer – thousands of flowers Irresistible to native pollinators  Seeds:   Large seeds for family In turban-shaped dry capsule  Vegetative reproduction: natural ©2008 Matt Below ©2010 Lee Dittmann layering; re-sprouting (some better than others – ask nursery if purchasing) ©2012 Aaron Arthur © Project SOUND 61
  • 62. 11/2/2013 Adaptable & hardy  Soils:  Texture: adaptable; best in medium-coarse  pH: 6.0-7.5  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: quite drought tolerant; probably best as Water Zone 2 ©2010 Lee Dittmann  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:   ©2012 Jean Pawek OK with organic mulch Should be pruned back by 1/3 each year to maintain vigor – normally browsed © Project SOUND 62
  • 63. 11/2/2013 Antelope Bush: a sensible choice • • • • Erosion control on dry slopes Water-wise shrub In habitat garden: insects & birds Medicinal garden: leaf poultice/wash for itches, rashes, insect bites, Leaf tea was used as a general tonic and for colds, pneumonia, liver disease, to expel worms, and as an emetic and laxative for stomach ache and constipation. Twigs, leaves, and berries were used as a laxative. ©2010 Lee Dittmann http://www.unce.unr.edu/programs/sites/nemo/lid/plantlist/plantdetails.asp?ID=40 © Project SOUND 63
  • 64. 11/2/2013 Douglas’ Spiraea – Spiraea douglasii ©2006 Steven Thorsted © Project SOUND 64
  • 65. 11/2/2013 Douglas’ Spiraea – Spiraea douglasii  Southern AK to n. California  2 var. (var. douglasii; var. menziesii)  Redwood Forest, Red Fir Forest, wetland-riparian, 0-6400 feet  Damp meadows, riparian zones, bogs, marshes, open swamps, and the margins of ponds and lakes http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45201 ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND 65
  • 66. 11/2/2013 Woodsy perennial of moist places  Size:   2-6 ft tall 4-10+ ft wide  Growth form:    Spreading herbaceous perennial Many wand-like stems Fast-growing  Foliage:   Simple, medium-green leaves; light colored below Stress-deciduous  Roots: spreads by suckers (under-ground shoots) to form dense thickets. ©2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson © Project SOUND 66
  • 67. 11/2/2013 Flowers: a gardener’s delight!  Blooms: summer – June-Sept.  Flowers:      Medium to bright pink Many tiny ‘rose’ flowers on wand-like stalks Long stamens make flower stalks appear ‘fuzzy’ Really lovely Excellent native pollinator habitat – esp. bees  Seeds:  ©2003 Michael Charters Eaten by birds and critters  Vegetative reproduction: © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/spiraea-douglasii 67
  • 68. 11/2/2013 The colors of the Rose family: limited  Members of the Rosaceae that occur in the wild NEVER have blue flowers or true red flowers  This is because the Rosaceae lacks the genes to produce true blue or pure red flower pigments.  Interestingly, they do have other genes which produce the red-orange fruits http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html © Project SOUND 68
  • 69. 11/2/2013 Spiraeas are forest plants  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:   Part-shade Dappled shade under trees  Water:  Winter: plenty; tolerates seasonally flooding  Summer: best with regular water (Water Zone 2-3 to 3); will die back at Zone 2, but will not spread as fast  Fertilizer: fine  Other: loves leaf mulch © Project SOUND 69
  • 70. 11/2/2013 Use Spiraea for:      Summer color in woodland gardens; informal hedge In large containers Under pines, redwoods On moist slopes, stream banks In any moist area of garden ©2006 Steve Matson © 2004, Ben Legler: http://nosleepingdogs.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/spiraea-douglasii-full-plant.jpg?w=470&h=783 © Project SOUND 70
  • 71. 11/2/2013 Beach Strawberry - Fragaria chiloensis ssp. pacifica © Project SOUND 71
  • 72. 11/2/2013 * Woodland Strawberry – Fragaria vesca ssp. californica © 2002 George Jackson © Project SOUND 72
  • 73. 11/2/2013 Species reminiscent of strawberries  Potentilla  Argentina  Geum  All have similar leaves  Flowers are also similar – and yellow  Grow as herbaceous groundcovers – some more spreading than others  Fruits are dry capsules USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. © Project SOUND 73
  • 74. 11/2/2013 Pacific Silverweed – Argentina egedii ssp. egedii (Potentilla anserina vars. grandis, pacifica) © 2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy http://flickr.com/photos/27830975@N05/3061843001/in/photostream/ © Project SOUND 74
  • 75. 11/2/2013 The genus Geum  ~ 40 species, mostly in the northern hemisphere, but also in southern Africa and the Andes of South America.  At least three different evolutionary clades (groups) http://www.anniesannuals.com/plt_lst/lists/general/lst.gen.asp?prodid=1487 Some species have been developed into common garden cultivars  All of the Geum species of North America have enlarged, persisting styles at the top of each ovary. In some species [Geum], the styles are straight and bristly, while in others they have feathery plumes. © Project SOUND 75
  • 76. 11/2/2013 * Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa © Project SOUND 76
  • 77. 11/2/2013 * Large-leaved Avens – Geum macrophyllum ©2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND 77
