Pollinators - 2013 - gardening sheets


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Pollinators - 2013 - gardening sheets

  1. 1. CA Buckwheat – Eriogonum fasciculatum vars. fasciculatum & foliolosum(air-ee-OG-oh-num fas-sick-yoo-LAY-tum)Family: Polygonaceae (Buckwheat Family)Native to: Central coast of CA south to Baja; var. fasciculatum grows in coastal areas in coastalscrub, coastal sage scrub and on bluffs. Var. foliolosum on rocky/sandy flats and slopes in mixedgrassland, chaparral communities, oak and conifer woodlands.Growth characteristics: clumping sub-shrub mature height: 2-5 ft. mature width: 3-4 ft.Evergreen, many-branched sub-shrub. May be upright or more reclining. Leaves are linear, darkgreen on top and white beneath, in bundles (fascicles – hence the name).Blooms/fruits: Blooms off and on throughout the year, but mostly from May to Nov. Flowers aresmall, pink-white, in dense clusters. Very showy in bloom! Seed heads are rust-brown, also quiteshowy. Plant looks nice most of the year.Uses in the garden: Plant is often used in habitat gardens. Is nice paired with other local nativeshrubs and perennials. Does well as a groundcover on hills and slopes. Cultivars BruceDickinson, ‘Theodore Payne and Warriner Lytle are all low-lying forms (around 1 ft tall). Cultivar‘Dana Point’ has brighter green leaf and mounded habit.Sensible substitute for: Non-native summer-flowering shrubs.Attracts: Excellent butterfly habitat plant: larval food source for Morman Metalmark, BrambleHairstreak, Common Hairstreak, Avalon Hairstreak. Birds love the seeds. Cover for birds, lizards.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun best; some shade OK, but will become leggy.Soil Any (sand to clay) but well-drained is best.Water Drought-tolerant but looks better with occasional summer water (Zone 1-2 to 2)Fertilizer None needed.OtherManagement: Fairly easy to maintain. Cut back to about 6” in late fall to keep it looking nice.Propagation: from seed: yes; may need cold treatment by cuttings: yesPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 12-14, 16, 17, 19, 20 6/12/09© Project SOUND
  2. 2. Toyon/CA Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia (het-er-AH-mel-eez ar-bew-ti-FO-lee-uh)Family: Rosaceae (Rose Family)Native to: Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub and Coastal Shrub communities from S. Oregon to Baja.Often on semi-dry slopes, canyon walls, back-dune areas. Var. macrocarpa – S. Channel islands.Growth characteristics: lg. evergreen shrub/tree mature height: 6-10’ (to 30’) mature width: 4-6’In nature, usually a many-branched shrub – but highly variable. Leaves and branches stiff. Naturalshape is rounded, fairly dense. Can be shaped into tree by removing lower branches. Grows taller inshady environments.Blooms/fruits: clusters of showy white blooms in summer; bright red berries in fall/winter.Uses in the garden: for erosion control on slopes. As a specimen plant (attractive year-round).Can be pruned as hedge/hedgerow. Good under/with Live Oaks and Ceanothus. Foliage used forholiday decorations. Makes a good screen or espalier – quite adaptable with pruning. Foliage makesand orange natural dye. Berries toxic if consumed in large amounts.Sensible substitute for: Non-native Pyracantha;Cotoneaster;Holly; Acacia;Myoporum.Attracts: butterflies (flower nectar); birds (esp. Cedar Waxwings, wrentits) and other songbirdsrelish the berries.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to full shadeSoil Any well-drained; any pH is fineWater Tolerates some supplemental water in summer (better fruiting); keep leaves dry(susceptible to fungal diseases)Fertilizer None neededOtherManagement: prune yearly (Feb-Mar) to maintain shape. Flowers/fruits borne on year old wood.Watch for fungal disease, particularly in warm, wet weather.Propagation: from seed: relatively easy in winter/spring. Soak berries in water about 1 weekthen rub through sieve to clean. Store dry seeds cool. Plant shallow. Sow 10-20 seeds/cup.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1-3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12-14, 16-21, 23-25, 28 12/5/10© Project SOUND
