Planning 'Hummingbird Heaven' with water- wise hummingbird plants - 2014 - final

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Planning a hummingbird garden using California native and other water-wise plants appropriate for S. California gardens. Part of the lecture series 'Out of the Wilds and into Your Garden'.

Planning a hummingbird garden using California native and other water-wise plants appropriate for S. California gardens. Part of the lecture series 'Out of the Wilds and into Your Garden'.

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  • 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2014 (our 10th year)
  • 2. © Project SOUND ‘Hummingbird Heaven’: creating an elegant water-wise garden for hummingbirds C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve August 2 & 5, 2014
  • 3. © Project SOUND California is a migratory route or year round residence for at least six members of the hummingbird family, more than any other state in the U.S.
  • 4. © Project SOUND Anna’s Hummingbird  Feeds on a variety of flowers as well as insects and spiders - eats more arthropods than most hummingbirds.  Particularly likes Salvia species, (Sage), particularly Hummingbird Sage (Salvia spathacea).  Likes to get a drink on hot days.  They especially like bird baths that drip so they can hover and sip water as it runs over the edge.  They will also perch on the edge and drink as other birds do but they only sit still for a minute http://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds /Hummingbirds/Anna's_Hummingbird/An na's_Hummingbird.htm http://identify.whatbird.com/obj/167/_/An nas_Hummingbird.aspx Known for its red head. These feathers are only visible at a certain angle. This allows the male Anna's Hummingbird to hide when he needs to and show off when it suits him.
  • 5. © Project SOUND Allen’s Hummingbird  Common in brushy woods, gardens & meadows of coastal California  Male highly aggressive and territorial. Hot- tempered despite its diminutive stature, a male Allen's Hummingbird will chase other males from its territory, as well as any other hummingbird species  Eats mainly nectar (occasionally eating spiders and insects it finds in flowers). The spiders and insects provide a source of protein.  Need nectar sources with high amounts of sugar to support their incredibly high metabolisms.  Must visit approximately one thousand flowers per day and needs to consume more than twice its own weight in nectar each day.  Has very general nesting requirements - will nest in trees, shrubs, or herbs. Nests are very small and tightly woven cups. http://hummingbirds.arizona.edu/Web%20pictures/Allen's%20male_salal_Melton.png http://www.shawcreekbirdsupply.com/allens_hummingbird_map.htm
  • 6. © Project SOUND
  • 7. Most hummingbird garden plans look something like this © Project SOUND http://www.michigandnr.com/publications/pdfs/huntingwildlifehabitat/landowners_guide/habitat_mgmt/backyard/Special_Gardens.htm
  • 8. Tohono Chul Park – Tucson AZ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.gogobot.com/tohono-chul-park-tucson-attraction http://arizonaforboomers.com/
  • 9.  ‘This garden is planted with salvia, desert honeysuckle, desert willow and many other hummingbird- friendly plants.  Hummingbirds are drawn to sweet, flute-shaped flowers, which are perfect for the birds’ long, narrow beaks.  You’re sure to see a “hummer” flitting from flower to flower.’ © Project SOUND Tohono Chul –Hummingbird Garden http://sabinocanyonblog.blogspot.com/2009/03/whats-blooming-at-tohono-chul.html
  • 10. Even the restaurant attracts hummingbirds at Tohono Chul Park © Project SOUND http://www.soaznonprofits.org/tucsons-worst-best-kept-secret/
  • 11. Site Map – front yard © Project SOUND garage house 40.5’ 40’
  • 12. Site Map – front yard © Project SOUND garage house 10 ft 8 ft15 ft 6 ft 4
  • 13. Physical characteristics & constraints  Sandy loam soil – well-drained but dries quickly  Front yard – N-facing; back is S-facing and somewhat hot  Water Zones:  Front yard 2 to 2-3;  Back yard 1-2 to 2 © Project SOUND http://www.estately.com/listings/info/2062-w-234th-street
  • 14. Hummingbird needs in a nutshell  food—75% nectar, 25% protein from small insects and spiders and some pollen  water—they love to zip through moving water, such as a birdbath fountain, mist sprayer, or garden sprinkler  cover—from predators and for nesting (as well as nesting materials), and  perches—they spend 60–80% of each day perching, surveying their territory and dozing. © Project SOUND http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/ Anna's_Hummingbird_-_male_flying.jpg
  • 15. What expert California hummingbird gardeners have learned  Hummingbirds prefer a mixed diet of nectar from multiple sources.  Hummingbirds need a source of nectar throughout the season (choose plants with different bloom seasons).  A yard needs between 400 and 1000 flowers to support one bird. © Project SOUND Fortunately, most neighborhoods have at least some gardens with nectar plants
