Monkeyflowers 2011


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This lecture was given in March, 2011 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Monkeyflowers 2011

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. More (Magnificent) Monkeyflowers C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve March 5 & 8, 2011 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Monkeyflowers have always enchanted gardeners  Introduced to British Isles over 200 years ago – seed brought back from N. America  As with many other California native plants, bush monkeyflowers were first cultivated in British gardens.  Plants of Mimulus aurantiacus were grown as far back as 1796 from seed collected in Monterey or San Francisco by botanist Archibald Menzies.  The May 1838 issue of Curtis Botanical Magazine includes a glowing description of Mimulus puniceus, "A very elegant shrub, flourishing in its native soil nearly the whole year ... it cannot fail to prove a great ornament to our gardens.“ © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Monkeyflowers have always enchanted the gardener  Mimulus  May come either from the Greek mimo, "an ape," because of a resemblance on the markings of the seeds to the face of a monkey, or  From the Latin mimus, "an actor or mimic," because the flower is like the mouthpiece of one of the grinning masks worn by classical actors  The Monkeyflowers are at the center of scientific activity right now – for several reasons © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Kingdom Plantae – PlantsSubkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plantsSuperdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plantsDivision Magnoliophyta – Flowering plantsClass Magnoliopsida – DicotyledonsSubclass AsteridaeOrder ScrophularialesFamily Scrophulariaceae – Figwort familyGenus Gambelia Nutt. – greenbrightSpecies Gambelia speciosa Nutt. – showy greenbright © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Where do the CA Monkeyflowers fit?Chinese Houses - Collinsia Linnaeus first classified the Monkeyflowers Showy Penstemon © Project SOUND
  7. 7. What family do the Monkeyflowers belong to?  Linnaeus placed the genus Mimulus in Scrophulariaceae, the Figwort Family, and there it remained in botanical literature until the mid 1990s, when, due to the findings of genetic research, the Figwort Family was greatly dismembered. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae - Richard G. Olmstead, Claude W. dePamphilis, Andrea D. Wolfe, Nelson D. Young, Wayne J. Elisons and Patrick A. Reeves, American Journal of Botany. 2001;88:348-361 © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Modern taxonomists base their grouping on similarities at the DNA level  DNA – the ‘code of life’  Plants have DNA from 3 sources:  Nucleus  Mitochonria Passed down from mother  Chloroplast only (maternal DNA) © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Molecular taxonomy groups plants based on similar DNA sequences  DNA is extracted  Then the code is compared for different taxa [for example different ‘species’]  Direct sequencing  Other techniques that look for similarities in key regions of the DNA  Finally, a taxonomic tree is developed based on similarities/ differences between taxa © Project SOUND
  10. 10. The Scropulariacea was a very un-natural ‘family’  ‘…an unnatural assemblage of plants distributed throughout the phylogenetic tree of Lamiales (Mint- like plants).’  Characterized by a suite of generalized traits, which may be plesiomorphic or commonly recurring in the Lamiales.  The lack of distinguishing characters have precluded division into well-defined clades that are traditionally recognized as families.  Additional segregate genera, including Mimulus, await further work to assess their taxonomic status. © Project SOUND
  11. 11. What family do the Monkeyflowers belong to?  Mimulus was placed in Phrymaceae, the Lopseed Family  Now consists of eleven genera and about 190 species.  ‘Mimulus’ is comprised of about 120 species, and about 99 are endemic to western North America and Mexico. About 10 species occur in temperate South America, and the remainder occur in eastern North America (2 species), Australia (4 species), the Himalayan region (4 species), Madagascar (2 species) and South Africa (1 species).14Whatever Happened to the Scrophulariaceae? by Richard G. Olmstead in the journalFremontia, vol 30 #2, April 2002 published by the California Native Plant Society © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Phrymaceae (Lopseed family)  Mainly defined by the following three characteristics:  Tubular, toothed calyces (5 lobes).  Stigmas with two lamellas with sensitive inner surfaces, that close together on contact with a pollinator.  Capsules that are readily dehiscent in the length between the partitions of the locule.  The floral structures can be rather different. Their corollas can be bilaterally or radially symmetrical, making description difficult. © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Phrymaceae - much variability among/between ‘species’  Members occur in diverse habitats, ranging from deserts, river banks or mountains.  They can be annuals or perennials, from < 1 to 15 ft tall.  Even reproduction is brought about by different breeding systems: asexual, self-fertilizing, outcrossing or mixed mating. Some are pollinated by insects, others by hummingbirds. © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma Paul M. Beardsley and Richard G. Olmstead - 2002 Chloroplast trnL/F and nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequence data were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships among members of tribe Mimuleae (Scrophulariaceae) and other closely related families in Lamiales. The results of these analyses led to the following conclusions.  Mimulus is not monophyletic  In light of the molecular evidence, it is clear that species of Phrymaceae (~190 species) have undergone two geographically distinct radiations; one in western North America (~ 130 species) and another in Australia (about 30 species). © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Patterns of evolution inwestern North AmericanMimulus (Phrymaceae)P M. Beardsley, Steve E. Schoenig, Justen B. Whittall and Richard G. Olmstead (2004)  Looked at many common & rare species from Western N. America  Findings suggest that the classification (and nomenclature) may be complex © Project SOUND