  3. 3. * California Hoptree – Ptelea crenulata (TEL-ee-uh kren-yoo-LAY-ta )Family: Rutaceae (Rue Family)Native to: Endemic to lower elevations of northern California’s North Coast Ranges, Cascade RangeFoothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area ; in Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forestbetween 0 and 2000 feet.Growth characteristics: woody shrub/small tree mature height: 10-15 ft. mature width: 5-15 ft.Winter-deciduous woody shrub or small tree. Bark smooth, gray. Leaves medium-green, shiny andscented (like citrus which is in same family). Pleasant, woodsy appearance. Handling foliage maycause mild skin rash (as with many citrus).Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring – usually April-May. Flowers white, sweetly fragrant and showy inclusters. Flowers resemble those of lemon or orange tree. Fruits unique: have papery wings.Uses in the garden: Most suitable as a shade tree or large shrub. Can take growing in a lawn.Excellent addition to the habitat garden – attracts wide range of pollinators and other insects. Niceaddition to the fragrance garden – sweet and citrusy.Sensible substitute for: Non-native tree/shrubs.Attracts: Excellent insect habitat; attracts a wide range of insects and the birds that eat them.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to part-shade (best in hot, inland gardens)Soil Most textures; most local pH to 8.0.Water Likes regular water; Water Zone 2-3 or 3 in our area.Fertilizer Wouldn’t hurt it – try a low dose.Other Fine with organic mulch.Management: Prune out dead branches as needed. Can be shaped/pruned up if desired in winter.Propagation: from seed: fresh seed; ?? stratification by cuttings: semi-soft wood, summer.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 13 5/19/13© Project SOUND
  4. 4. Coffeeberry – Frangula (Rhamnus) californica (FRAN-gyou-luh ka-li-FOR-ni-ka)Family: Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn Family)Native to: Western U.S. from S.W. OR to CA, NV, AZ. In CA, foothills of coastal ranges, Sierras &desert mountains; open slopes and shaded canyons, Coastal-sage scrub, chaparral, woodlands,forests and coastal strand below 3500 (to 6000), usually in shade and frequently near streams.Growth characteristics: woody shrub/small tree mature height: 6-10 ft. mature width: 6-10 ft.Woody shrub, evergreen, growth pattern & shape very dependent on local conditions. Leaves shiny,light green becoming darker green, often with rolled edges. Bark brown or reddish. Moderate torapid growth. Long life-span (100s of years in wild).Blooms/fruits: Blooms in late spring (Apr-June). Flowers small, white, fairly inconspicuous. Juicyberries ripen to orange/red and finally to black in August – October – quite showy against the greenfoliage. Berries will stain concrete.Uses in the garden: Makes a wonderful hedge, screen or include in a hedgerow. Excellent habitatplant. Useful for erosion control on dry, steep hillsides. Beautiful foundation shrub, parkway orborder plant, particularly in areas that get partial sun. Cultivars: Mound San Bruno, Salt Point,‘Leatherleaf’ & ‘Seaview’ are more low-growing; Eve Case, Bonita Linda are garden-adapted.Sensible substitute for: Non-native shrubs like Carissa, Cotoneaster, Ligustrum, Myoporum,Oleander, Photinia,Pittosporum, Raphiolepis and Xylosma.Attracts: Excellent bird and insect habitat. Dense foliage for cover. Berries attract foraging andnesting songbirds: Mockingbirds, Quail, Thrushes, Robins, Finches, Towhees, Thrashers and Jays.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to part shade.Soil Rocky or sandy best, but fine in well-drained soils if not over-watered. pH: 5.0-8.0.Water Best with occasional summer water (Zone 2); quite drought tolerant.Fertilizer NoOtherManagement: Pretty easy. Can prune, hedge or shape if desired. Fairly disease/pest free.Propagation: from seed: fresh seed best; fairly easy by cuttings: semi-softwoodPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12-14, 16, 20-24 1/29/11© Project SOUND
  5. 5. Salt Marsh Baccharis – Baccharis douglasii (BAK-uh-riss dug-LASS-ee-eye )Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower Family)Native to: West Coast of N. America from OR to Baja. In CA in lower coastal elevations and Sierrafoothills; coastal salt marsh, coastal salt scrub, moist places near streams to 2500 in Coastal SageScrub, Northern Coastal Scrub, Redwood Forest, Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forest.Growth characteristics: spreading sub-shrub mature height: 4-5 ft. mature width: 6-8ft. Spreading sub-shrub with many erect stems from rhizomes. Foliage evergreen if watered,medium green and sticky-glandular (quite similar to Mulefat).Blooms/fruits: Dioecious (separate male/female plants. Blooms off and on from July into falldepending on soil moisture. Flower heads similar to Mulefat in appearance, in clusters at the ends ofstems. Flowers attract a wide range of insect pollinators.Uses