  • 16. What expert California hummingbird gardeners have learned  Attractive blooming plants should lean towards reds & purples  In addition to native plants, hummingbirds use common garden plants such as Fuchsia, Salvia, Nicotiana, Agastache, Bee Balm, Columbine, Scarlet Gilia , Hyssop, Pride of Madiera and Red Hot Poker.  Penstamons are especially attractive because of their high nectar content. © Project SOUND
  • 17. Plant characteristics: ‘Hummingbird Heaven’  Must attract hummingbirds  Bloom season through year (combination of plants)  Some evergreen background plants – at least in front yard  Use vertical space wisely  Shade tree for backyard  Bright colored flowers: reds, oranges, purples © Project SOUND http://www.estately.com/listings/info/2062-w-234th-street
  • 18. What expert California hummingbird gardeners have learned  Hummingbirds need safe places to perch & hide – dense trees and shrubs of any kind, including many CA native species  Hummingbirds prefer the native species for nesting. © Project SOUND
  • 19. © Project SOUND For the front yard, need to consider scale
  • 20. Front yard – need small ‘tree’ and some low evergreen shrubs as backdrop  Common evergreen choices – Water Zone 2 to 2-3  Manzanita (Arctostaphylos)  CA lilac (Ceanothus)  CA Coffeeberry  Hollyleaf redberry  Coyote bush (Baccharis pilularis)  Lemonadeberry  Pacific wax myrtle – Myrica  Prunus ilicifolia  Pines/junipers © Project SOUND  Seasonally deciduous  Ribes  Sambucus
  • 21. Large (tree-like) Ceanothus  Ceanothus arboreus  Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’  Ceanothus ‘Trewethin Blue’  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus ‘Snow Flurry’ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.goldrushnursery.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/plants.plantDetail/plant_id/130/index.htm http://www.contracosta.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24340&return=l12
  • 22. Tree-like manzanitas  Arctostaphylos glauca (and cultivars  A. ‘Lester Rowntree’  A. densiflora ‘Howard McMinn’  A. bakeri 'Louis Edmunds‘ © Project SOUND A. bakeri ‘Louis Edmunds’ http://www.californianativeplants.com/index.php/catalog/item/arctostaphylos-bakeri-louis- edmunds A. densiflora ‘Howard McMinn’ http://www.pacifichorticulture.org/articles/arctostaphylos-for-pacific-northwest-gardens/
  • 23. Which ‘tree’: Manzanita or Ceanothus? Arctostaphylos (Manzanita)  Water Zone: 2  Winter-spring bloom  Small white-pink flowers  Wide range of sizes  More open habit  Long-lived once established  Excellent hummingbird plant Ceanothus (CA lilac)  Water Zone: 2  Spring bloom  Showy blue-purple flowers  Wide range of sizes  More dense  Shorter life in garden setting  Good hummingbird plant © Project SOUND
  • 24. Arctostaphylos ‘Lester Rowntree’ © Project SOUND http://www.cnps.org/cnps/grownative/tips/pruning03-levin.php Conclusion: perhaps a little out of scale - too large and heavy-looking for site
  • 25. © Project SOUND * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylos densiflora © 2006 Steve Matson
  • 26. © Project SOUND Vine Hill Manzanita is a winner..  Size:  4-8 ft tall (cultivars somewhat outside this range)  4-6+ ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub; actual form depends on local conditions  Cultivars range from tree-form to low groundcover  Moderate growth rate  Bark an attractive red-brown  Foliage:  Evergreen  Leaves leathery, elliptic, upright, medium green http://www.elnativogrowers.com/images/Photos/arcdenhm_trunk.JPG http://farm1.static.flickr.com/171/419662011_8048513537.jpg?v=0
  • 27. © Project SOUND An adaptable Manzanita  Soils:  Texture: quite adaptable – more so than other Manzanitas – takes clay soils  pH: any local; slightly acidic is best  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: tolerates seasonal flooding  Summer: likes to be fairly dry – Zone 1-2 to 2 once established  Fertilizer: likes poor soils; fine with organic mulch
  • 28. © Project SOUND Vine Hill manzanita  Train as an attractive tree  Use as a large accent shrub  Shear as a formal hedge – or leave it more informal  Some cultivars even make nice evergreen groundcovers ‘Howard McMinn’ cultivar http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/arcdenhm.htm http://www.nativeson.com/images/plants/arctostaphylossunset.jpg
  • 29. © Project SOUND ‘Sentinel’ cultivar  8-10 ft tall & ft wide; upright habit  Very ‘garden-tolerant’  One of the easiest Manzanitas to grow http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-densiflora-sentinel-manzanita
  • 30. © Project SOUND ‘Howard McMinn’ cultivar  5-8+ ft tall & wide  Readily available  Very tolerant of garden conditions; long-lived (50+ years)  Often trained as a small tree  ‘White Lanterns’ is more dense http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantprofiles/Arcto_HowardMcMinn.htm http://www.elnativogrowers.com/images/Photos/arcdenhm_lsp_shrub.JPG http://www.pacifichorticulture.org/articles/arctostaphylos-for-pacific-northwest-gardens/
  • 31. Aesthetic and other considerations when choosing a manzanita  Open or dense growth pattern  Growth speed  Foliage color  Flower color  Size/color of fruits  ‘Garden hardiness’ – length of time used in gardens © Project SOUND
  • 32. © Project SOUND Vine Hill manzanita - too dense?
