Perfect Perennials   2012
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Perfect Perennials 2012



This lecture was given in April, 2012 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’.

This lecture was given in April, 2012 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’.



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Perfect Perennials   2012 Perfect Perennials 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  • Perfect PerennialsCalifornia Native Perennials for a Colorful Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve April 7 & 11, 2012 © Project SOUND
  • So darned many perennials – where to begin? We’ll be considering CA native herbaceous perennials in the next few classes © Project SOUND
  • Our challenge today: the maturing garden Time to assess what’s missing © Project SOUND
  • What is a perennial?  A perennial plant or simply perennial (Latin per, "through", annus, "year") is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter lived annuals and biennials.  Technically, perennials include:  Woody plants  Sub-shrubs  Herbaceous perennials  Bulbs  Ferns  Perennial grasses © Project SOUND
  • Herbaceous perennials  Live more than 1 year  Have soft/succulent above- ground foliage  Usually are medium to small size - < 3-4 ft  Have a dormant period – often die back to the ground during that period Wild Ginger - Asarum caudatum © Project SOUND
  • What is the difference betweenherbaceous perennials & sub-shrubs?  Perennial sub-shrubs:  Part-woody; woody part extends at least partway up the stem  Usually don’t die back all the way – re-sprout from wood  Often the ‘juicy parts’ are eaten back in the wilds – but not in our gardens; that’s why we have to cut them back ourselves in the fall  Some S. CA native plants are difficult to categorize – continuum between herbaceous & woody © Project SOUND
  • Herbaceous perennials usually have a dormant period  Drought-induced  Local S. CA herbaceous perennials like Diplacus  Plant goes dormant and dies back in summer  Cold-induced  Usually plants from colder climates than ours – N. CA; S. CA mountainsWhat happens when we grow  Plant goes dormant in latethese plants in our local gardens fall/winter– and don’t have drought- orcold-induced dormancy? © Project SOUND
  • Native herbaceous perennials in S. CA gardens may be a bit different, but… © Project SOUND
  • Herbaceous perennials: might enhance our maturing garden So, you go to your favorite source of inspiration … © Project SOUND
  • …and feel like you felldown the rabbit hole © Project SOUND
  • These clearly are not ‘New California Gardens’… pathways.html …but they are sort of pretty and interesting © Project SOUND
  • How do we apply the inspiration from‘non-California’ perennial gardens to our own gardens? © Project SOUND
  • Where do herbaceous perennials fit into the ‘New California Garden’ design?  The ‘perennial bed’ has been out of fashion for a while – but that’s changing (as the new books suggest)  The classical perennial bed is much more suited to coldernative-gardens.htm climates than ours  It’s difficult to build an entire bed/garden around just CA native perennials – they just aren’t ‘backbone plants’ © Project SOUND
  • Native herbaceous perennials can beused in several ways in our gardens  Use them as filler plants  In a new garden – until the larger woody plants grow  In mature gardens – to fill gaps or ‘difficult’ places  Use them as ‘fitted plants’ that provide specific additions to the mature garden – the plants are carefully chosen for their attributes © Project SOUND
  • And that’s where the new books on perennial gardens can be a source of inspiration © Project SOUND
  • What can herbaceous perennials bring to the garden?  Flower color  Specific foliage attributes – colors, shapes, textures  Sun and (especially) shade tolerance  Habitat value: particularly food (nectar, pollen, seeds, even foliage)  Attractants for beneficial insects  Food & medicinal plants  Other: dyes, fiber, scents © Project SOUND
  • Lessons from the new perennial garden books (for the New CA Garden) 1. Learn to ‘read the pictures’ – what is it I like about the feel of this garden? 2. Try to ‘capture the spirit’ -not duplicate the plants 3. Take the time to choose the right native plant for the job 4. Choose ‘value added’ native plants that still capture the spirit of the image you love © Project SOUND