in the garden: Most suitable for wetland, bog or rain gardens. Excellent choice for potsincluding a ‘wetland in a pot’ garden. Pretty and green. One of the best native plants for insects –fascinating to watch. Plant used medicinally to disinfect wounds (infusion or dried leaf powder).Sensible substitute for: Non-native pond/wetland plants.Attracts: Excellent insect habitat plant. Food source for American Painted Lady, Buckeyes andAcmon Blue butterflies . Flowers and foliage attract a wide variety of insects & insect-eating birds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to part-shade.Soil Any texture; any local pH. Tolerates salty soils/brackish water.Water Likes water, but fairly drought tolerant once established. Probably looks best withsemi-regular water (Water Zone 2-3 to 3) but will survive on little.Fertilizer Not particular – but none neededOther Likes a leaf mulch (typical wetland plant)Management: Plant in a container to keep from spreading. Container plants need dividing once ayear in spring. Other than that, not much management required.Propagation: from seed: yes - fresh by cuttings: easy from divisions.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 2, 3, 13 5/19/13© Project SOUND
  6. 6. Saltmarsh Fleabane – Pluchea odorata ssp. odorata (PLOO-shuh oh-dor-AY-tuh)Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower Family)Native to: Much of southern U.S. to S. America, Caribbeans. In CA, mostly w. of Sierras, but also ins. desert areas; common in moist soil including saline valley bottoms, coastal salt marshes,freshwater marshes, washes & riparian areas.Growth characteristics: clumping sub-shrub mature height: 2-4 ft. mature width: 2-3 ft.Semi-woody sub-shrub with faint camphor-like fragrance. Leaves rounded to lance-shaped, gland-dotted, clustered towards the branch tips. Stress-deciduous (looses leaves in drought; cold); maybe an annual in colder climates. Plants have many, upright stalks. Spreads via rhizomes.Blooms/fruits: Blooms in late summer through fall (July-Aug through Oct.). Flowers typical ofSunflower family. Fragrant, pink/lavender flower heads are numerous in dense, flat-topped clustersat ends of branches – quite showy and unique, especially in Fall. Seeds have fluffy bristles.Uses in the garden: Excellent choice for moister areas of garden (rain gardens; swales; underbirdbath; etc). Fine along streams, near ponds. Does well in large containers, but will be smallerthan in the ground. Great fall habitat plant! Used medicinally in Caribbean countries. Crushedleaves serve as an insect repellant.Sensible substitute for: Non-native fall-blooming plants like chrysanthemums.Attracts: Excellent bird & pollinator habitat. Provides cover and seeds for bird food. Nativepollinators love the nectar.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Quite adaptable; full sun to fairly shadySoil Just about any except very coarse/rocky; alkaline and salty soils are fineWater Prefers regular water but ok (will go dormant) with less summer water; Zone 2 to 3Fertilizer Not needed, but not a problem; fertilize lightly if grown in containerOtherManagement: Prune back in winter if leggy. Will spread via rhizomes, so may want to contain.Propagation: from seed: direct seed in fall; may benefit from pre-chill by cuttings: probablyPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 2, 6, 10, 16, 20, 21 12/12/10© Project SOUND
  7. 7. Cliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis var. tenuifolia (mal-uh-COTH-rix saks-A-til-iss)Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower Family)Native to: South Coast & Transverse Ranges of S. California; coastal strand and coastal scrub andcanyons, coastal-sage scrub.Growth characteristics: perennial sub-shrub mature height: 2-5 ft. mature width: 3-5+ ft.Open sub-shrub with woody base and mostly herbaceous branches. Leaves mostly basal, coarsely-toothed somewhat like a dandelion or a white-flowered Chicory. Branches are wire-like. Summerdeciduous with no summer water.Blooms/fruits: Blooms much of the year in lower elevations (Mar-Nov) depending on rainfall.Flowering heads typical of sunflower family, white with pink striping, solitary along the wire-likebranches. Quite showy, as there are often many blooms at one time.Uses in the garden: Right at home in the water-wise garden. Does well on slopes and in rockgardens, near rock walls or fences. Airy-looking white flowers mix well in perennial beds. Probablyfine in large pots or planters. Flowers are a refreshing contrast to dark leaves of native shrubs.Sensible substitute for: Non-native perennial sunflowers like Asters.Attracts: Good bird, butterfly and insect habitat: provides Fall nectar and seeds for food. Rabbitslike foliage.