  • 33. © Project SOUND *Baker’s manzanita – Arctostaphylos bakeri
  • 34.  Narrow endemic – small area of Sonoma County  Rare/endangered in wild  Chaparral and woodlands, in open areas – generally on serpentine soils  First described by Alice Eastwood in 1934  Much debate on taxonomy  AKA Arctostaphylos stanfordiana bakeri © Project SOUND *Baker’s manzanita – Arctostaphylos bakeri ©1995 David Graber http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3457
  • 35. © Project SOUND Small tree size  Size:  6-10 (usually 6-8) ft tall  6-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Large shrub/small tree  Upright & open – often used for shape  Nice branch structure – and dark (purple/brown) bark  Foliage:  Medium green  Leaves simple, oval, held mostly upright – may be rough or fuzzy http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Arctostaphylos_bakeri#me diaviewer/File:Arctostaphylos_bakeri_ssp._bakeri_- _University_of_California_Botanical_Garden_-_DSC09037.JPG http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-bakeri/
  • 36. © Project SOUND Manzanita flowers  Blooms: early spring – usually Feb-Mar in S. CA, but may be even earlier  Flowers:  Small, urn-shaped flowers  In dangling clusters  Pink (light to medium)  Attract hummingbirds and long-tongued butterflies, bees  Fruits:  Dryish red-brown drupe  Can be used to make ‘cider’, jelly, syrup, ‘mush’  Fruit-eating birds will take up the slack
  • 37. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained  pH: slightly acidic  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: needs plenty – supplement as needed  Summer: needs some; Water Zone 2  Fertilizer:  none; likes poor soils  Thin organic mulch/leaf litter  Other:  Prune up when young if desired; remove dead branches©1995 David Graber
  • 38. Arctostaphylos bakeri ‘Louis Edmunds’  Natural variant from N. Coast introduced into gardens in 1962  Lg shrub/small tree - to 10 feet tall and will spread 6 – 8 feet.  Open habit; nice branch structure  Small light gray-green leaves.  Adapts to many climates; full sun to part- shade & tolerates more water than most manzanitas, but is drought tolerant  Excellent for a screen or as a focal point in almost any garden.  AKA Arctostaphylos stanfordiana bakeri 'Louis Edmonds' © Project SOUND http://plantplanet.wordpress.com/2010/12/29/005-arctostaphylos-bakeri-louis-edmunds-louis- edmunds-manzanita/
  • 39. Why choose Manzanita cultivars?  Because they have better size, shape, color, etc.  Because they often are better adapted to garden conditions (and therefore more likely to thrive in your garden)  Garden tolerance - cultivars are often more tolerant of:  A little extra water  Soils that are not perfectly drained  Heat and cold  Salinity and higher pH © Project SOUND
  • 40. Which Manzanita to choose? ‘Howard McMinn’  Adaptable  Good track record in gardens  Available  Rather dense foliage ‘Louis Edmonds  Adaptable  Good track record in gardens  Available  More open foliage © Project SOUND
  • 41. Tohono Chul – open shade with flowers © Project SOUND http://davidandlindab.blogspot.com/2011/04/tohono-chul-park.html
  • 42. Island Alumroot – Heuchera maxima J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 43. Growth requirements – Island Alumroot  Sun: Full sun on the coast, part shade anywhere  Soils:  Any well-drained – sandy is best  Any pH except very acidic  Nutrients: organic supplements, mulches are useful  Water:  regular water to establish  two to four times a month (especially in summer and at inland locations) to keep plants looking green and lengthen bloom.  Are fairly drought tolerant in shady sites – just look a little raggedy with summer drought  Maintenance:  Mulch  Remove dead foliage  Divide every 3-5 years – when flowering decreases http://www.gardenbuddies.com/forum/messages/4314/6145.html
  • 44. © Project SOUND Remember, Manzanitas are slow-growing And our Heucheras will need some shade
  • 45. © Project SOUND We’ll need a temporary groundcover
  • 46. © Project SOUND That’s better
  • 47. © Project SOUND The end result will be lovely and neat
  • 48. © Project SOUND
  • 49. Fortunately, we have the ‘Ceanothus list’ © Project SOUND
  • 50. Groundcover ceanothus  * * Ceanothus “Joyce Coulter’  * * Ceanothus ‘Centennial’  ** Ceanothus gloriosus ‘Blue Jeans’  ** Ceanothus maritimus ‘Frosty Dawn’  ** Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. repens ‘Ken Taylor’  ** Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. repens ‘Louis Edmunds’  Likely others if we asked a Theodore Payne Foundation or Tree of Life Nursery © Project SOUND