  • 78. 11/2/2013 * Large-leaved Avens – Geum macrophyllum  Much of N. America: British Columbia Great Lakes to Baja  Locally in San Bernardino Mtns  Forests, including Yellow Pine forest  Mostly moist, partially shaded areas such as moist forest openings, stream banks, meadows and shrub thickets http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26835 http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/geum_macrophyllum.jpg © Project SOUND 78
  • 79. 11/2/2013 Avens: perennial groundcover plants  Size:  < 2 ft tall (flower stalks taller)  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:   Herbaceous perennial Spreads entirely by seed – not a true vegetative spreader  Foliage:   Al Schneider @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Stress deciduous Basal leaves with long erect petioles, a larger, more or less heart-shaped terminal leaflet © Project SOUND 79
  • 80. 11/2/2013 Flowers: often mistaken for buttercups  Blooms: spring-early summer; April to June or July  Flowers:     Like a yellow strawberry or buttercup flower On flowering stems above plant – like strawberry but longer Have ‘invisible’ dark dots that are nectar guides for insects Mostly pollinated by small pollinator flies  Seeds: seeds in balls that look like pincushions – unusual; stick to clothes Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 80
  • 81. 11/2/2013 Geum vs. Potentilla (Cinquefoil): close cousins  Both:  Bright yellow, 5-petaled flowers and a distinctive calyx appearing to have 10 sepals (there are five true sepals that alternate with five narrower, sepal-like bracts).  Geum (Avens)  Pinnately compound leaves  Potentialla (Cinquefoil) –  lack the long, persistent, twisty styles of Geum.  palmately compound leaves with leaflets arranged like fingers on a palm http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Potentilla_simplex_page.html © Project SOUND 81
  • 82. 11/2/2013 Likes some water  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: 5:00-7:00 (moderate alkalinity tolerance)  Light:  Part-shade; dappled sun under trees ©2007 Matt Below  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: occasional to regular water – Water Zones 2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: fine  Other: self-sows freely in moist soils; remove seed heads if an issue Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 82
  • 83. 11/2/2013 Avens has its place     As a natural lawn substitute in moist areas – could combine with Yarrow Good groundcover under trees Around water features, rain garden As an attractive pot plant Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database ©2010 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND 83
  • 84. 11/2/2013 Small Rosaceae make great pot plants  Use a large enough container; some have extensive root systems  Use a good, well-drained potting mixture, modified for special needs (if any) http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2013/01/a-winters-tale-in-southern-california.html Raised bed with assorted monkey flowers (Mimulus spp.), Large-leaved Avens (Geum macrophyllum), and annuals including Sticky Phacelia (Phacelia viscida), Wind Poppy (Stylomecon heterophylla), Baby Blue Eyes (Nemophila menziesii), and Chinese Houses (Collinsia heterophylla).  Monitor soil moisture – don’t over-water  Place where plants get good air circulation © Project SOUND 84
  • 85. 11/2/2013 Avens: an important medicinal plant © 2010, Ron Bockelman  poultice of smashed or boiled leaves for cuts, boils;  decoction of roots for stomach pain, acid;  tea from roots and chewed leaves during labor, childbirth  tea made of plant material can also be gargled to sooth sore gums.  An eyewash was also prepared from the leaves.  The Haida boiled the roots to make a steambath to treat rheumatism. © Project SOUND 85
  • 86. 11/2/2013 In summary, we’ve learned that there are many native members of the Rose family Oceanspray © Project SOUND 86
  • 87. 11/2/2013 We’ve learned some common traits shared by members of the Rose family Holodiscus discolor  Woody stems, often with prickles, or trailing stems with runners  Simple or compound leaves, often evergreen  Stipules at the base of the leaf  Large flowers with five petals or clusters of tiny flowers with five petals – flowers in ‘parts of five’  Many stamens  Often woody trees, shrubs or climbers © Project SOUND 87
  • 88. 11/2/2013 Some are surprisingly drought tolerant, while others like water & shade © 2010, Ron Bockelman © Project SOUND 88
  • 89. 11/2/2013 * Western Chokecherry – Prunus virginiana var. demissa We’ve only just gotten started with the edible members of the Rose family – but that will have to wait for another lecture http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23962 © Project SOUND 89
  • 90. 11/2/2013 Topics for 2014 – some good ones  Climate change & the home garden  Edible fruit plants  Life-friendly pest management  And much, much, more © Project SOUND 90
  • 91. 11/2/2013 Plant Sale: CSUDH Nov. 9th, 14th Go to ‘Native Plants at CSUDH’ blog for more details, plant list © Project SOUND 91
  • 92. 11/2/2013 Other fun activities - November  Potpourri from Native Plant Trimmings – 11/9 & 11/10 – Mother Nature’s Backyard  Pruning workshops:  Gardena Willows – 11/16  Mother Nature’s Backyard – 11/16 afternoon  Garden of Dreams (CSUDH) – 11/15 & 11/22 – e-mail me if coming  Natural Dyes  11/10 – exhibit – Mother Nature’s Backyard  11/17 – show & tell meeting ‘South Bay Natural Dye Circle – Madrona, 1:00-4:00 © Project SOUND 92
  • 93. 11/2/2013 So, get out and do something fun this month © Project SOUND 93
  • 94. 11/2/2013 And take some time to smell the roses © Project SOUND 94