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun best; light shade probably fine.Soil Probably any texture or local pHWater Little summer water once established (Zone 1/2)Fertilizer NoneOtherManagement: Little management needed. Hardy plant. Cut back if it gets straggly.Propagation: from seed: ? germination improved by smoke – but fresh seed has good germinationwith no treatment. Plant in prepared bed in spring by cuttings: ? probablyPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 2, 10, 11 12/9/10© Project SOUND
  8. 8. Hooker’s Evening Primrose – Oenothera elata ssp. hirsutissima & hookeri(ee-no-THEE-ruh el-AH (or LAY)-tuh)Family: Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family)Native to: Much of California & U.S. southwest (ssp. hirsutissima) and S. CA (ssp. hookeri);generally moist or seasonally moist places, meadows, bluffs.Growth characteristics: herbaceous biennial/perennial mature height:3-6 ft. mature width: 4 ft.Herbacious biennial that may be a short-lived perennial or even an annual in our climate. In nature,first year is just a rosette of leaves – flowers the second year. Basal leaves are large (to 6”) gray-green. Mature plant has one main stalk with many side branches.Blooms/fruits: Blooms for long period in summer into fall (July or Aug though Oct.). Blooms opensequentially. Blooms are large (1 inch), bright lemon-yellow, showy. Flowers open in lateafternoon and remain open until sun hits them the next morning. Nice summer floral color.Uses in the garden: Most often used in natural plantings, but fine in other dry garden settings.Good with native grasses, annual & perennial wildflowers. Just remember that it gets big & it re-seeds. Roots can be cooked and eaten. Young foliage can be eaten as raw or cooked greens.Sensible substitute for: Non-native Evening Primroses.Attracts: Excellent habitat plant: provides nectar for moths, large bees & hummingbirds & seedsfor seed-eating birds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to part-shadeSoil Light to medium soils best; does great in sandy/rocky soilsWater Wide range of tolerance: Zone 1-2 to 2-3 (little to occasional summer water)Fertilizer None needed; but not a problemOtherManagement: Simplicity itself to grow from seed. Re-seeds very well – just pull up the ones youdon’t want in late spring.Propagation: from seed: in prepared beds, fall to spring. No pretreatment required.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 2, 5, 8, 10, 12-14, 16, 20 12/10/10© Project SOUND
  9. 9. * California Evening Primrose – Oenothera californica (ee-no-THEER-a ka-li-FOR-ni-ka)Family: Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family)Native to: Southwestern U.S. from central Ca to Baja; sandy/gravelly areas, dunes, desert scrub topinyon/juniper or ponderosa-pine woodlands.Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1 ft. mature width: 2-5+ ft.Herbaceous perennial with slender rootstock. Spreads via root laterals, seed. Leaves medium-green, initially in basal rosette. Stalks initially upright, then reclining to almost vine-like. Stressdeciduous – can die back during summer drought.Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring – usually Apr-May in our area. Flowers are large, pink-white andsweetly fragrant. Plant is very showy in bloom, blends in otherwise.Uses in the garden: Most useful in mixed beds with other natives – grasses, shrubs, perennials andannual wildflowers. Good choice for parking strip. Nice in pots or planters placed where you canenjoy the fragrant flowers. White flowers mix well with other flowering natives.Sensible substitute for: Non-native Primroses, white-flowered perennials.Attracts: Excellent butterfly & moth habitat – good nectar source.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to part-sun (in hot gardens).Soil Any well-drained – rocky & sandy are great; any local pH including alkali.Water Drought tolerant, but more blooms with a little water; Zone 2 probably optimal.Fertilizer Not needed.OtherManagement: Cut back dead stems in fall/winter, leaving about 4 inches. Easy – just weedaround it. Will spread, but not aggressive in garden setting.Propagation: from seed: probably easy in spring by cuttings: divisions in late winterPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 10, 13, 16, 20 2/9/11* CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county © Project SOUND