  • 51. Groundcover ceanothus: several choices © Project SOUND Ceanothus “Joyce Coulter’ http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ceanothus-joyce-coulter Ceanothus ‘Centennial’ http://www.monrovia.com/plant-catalog/plants/3260/centennial-hybrid-wild-lilac/ Ceanothus griseus horizontalis ‘Yankee Point’ – trimmed low http://www.landscapestandards.com/index.php?title=Lawn_Alternatives
  • 52. Managing our low-growing ceanothus  Many groundcover species flower only once a year, in spring.  Everything that has flowered should be pruned immediately afterwards to keep the growth compact  All spring-flowering species should absolutely not be pruned in the autumn or winter or few flowers will be evident the following spring. © Project SOUND
  • 53. © Project SOUND Those tropical shrubs have gotta go… Carex ‘lawn’
  • 54. © Project SOUND * Rose Meadowsweet – Spiraea splendens ©2011 Kelsey Byers
  • 55. © Project SOUND Rose Meadowsweet: a garden favorite  In woodland garden with others that like a little moisture  As a groundcover under trees  In large containers – accent  In a butterfly garden Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://www.nwplants.com/business/catalog/spi_spl.html Photo credit: cascade hiker / Foter / CC BY-NC-SA
  • 56. © Project SOUND
  • 57. © Project SOUND You’ve probably noticed …. … that this month’s garden is very different from the garden we designed last month
  • 58. Tohono Chul (and other famous gardens) use an ancient design trick: repetition © Project SOUND http://www.gogobot.com/tohono-chul-park-tucson-attraction http://sabinocanyonblog.blogspot.com/2009/03/whats-blooming-at-tohono-chul.html  Definition: Repeating visual elements such as line, color, shape, texture, value or image  When applied to garden plants often referred to as ‘mass plantings’
  • 59. Repetition © Project SOUND http://www.botanicaatlanta.com/Formal%20Italian%20Garden.jpg  Used: where ever design plays a role, from photography & painting to design of all types including garden design  Why done:  To unify the total effect: provide sense of consistency  To create rhythm – sense of movement as your eye follows the pattern  Often occurs in nature – part of why we find it pleasing  Too much repetition can be boring
  • 60. Massed plantings  Advantages  Look glorious when in bloom – one of the showiest ways to garden - repetition  Fewer plant species to choose  More focused maintenance  Disadvantages  More difficult to get year- round color/flowers  May be hard to get enough plants of a given species  Risk of die-off on a massive scale  Less ecological in many cases © Project SOUND http://plantlust.com/plants/zauschneria-californica/images/28093/ http://gardendesigninc.com/gardendesignblog/?cat=23
  • 61. What expert California hummingbird gardeners have learned  Repetition works : use clusters of colorful blooms – easier for hummingbirds to spot the flowers  Contrast is also needed:  Layering blooms:  Tallest plants in back or in the center if it is accessible around the circumference of the garden. An example: Phlox  Middle size plants in the middle. An example: Bee Balm  Small plants in the front. An example: Salvia Sage  Color contrasts: © Project SOUND
  • 62. © Project SOUND * Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia © 2004, Ben Legler
  • 63. © Project SOUND Giant Hyssop is easy to grow  Soils:  Texture: just about any well- drained soil  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Will attract more pollinators in sunny spot  Water:  Winter: needs water; winter flooding is fine  Summer: likes a bit of summer water Zone 2 or 2-3 – good under a birdbath  Fertilizer: not picky – fine with organic mulch  Other: spread slowly via rhizomes
  • 64. © Project SOUND Giant Hyssop adds a pastel element to the summer garden  In mixed perennial beds – even mixed with non-natives  In areas with overspray from lawns, near fountains  In the vegetable garden or home orchard – fine with morning sun  Nice addition to a woodland garden – plant in sunny patches  Great bee plant – produces a light, minty-flavored honey  One of the best additions to the butterfly garden http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:qxNbk1BRhPMJ:forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/salvia/msg021927179459.html+Agastache+urticifolia+propag ation&cd=29&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
  • 65. Horticultural Agastache increase our options © Project SOUND Agastache cana ‘Sinning’ Agastache cana Agastache rupestris ‘Sunset’ Agastache urticifolia