  • Our mission: find the perfect perennials for this shady garden © Project SOUND
  • prodid=1055&srch_term=tellima Delicate bloom spikes – succulent leavesgarden-that-flowers-for-eight-months-a-boo.html © Project SOUND
  • Heucheras are only one possibility © Project SOUND
  • Saxifragaceae - The Saxifrage Family  ~ 1250 species in 80 genera  Found worldwide, many from northern temperate regions.  Mainly perennial herbs and shrubs, some evergreen, with only a few annuals or small trees.  Includes many common garden plants;  Hydrangea  Astilbe  Bergenia  Heuchera  Escallonia © Project SOUND
  • * Fringe Cups – Tellima grandiflora© 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  • * Fringe Cups – Tellima grandiflora  Central to N. CA north to AK, MT, including coastal areas  Cool, moist woods & rocky places below 5000 ft.  Redwood Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Yellow Pine Forest © Project SOUND© 2003 Craig Smith
  • Fringe-cups: a woodland plant  Size:  1-2 ft tall – flowers to 3 ft  spreading 2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Mounded – like Heuchera  Foliage:  basal clump of toothed, shallowly-lobed, rounded, hairy, long-stalked, dark green leaves  Leaves, twigs, and seeds inside fleshy berries are all poisonous if eaten, and potentially fatal to small child,© 2004, Ben Legler: animal © Project SOUND
  • Flowers are enchanting  Blooms: spring - usually April- May in S. Ca  Flowers:  Like Heuchera – but fancier; fringed petals  Start pale, age dark pink  Long bloom season – flowers open in succession  Sweet fragrance  Hummingbirds adore them  Seeds: tiny – like fine pepper  Vegetative reproduction:© 2007 Matt Below spreads by thick underground rhizomes © 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  •  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: most  pH: any local, though likes slightly acidic, well-drained  Light:  Light shade to quite shady  Typical woodland plant  Water:  Winter: supplement in dry spells  Summer: regular water (Zone 2-3 to 3); older plants may tolerate Zone 2  Fertilizer: likes organic soils; amendments/compost fine  Other: use organic mulch© 2008 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  • Fringe-cups: perennial delight  Groundcover for shady moist spots – under pine or redwood trees  North-facing exposures  Mixed beds  Rain garden or pond edges © Project SOUND
  • ‘Forest Frost’  Has variegated leaves – otherwise no different from straight species ellima_grandifloraForestFrost.html © Project SOUND
  • Our mission: find the perfect perennials for this shady garden © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  • Something a little taller, bolder – with white flowers to brighten the area their any choices that would also attractbutterflies? © Project SOUND
  • Common Cowparsnip – Heracleum maximumGeorge G. Hawxhurst © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  • Common Cowparsnip – Heracleum maximum  Throughout continental U.S. except the Gulf Coast; locally in the San Bernardino Mtns  In a variety of habitats including woodlands, forest openings, grasslands, and riparian areas (wet meadows, stream terraces, alluvial benches, floodplains, and stream and lake margins. © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  • The Apiaceae – Carrot Family  Formerly called Umbelliferae  Commonly known as carrot or parsley family  Mostly aromatic plants with hollow stems.  Large (16th largest flowering plant family) - more than 3,700 species/ 434 genera  Includes many well known plants:  Angelica  Anise, caraway, coriander/cilantro, cumin, dill, fennel  Carrot, celery, parsley, parsnipMany make excellent habitatplants for home gardens  Hemlock, lovage, Queen Annes Lace © Project SOUND
  • Common Parsnip is ‘back of the bed’ big  Size:  3-8+ ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; winter deciduous  All parts large, robust  Stems succulent, hollow  Foliage:  Medium green  Leaves very large, coarsely toothed & lobed – sort of like Acanthus leaves  Roots: stout taproot and/or© 2005 Robert Sivinski fibrous © Project SOUND