  • 66. © Project SOUND Hybrid Agastache adds both repetition & contrast
  • 67. Verbena bonariensis is a staple of hummingbird gardens © Project SOUND http://www.deborahsilver.com/blog/a-particular-planting/hudas-05-27/ Comes from South America
  • 68. The Verbenas: family Verbenaceae  ~ 75 genera and 3,000 species  Includes herbs, shrubs, and trees  Mostly from tropical and warm temperate regions.  Heads/spikes/clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell  Well-known examples”  Teak -Tectona grandis (wood)  Verbena/Vervain  Lantana  Lippia or Frog Fruit  Chase Tree (Vitex) © Project SOUND http://delawarewildflowers.org/images/verbena_hastata.jpg http://www.easttennesseewildflowers.com/gallery/var/albums/Texas09/Copy_of_Lantana_TX1.jp g?m=1348906529
  • 69. Verbenas as often massed in gardens © Project SOUNDhttp://powellgardens.blogspot.com/2010/10/reflections-of-grand-growing-season.html Is there a native verbena we could use?
  • 70. © Project SOUND *Southwest mock verbena – Glandularia gooddingii http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GLGO
  • 71.  Eastern Mojave desert foothills; ne Sonoran Desert to UT, AZ, NM to n. Mexico  Sandy soils, washes, rocky slopes, 1200–2000 m. (4000-6500 ft.) © Project SOUND *Southwest mock verbena – Glandularia gooddingii http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?GLGO http://www.delange.org/Verbena/Verbena.htm
  • 72. © Project SOUND Glandularia gooddingii – verbena-like for certain  Size:  1-2 ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous/part-woody perennial  Mounded, groundcover-like habit  Moderate growth rate; lives 3-5 years (replace when needed)  Near evergreen with a little summer water  Foliage:  Pale/medium green  Variable leaves – somewhat chrysanthemum-like
  • 73. © Project SOUND Flower-garden flowers  Blooms:  in spring – usually Apr-June  Flowering season depends on moisture  Flowers:  Violet or pale pink-purple  In dense clusters at tops of stalks  Very attractive – and also attract hummingbirds and butterflies  Seeds:  Plant untreated seeds in winter  Needs light to germinate  Best seeded in place  Will reseed if happy http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1163/glandularia-gooddingii-southwestern-mock-vervain/
  • 74. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained a must  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade; good heat tolerance  Water:  Winter: needs adequate; supplement if needed  Summer: best with occasional summer water – Water Zone 2 to keep green, blooming  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  No/inorganic mulch for reseeding  Light pruning (deadheading) after flowering http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GLGO
  • 75. © Project SOUND Groundcover/fill  Groundcover under trees  Along walkways, patios  As an attractive pot plant  In mixed planter beds  In habitat, desert or rock gardens ©2010 James M. Andre http://www.amwua.org/pictures/gc-v-gooddingii-1.jpg http://www.landscape-resources.com/portfolio/groundcoversx/pages/Verbena%20gooddingii- 1.htm
  • 76. © Project SOUND Add the Mock verbena & replace a shrub… Ribes
  • 77. © Project SOUND And our front yard looks pretty good
  • 78. Front (Water Zone 2 to 2-3) – N = 7 species Winter-spring Spring-summer Summer-fall Trees Arctostaphylos bakeri ‘Louis Edmunds’ Large shrubs Ribes (malvaceum; sanguineum) Smaller shrubs Spiraea splendens Groundcover Heuchera cv Ceanothus cv Glandularia gooddingii Heuchera cv Glandularia gooddingii Other Agastache rupestris ‘Sunset’ Agastache rupestris ‘Sunset’ © Project SOUND
  • 79. © Project SOUND Now it’s time to tackle the backyard
  • 80. Here’s the site map for backyard © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals 36 ft 38ft N
  • 81. © Project SOUND *Desert-willow – Chilopsis linearis http://www.pssc.ttu.edu/techhort/PLANTID/desert/dsrtwllw.htm
  • 82. © Project SOUND Desert Willow is a small, deciduous tree or large shrub  Size:  15-30 ft tall  15-25 ft wide  Growth form:  Naturally grows with several trunks – can be trained to single  Open structure; graceful looking  Branches droop as they age  Old bark has fissures  Foliage:  Bright green glossy leaves  Winter-deciduous (Nov-spring)  Fast growing – to 3 ft/year http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=21922
  • 83. We do have room for the Desert Willow © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals N 6’ 4’
  • 84. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained; can’t take very wet soils  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun best  Light shade ok  Water:  Regular water first 2 years; no flooding  Zone 2; deep water when soil is dry  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: can tolerate extreme heathttp://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Chilopsis_linearis.html
  • 85. © Project SOUND Flowers are like orchids  Blooms:  Long bloom period  usually Apr-Aug/Sept. in S. CA  Flowers:  Like an orchid or Catalpa  Extremely showy – tropical- or Mediterranean-looking  Light fragrance – somewhat like violets  Nectar attracts hummingbirds & bees  Seeds:  In long, thin pods  Tan pods remain on tree through winter http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=21931 http://www.smugmug.com/gallery/1788381_t5i7e/1/91507869_yreg7#91507869_yreg7
  • 86. © Project SOUND Common cultivars  If you're looking for a specific flower color, shop now while the trees are in still in bloom.  Named cultivars are propagated vegetatively and are consistent in their flower characteristics.  Look for a tree with good vigor and a profusion of blooms in the color you like. ‘Lucretia Hamilton’ http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/procee dings1999/v4-436.html ‘Burgandy’ ‘Warren Jones’ http://www.flickr.com/photos/vsny/2530579994/
  • 87. © Project SOUND The Desert willow is perfect for the backyard
  • 88. © Project SOUND Coyote Mint – Monardella villosa http://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2010/08/august-bloom-day/
  • 89. © Project SOUND Coyote Mint  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  Light: full sun to part shade  Water:  Winter: don’t let it get too wet  Summer: best with slightly damp to slightly dry sandy soil; don’t over- water – will make it leggy and decrease it’s lifespan  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Pinch tips to promote fuller growth  Shear back to about 1/3 of it’s volume in fall/winter If the plant loses its leaves to drought during the hot months, it will leaf out again with rain and cooler weather.
  • 90. So far, so good: all plants are hummingbird magnets © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals N 6’ 4’
  • 91. Medium or large shrubs needed to block the view © Project SOUND
  • 92. © Project SOUND We envision something like this
  • 93. © Project SOUND * Baja Fairyduster – Calliandra californica
  • 94. © Project SOUND Baja fairyduster has a Baja look…  Size:  4-8 ft tall; may be more  4-5 ft wide; sprawls  Growth form:  Evergreen woody shrub (may lose leaves when stressed)  Many crossing branches – airy look; sprawls  Foliage:  Bright green  Many small leaflets; lacy/ferny look  Unique and pretty; doesn’t look like a drought-tolerant plant  Larval food for Marine Blue http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/calcal.htm
  • 95. We’ve got plenty of room along the back fence © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals N 6’ 4’
  • 96. What expert California hummingbird gardeners have learned  Narrow gardens are better. It’s easier for hummingbirds to access the garden from either side.  Curving flower beds work also. These allow approach from all sides. Because hummingbirds are territorial, it’s better if they can zip down into the garden quickly before the competitor gets a chance to take over. © Project SOUND
  • 97. © Project SOUND Something smaller and shrubby in front
  • 98. © Project SOUND *Rose/Blue Sage – Salvia pachyphylla ©2008 Curtis Croulet
  • 99.  S High Sierras, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Desert Mountains  Dry slopes, pinyon/juniper to yellow-pine forest, 5,000 to 10,000 ft (1,500 to 3,000 m) usually in decomposed granite © Project SOUND *Rose/Blue Sage – Salvia pachyphylla ©2008 Curtis Croulet http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4745,4865,4883 http://prairiebreak.blogspot.com/2013/09/santa-rosa-mountain-or-bust.html
  • 100. © Project SOUND Rose sage: one of our prettiest Salvias  Size:  2-3 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded sub-shrub  Very dense branch pattern  Fairly fast growth  Foliage:  Pale green to gray-green – depends on light, water  Leaves spoon-shaped  Aromatic on touch – like a sweet White Sage scent ©2008 Curtis Croulet
  • 101. © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: summer/fall – usually May-Aug/Sept. at our elevation  Flowers:  Violet-blue flowers surrounded by bright magenta bracts ; lovely  Plants literally covered with blooming stalks – makes other Salvias jealous!  Attract hummingbirds, bees, butterflies ©2006 Steven Thorsted ©2011 Steven Thorsted