  • Flowers light up shady areas  Blooms: spring/summer usually May-July  Flowers:  Small and white  Sweetly scented – many butterflies are attracted  In dense to more open umbels – like a starburst – typical of the family  Seeds:  Flat, ribbed seeds typical for the family  Vegetative reproduction: ?? © Project SOUND
  •  Soils:Common Parsnip  Texture: well-drained best – but Likes water adaptable  pH: any local except very alkali  Light:  Part-shade best  Takes over with full sun & lots of water  Water:  Winter: supplement in dry years  Summer: likes moist soil  Fertilizer: adaptable; does well in amended soils  Other: Always wear gloves when cutting, breaking stems – the juices of all parts contain a phototoxin that can act on contact with skin and exposure to ultraviolet lightGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • Deadheading  What is deadheading? Perennials  Removing spent flowers/seed heads after the plant stops flowering  Clipthe stalk back to the first set of healthy leaves below the flower stalk; leave the clippings as mulch/food  Why deadhead?  To make the plant look more attractive  To prolong the bloom season/encourage a second bloom season  For many native perennials, and a few shrubs, a decent deadheading may be all the pruning they need! Plants that have a woody base but produce lots of lush growth each season, such as Monkeyflowers and Penstemon seem to respond especially well to this technique.  Must I deadhead? no © Project SOUND
  • Big habitat plant  Large filler plant in shady areas  Woodland gardens  Shady slopes  Butterfly gardens  Pond/poolside, other moist areas  Medicinal uses © 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND
  • Our mission: find the perfect perennials for this shady garden © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  • * CA Lomatium – Lomatium californicumJ. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  • * CA Lomatium – Lomatium californicum  Central & Northern CA from ]; Ventura and Kern Cos to S. OR  Wooded or brushy slopes to 5500, chaparral and foothill woodlands,426,428 © Project SOUND
  • CA Lomatium: shrubby perennial  Size:  2-5 ft tall  4-5 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Shrubby-looking; clumped  Dies back to short stem/root in drought  Foliage:  Usually blue-green  Looks like celery – and smells like it too!  Larval food – Anise Swallowtail  Roots: taproot stout, thickened© 1998 Dean Wm. Taylor © Project SOUND
  • Flowers are pretty  Blooms: spring-summer; usually May-July  Flowers:  Typical for the carrot family© 2007 Matt Below  Many, small yellow flowers  In a rather open umbel  Flowers attract a wide range of insect pollinators, including butterflies  Seeds:  Flat, winged seed – typical of Carrot family  If growing from seed, rinse several times in water – takes several days © Project SOUND © 2009 Vernon Smith
  • Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Part-shade; morning sun or dappled shade best  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: let plants dry out after flowering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: cut back almost to ground in fall (or whenever you can’t take the dead branches any more!) © Project SOUND© 2010 Jean Pawek
  • Garden uses for Lomatiums  Accent plant – dry shade  In a mixed planting with grasses, annuals  In dry parts of the vegetable/medicinal garden© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  • Lomatiums:  Spring leaves, stems and roots eaten raw or cooked as greens useful plants  Leaves used as seasoning :  Pick it before it blooms for a more even, mellow flavor, or during or after the bloom for a stronger flavor.  Shade dry it in a warm spot with good ventilation, turning the leaves over every day or two. The flavor resembles celery.  Medicinal  Root chewed for sore throat; dried root smoked or decoction of roots taken for colds – makes at least 4 compounds with antibacterial action  Used as poultice for rheumatism Native CA hunters chewed plant  Ceremonial uses to conceal their scent when hunting © Project SOUND
  • We’ll introduce some other great habitat perennials in the next few months Angelica hendersonii Lomatium utriculatum © Project SOUND
  • In another part of our shady backyard… © Project SOUND
  • * California Hemp – Hoita macrostachya © 2009 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND
  • * California Hemp – Hoita macrostachya  Western CA (except Great Central Valley)  Locally Long Beach, LA River, Santa Monicas, San Gabriels  Wetland-riparian between 0 and 5000 feet; in many plant communities (Yellow Pine Forest, Foothill Woodland, Chaparral, Valley Grassland, Coastal Prairie)  ho-IT-tay – Maidu name for this genus  AKA: Psoralea © Project SOUND© 1994 Lee Dittmann
  • Characteristics of CA Hemp  Size:  4-6 ft tall  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Erect to sprawling  Looks like a large shrub, but dies back in fall  Foliage:  Medium to blue-green  Leaves compound (3-part), sparse on stems  Roots: nitrogen-fixing (nodules)© 2012 Aaron Arthur © Project SOUND
  • Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: spring/summer usually May-July in S. CA  Flowers:  On a club-like stalk that elongates  Flowers pea-like  Color is lovely: shades of purple/pink/magenta  Beautiful contrasts – flowers & foliage  Seeds:  Bean-like  In hairy, pea-like pods© 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  • Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: just about any  pH: any local  Light:  Best in light- to part-shade  Water:  Winter: fine with flooding; supplement if needed  Summer: regular water (Water Zone 2-3); taper off after blooming  Fertilizer: not picky; likes poor soils but OK with some fertilizer, amendments  Other: cut off old, dead branches in late fall © Project SOUND
  • Garden uses for  As a soil stabilizer along a sunny stream, in a marsh or at the ponds edge.  As an accent plant for shady parts of garden© 2009 Lynn Watson © 2003 Michael Charters  Plant near or around trees such as alder, sycamore, box elder, and dogwood for a woodland garden retreat  Practical uses: roots  Fibers  Yellow dye  Eaten (raw or cooked)  Pulverized for salve/poultice for sores, skin ulcers © Project SOUND
  • Fall/Winter tasks: native herbaceousperennials In general, these plants are  low maintenance: properly placed they come back year after year  Many need cutting back/removing dead material in fall/winter  Be sure you know which perennials need to be handled with care:  Toxicities  Rashes/allergies © Project SOUND
  • Why do the perennials produce such interesting chemicals?  Plants in the genus Hoita produce furanocoumarins;  These substances can cause a serious photosensitive rash in some people  Precautions  Wear gloves, long sleeves  Be careful not to get plant juices on skin – wash off immediately if you do with soap & water  Always wash skin and clothes after pruning © Project SOUND
  • Now a little something low to fill in… © Project SOUND
  • Native Honeysuckles make goodgroundcovers (as well as vines) for shade © Project SOUND
  • * Orange Honeysuckle - Lonicera ciliosa © Project SOUND
  • We could use Woodmints (Stachys spp.) © Project SOUND
  • Now a little something low to fill in… © Project SOUND
  • * Creeping Leather-root – Hoita orbicularis© 1995 Lee Dittmann © Project SOUND
  • * Creeping Leather-root – Hoita orbicularis  California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley) S. to Baja  Locally: very occasionally in San Gabriels – more common in San Bernardino Mtns  Many plant communities including Yellow Pine Forest, Foothill Woodland, Chaparral, Valley Grassland up to 4-5000‘ ft elevation  In moist places: meadows, stream sides, moist hillsides, pond edges, seeps © Project SOUND
  • The flowers & leaves give it away  Proud member of the Pea Family - Fabaceae © Project SOUND
  • Creeping Leather-root: it creeps (of course)  Size:  < 1 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Winter-dormant  Prostrate habit  Foliage:  Leaves a trefoil – like a giant clover (2-4” across)  Edible (young); used to fevers  Roots: N-fixing (nodules); produce yellow dye© 2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND
  • Flowers:clover on steroids  Blooms: spring - usually May- June in western L.A. county  Flowers:  On long spikes – up to 2-3 ft long; flowers open up sequentially  Each of the many flowers is up to 1” long, pea-like, and generally a shade of light to medium purple in color.  Very showy for a ground- cover – like the Woodmints  Seeds: in a small, hairy pea-like pod© 2011 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND
  • Easy plant in the  Soils:  Texture: most right place  pH: any local except > 8.0  Light:  Part-sun to shade  Good under trees or N-facing exposures  Water:  Winter: fine with extra winter water  Summer: regular water keeps it looking best: Zone 2 to 3  Fertilizer: not picky; OK with a little fertilizer, compost, organic mulch  Other: cut back old (dead/dying) foliage in fall© 2011 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND
  • Creeping Leather-root works well in shade gardens  As a groundcover – alone or mixed  In rain gardens, infiltration swales  In pots and planters (incl. ‘mini-bogs’)  On slopes  Shady areas in a butterfly garden  Edges of vegetable or medicinal garden © 2011 Barry Breckling © 2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND
  • And that’s not all… © Project SOUND
  • Round leaved boykinia – Boykinia rotundifolia © 2011 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  • Round leaved boykinia – Boykinia rotundifolia  endemic to southern California, where it grows in shady forested areas near streams in the mountains  Locally: Santa Monica Mtns (Malibu Cyn); more common in San,7093,7096 Gabriels  Boykinia:  Dr. Samuel Boykin (1786-1848), an eminent field botanist - did the majority of his collecting in Georgia.  He was one of the many collectors who sent significant numbers of plant samples to John Torrey and Asa Gray © 2008 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND
  • Boykinia: woodsy & drapey  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Upright or vine-like – depends on the conditions  Evergreen with water  Spreads via underground stems (rhizomes)  Foliage:  Medium green ; may be hairy  Leaves rounded, irregularly toothed – spread out along stems  Roots: fibrous © 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © 2008 Thomas Stoughton
  • Flowers are curious  Blooms: late spring/summer; usually May-July in our gardens  Flowers:  Very tiny – plant where you be able to see them  White  In dense ‘sprays’ along the long (to 5 ft), thin flowering stalks  Would make an interesting© 2011 Robert A. Hamilton addition to floral arrangement  Seeds:  Many, small seeds in rounded capsule © Project SOUND © 2011 Neal Kramer
  • S. CA Woodlands  Soils:  Texture: just about any; well- drained best  pH: any local  Light:  Part-shade to fairly shady  Flowers best in dappled sun or bright shade, under trees  Water:  Winter: supplement is needed  Summer: likes regular water – Zone 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer: not too particular; fine with humus and light fertilizer  Other: use an organic mulch© 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  • Boykinia in the garden  As an accent plant in shady areas, around ponds/pools  Massed as an evergreen groundcover; woodsy look that fine under trees, near lawns  As an interesting pot plant on shady porches© 2005 Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area ykinia_rotundifolia.htm © Project SOUND CCID=31090003&page=pdp&PID=8366
  • One more bit of inspiration: compound leaves © Project SOUND
  • * Redwood Sorrel – Oxalis oreganaRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  • The Oxalidaceae: the Wood Sorrel family  Small family of eight genera  Herbaceous plants, shrubs and small trees  The great majority of the 900 species in the genus Oxalis (wood sorrels).  Members of this family typically have:  Divided leaves  Leaflets showing "sleep movements", spreading open in light and closing in darkness. © Project SOUND
  • The genus Oxalis contains some real bad boys  Two members of the Oxalis genus in particular have given it a bad name.  O. pes-caprae, known by the common Oxalis pes-caprae name Bermuda buttercup (even though it comes from South Africa) is known to take over a garden. When pioneering California botanist Lester Roundtree was asked how to deal with O. pre-caprae, she replied, "You move.“  O. corniculata - creeping woodsorrel, also called Procumbent Yellow-sorrel or Sleeping Beauty, is a somewhat delicate-appearing, low-growing Oxalis that has become a weed world-wide Oxalis corniculata © Project SOUND
  • * Redwood Sorrel – Oxalis oregana  Central/North coast up to WA state (coastal and Cascades)  Moist conifer forests (Redwood Forest, Douglas-Fir Forest) between 0 and 3300 feet  AKA Oregon Oxalis,5528,5537 © Project SOUND