  • 102. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained a must  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade (under high canopy)  Tolerates heat  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer: none to occasional (better) in well-drained soils – Water Zone 1-2.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils. Light organic or inorganic mulch  Other: prune in fall as with other native Salvias©2011 Steven Thorsted
  • 103. © Project SOUND Queen of the garden http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/salvia-pachyphylla http://acantholimon.blogspot.com/2014/03/plant-select-super-xerics.html
  • 104. Salvia pachyphylla ‘Blue Flame’  Lush flowers are offset by mid-green foliage. Expect to fall in love with it  Does well in dry, gravelly gardens as a groundcover, border or pathway edging, native Southwestern gardens  36 inches tall and 24 inches wide  Flowers summer to fall attracting butterflies, honeybees. Hummingbirds  Available from High County Gardens (order on-line) © Project SOUND http://www.highcountrygardens.com/perennial- plants/salvia/salvia-pachyphylla-blue-flame
  • 105. Salvia pachyphylla ‘Mulberry Flambe’  ‘Dark, mulberry-purple bracts and blue flowers held over pure silver, evergreen foliage.’  High Country Gardens © Project SOUND http://www.highcountrygardens.com/perennial-plants/salvia/salvia- pachyphylla-mulberry-flambe
  • 106. Two similar appearing alternatives  Lavandula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’ (English Lavender)  Blooms: mid- to late summer  Full sun; well-drained soils  Occasional/medium (Water Zone 2 to 2-3)  Prune back to 8” every 2-3 years  Salvia leucantha ‘Santa Barbara’ & ‘Santa Barbara dwarf’ - (Mexican Sage)  Blooms: year-round (or almost so); great hummingbird plant  Full sun/ well-drained soils  Occasional water (Water Zone 2)  Prune like native Salvias © Project SOUND English Lavender ‘Hidcote’ http://www.americanmeadows.com/perennials/lav ender/lavender-hidcote Salvia Leucantha ‘Santa Barbara’
  • 107. Masses of purple from late spring to fall © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals N
  • 108. Now we need some contrast © Project SOUND
  • 109. © Project SOUND Scarlet Bugler – Penstemon centranthifolius http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Penstemon_centranthifolius.htm
  • 110. © Project SOUND Flowers are showy  Blooms: mid- to late spring - usually Apr-June in our area, but may be later.  Flowers:  Bright red to red-orange (less common) – glow in the sun  Narrow, tubular shape – hummingbird flower  Along tall, rather narrow flowering stalks – somewhat like large Heuchera  Long-lasting & showy http://homepage.mac.com/cjbowdish/ManzanaTrailandFigueroaMtMay2008/
  • 111. © Project SOUND Penstemons shine in dry areas  Dry hillsides; lovely massed  With local native grasses  Paired with Salvias, other penstemons  Under oaks or other water- wise trees & shrubs http://xasauantoday.com/2009/05/04/spring-at-the-indians/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/amarguy/2388294009/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/12205793@N04/5116623276/
  • 112. Penstemon ‘Garnet’ (syn. ‘Andenken an Friedrich Hahn’)  A fast grower as well as reliable bloomer, ‘Garnet’ can reach 3’ high and 2’ across. The slender ruby- colored stems bear narrow, toothed green leaves and garnet- colored flowers from June to October; individual blossoms have a white throat marked with thin, red lines. The outermost flowering stems, heavy with blossom, often arch away from the center of the plant making it an elegant selection for containers. One of the hardiest hybrids, it persists longer than most in a favorable site © Project SOUND
  • 113. We need a fall-blooming orange flower © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals N
  • 114. California Fuschia – Epilobium canum
  • 115. CA Fuschia – Epilobium canum  Formerly Zauschneria californica  Western U.S. from Wyoming to Baja  In southern CA  Away from immediate coast in drier areas of Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral, Southern Oak Woodlands  Dry areas, rocky slopes & cliffs  Also in mountain pine forests http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5410,5414
  • 116. Very showy flowers  Trumpet-shaped, orange-red flowers with extended anther, stamens  Flowers on short stems from vertical stems  Hummingbird pollinated  Flowers also attract butterflies
  • 117. Horticultural requirements for CA Fuschia  Soils:  Texture: sand to clay – very tolerant  pH: any, including alkali  Nutrients: low needs  Sun:  Full sun to part shade  Ok under open trees  Water:  Little to moderate water once established  Tolerates seasonal flooding  Pruning:  Cut back in late winter – can cut back to ground  Can pinch back terminal buds for fuller appearance Multiplies by seeds and spreading roots
  • 118. Isolation breeds variability  Island variant (top)  Foliage more gray-green  Blooms fall/winter (Sept.- Jan.)  Peninsula variant (bottom)  Foliage more bright green  Blooms in summer/fall (Aug.-Oct.) http://nnvesj.org/Y04/Ed13/NativeGarden2.htm
  • 119. Epilobium canum ‘Uvas Canyon’  Upright habit to ~ 20”  Moderate to regular water  Very grey fuzzy foliage  Hot red-orange flowers that flower for many weeks in early fall © Project SOUND http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/11/california-fuchsias-red-hot-hotties-in.html
  • 120. Epilobium septentrionalis 'Select Mattole'  Selected from a rock outcrop along the Mattole River in Humboldt County  Dense, silvery leaves offset tubular scarlet late summer blooms.  Best with sun/part-shade and occasional to regular water.  Beautiful amid grasses or along a wall where it can spill down. © Project SOUND http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=901
  • 121. Epilobium canum ‘Western Hills’  Zauschneria ‘Western Hills’ makes an upright, shrubby plant, to 70cm, clothed in small grey-green leaves. The orange-red trumpet, produced in a long succession, are held well above the foliage on twiggy stems. I’ve planted it in the dry garden next to the dusky pink flowered Origanum ‘Santa Cruz’. © Project SOUND http://lambley.com.au/garden-notes/californian-plants-for-an-australian-dry-garden
  • 122. We finally have a plan for the backyard © Project SOUND porch house Vegetable/Annuals N 6’ 4’
  • 123. Back yard (Water Zone 1-2 to 2) – 7+ species Winter-spring Spring-summer Summer-fall Trees Chilopsis linearis Large shrubs Calliandra californica Smaller shrubs Salvia leucantha Penstemon centranthifolius; Salvia pachyphylla Lavandula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’ Salvia leucantha Salvia leucantha Groundcover Monardella villosa Other Wildflowers Epilobium canum © Project SOUND
  • 124. © Project SOUND Other annuals & biennials that are particularly attractive to hummingbirds Circium occidentale Clarkia unguiculata Collinsia heterophylla Lupinus species Oenothera elata Annual Salvias http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_whatsnew/whatsnewmay07.html
  • 125. The main back yard hummingbird haven © Project SOUND  Provides good habitat & design  Uses vertical space to provide interest and habitat  Uses repetition in shrubs and smaller plants  Uses contrast: size; foliage color; flower color  Provides interest and hummingbird food year-round
  • 126. © Project SOUND The hummingbird habitat: not just pretty red flowers…  A hummingbird-friendly garden requires five key elements to provide good hummingbird habitat  Nectar-producing flowers  Insects  Water  Perching places  Nest sites http://www.morrocoastaudubon.org/pics/alhumas.jpg
  • 127. © Project SOUND Gardening for hummingbird habitat  Place plants in several locations. This will allow more hummingbirds and minimize territorial fighting  Fill as much of your yard as possible with flowering plants, vines, shrubs, and trees. If you do not have a garden, even a window box or hanging basket can attract hummingbirds!  Plant clusters of the same species together.  Plant flowers with different blooming times to provide nectar throughout the seasons.  Minimize or avoid using herbicides or pesticides on or near those plants where butterflies and hummingbirds are feeding.
  • 128. © Project SOUND More tips: Gardening for Hummingbird habitat  Create both sun and shade area in your hummingbird garden. Your hummingbird flowers will need sun to grow and your hummingbirds will need the shade to perch in between feedings.  Be sure to position your hummingbird garden where you can see it and get the most enjoyment out of it.  Hummers spend nearly 80 percent of their time resting, so you also will want to provide plenty of places to perch. They'll sit on twigs, leaf stems, fences, etc..  Mature trees and shrubs with a thick canopy are important nesting and escape features. Shrubs, bushes and perennials not only provide food but can also provide perching and nesting sites and, in some cases, escape features the bird will use. Trees and shrubs don’t necessarily need to be huge to provide good hummingbird habitat
  • 129. © Project SOUND http://sabinocanyonblog.blogspot.com/2009/03/whats-blooming-at-tohono-chul.html Tohono Chul Garden