  • Redwood Sorrel: a sweet little creeper  Size:  ~ 1 ft tall  2-4 ft wide, spreading  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Mounded, spreading  Foliage:  Bright green (may have some white or burgundy)  3 heart-shaped leaflets – trefoil (looks like large 3-leaf clover) – on long petiole (leaf stem)  Songbirds may eat young leaves  Roots: spreads moderately via stout underground stems (rhizomes) © Project SOUND© 2009 Neal Kramer
  • Oxalis have a long history of human use  An edible wild plant in cuisines around the world  Leaves/stems:  Raw or cooked, as greens  Lightly fermented – for a side dish  Dried to make a lemony-tasting tea  Fresh or dried as an herb – to put a little ‘zing’ in dishes  Tuber:© Bud Kovalchik:  Cultivated & eaten like a potato in the Northern Andes © Project SOUND
  • Redwood Sorrel is used as a medicinal  Fresh juice from plant applied to sore eyes.  Decoction of whole plant used as a wash for rheumatism.  Poultice of plant applied to swollen areas & sores on the skin and to draw out infections.© 2006, Clayton J. Antieau © Project SOUND
  • Oxalic acid & other compounds  Giving the leaves and flowers a sour taste which can make them refreshing to chew.  In very large amounts, oxalic acid may be considered slightly toxic, interfering with proper digestion and kidney function.  Oxalic acid is also present in commonly consumed foods such as spinach, broccoli, brussel sprouts, grapefruit, chives, and rhubarb, among many others.  General scientific consensus seems to be that the risk of sheer toxicity, actual poisoning from oxalic acid, in persons© 2006, Clayton J. Antieau with normal kidney function is "wildly unlikely“. © Project SOUND
  • Flowers are wonderful  Blooms: primarily in spring - usually April-June in our area  Flowers:  Usually translucent pink but may be white; beautiful contrast w/ foliage  Often have rays that are of contrasting shade  Medium size - ~1 inch  5 petals – relatively simple design  Seeds:© 2008 Neal Kramer  In dry capsule that pops open, throwing the seeds © 2003, Tim Hagan © Project SOUND
  • Fairly easy from seed or divisions  Soak the soil around the roots 24 hours before digging (if soil is dry). Use fresh seed  Divide Oxalis oregana in fall (as the winter rainy season begins) or in late winter or early spring© 2011 Zoya Akulova (when new shoots/leaves appear).  Lift the Oxalis roots from the soil. Gently pull the roots apart into clumps containing three to five new growth shoots  Replant the divisions in the garden. Soak the area to settle the soil. © Project SOUND
  • Redwood Sorrel is a  Soils: woodland plant  Texture: most are fine  pH: any local except > 8.0  Light:  Part-shade to shade  Naturally grows under trees  Water:  Winter: supplement in dry, windy periods  Summer: like a moist soil –© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College Water Zone 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer: likes a richer soilUse an organic mulch – leaf than many natives; fine withlitter or leaf mulch is ideal added humus, compost, light fertilizer © Project SOUND
  • Woodsy groundcover  Great in shady spots under trees – pines, junipers, etc. - with Lilies, Fringecups & Iris  Does great in pots & planters  Around shady fountains, birdbaths, other moist areas © Project SOUND
  • Oxalis oregana Select Pink’, ‘Tilden Pink’, ‘Smith River white’  Natural varieties chosen for their flower color © Project SOUND
  • Our challenge today: the maturing garden Time to assess what’s missing © Project SOUND
  • …and feel like you felldown the rabbit hole © Project SOUND
  • © Project SOUND
  • Our mission: find the perfect perennialsfor this shady garden – made a good start © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  • Lessons from the new perennial garden books (for the New CA Garden) 1. Learn to ‘read the pictures’ – what is it I like about the feel of this garden? 2. Try to ‘capture the spirit’ not duplicate the plants 3. Take the time to choose the right native plant for the job 4. Choose ‘value added’ native plants that still capture the spirit of the image you love © Project SOUND
  • So, visit the spring plant sales Some great plants for your water garden – now’s the time to plantWild Mint – Mentha arvensis © Project SOUND
  • And get out & get inspired: it’s spring! © Project SOUND