  16. 16. A parsimonious tree Note: the shrubby Monkeyflower types cluster together © Project SOUND
  17. 17. continued The herbaceous types are complex – and previous classifications are not entire consistent with the DNA-based evidence © Project SOUND
  18. 18. What does that mean for us as gardeners? Tons of troubles  Even the experts can’t agree right now  Jepson’s manual now lumps many shrubby Monkeyflowers under Diplacus aurantiacus  This extreme lumping probably obscures some evolutional differences – and ones of importance to the gardiner (flower size; color)  Other manuals (and ITIS/Plants) have kept many of the old names/classes  The horticultural trade – in despair – has sometimes used the old names & sometimes made up their own  And then there are those pesky hybrids! © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Most CA taxonomists agree to thefollowing division (at least for now)  Genus Diplacus  Shrubby/bush Monkeyflowers  Really are sub-shrubs – 2-4 ft tall  Flowers usually in reds & oranges  Common in drier areas at mid- elevations (foothills)  Genus Mimulus  Herbaceous Monkeyflowers  Perennials or annuals - < 2 ft tall  Flowers often yellow – but not always  From wet places: low to very high elevations (riparian; seeps; etc.) © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Diplacus aurantiacus © Project SOUND
  21. 21. You may have seen Sticky Monkeyflower in Santa Monica Mtns © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Sticky Monkeyflower is typical of the shrubby Diplacus  rocky hillsides  cliffs  canyon slopes  disturbed areas  borders of coastal sage scrub, chaparral, open forest Dry, open areas with poor soils © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Growth habit and other characteristics  Size: 2-4 ft tall and wide  Narrow glossy sticky dark green leaves  Summer-deciduous in hot climates/gardens  Attractive mounding to sprawling shape  Lives to 10 years – slightly less in gardens, particularly if given summer water  Young leaves can be eaten (a bit bitter, tho’) and were used as an antiseptic for cuts, rope burns, etc. © Project SOUND
  24. 24.  Shape: typical of PhrymaceaeFlowers are also  Tubular, toothed calyces (five lobes).representative….  Stigmas with two lamellas. The stigma lips will close if you poke them with a twig, but will open again later. If pollen was deposited however, they will remain closed.  Capsules that are readily dehiscent in the length between the partitions  Blooms: Mar.-Aug; long-blooming, which can be extended by pruning after first bloom  Flower color: usually buff-orange or light orange; tube usually white with 2 yellow-orange bands  Hummingbird pollinated; but also attracts bees, butterflies (esp. Checkerspots & Buckeyes) © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Light & shrubby Monkeyflowers What is the ‘right’ amount of light?  Dappled shade is probably optimal  High bright shade (under tall trees w/ high canopy  Morning sun (east side of structures; shrubs)  Even northern exposures, as long as they aren’t in dense shade © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Consequences of light regimens  Full sun  Difficult to maintain in our area  Plants will be summer dormant  Plants shorter  Light/part shade  Long bloom season  May be evergreen depending on Water Zone  Good foliage & flower color  Even shadier  Decreased flowering  Almost vine-like habit; like a true groundcover © Project SOUND
  27. 27. * Large-flowered Monkeyflower – Diplacus grandiflora J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  28. 28. * Large-flowered Monkeyflower – Diplacus grandiflora  W. base of Sierras from Plumas & Butte to Placer Co  Rocky places below 5000 ft.  Rocky cliffs, hillsides, canyon slopes, disturbed areas  Borders of chaparral, oak woodland & even conifer forest  Normally grows on granitic soils  AKA: Azalea-flower Monkeyflower  In the trade:  Mimulus bifidus  Diplacus aurantiacus grandiflora © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Large-flowered Monkeyflower: smaller shrub  Size:  1-3 ft tall  3-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Semi-deciduous sub-shrub  Upright (sunnier) to more sprawling habit; more refined looking than others  Lives 10-20+ years  Foliage:  Leaves linear to lance-shaped  Medium to dark green; sticky on hot days  Reminiscent of azaleas  Larval food – Buckeye butterfliesJ. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences  Roots: fibrous – good soil-binding © Project SOUND © 2000 Joseph Dougherty/
  30. 30. Showiest of the Bush Monkeyflowers  Blooms:  In spring – usually Apr-Jul in western L.A. county  Flowers:  Large size – up to 2” across  Color: varies, but often mid- to light orange with darker throat markings  Look very azalea-like  Numerous blooms – probably the most showy  Seeds: numerous tiny seeds (look like fine grind pepper) in dry papery capsule © Project SOUND
  31. 31. J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS DatabaseBrother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  32. 32.  Soils:One tough customer..  Texture: well-drained (sandy or rocky)  pH: any local (to pH of 5)  Light:  Part-shade is best; dappled shade or high shade from trees is ideal  Needs afternoon shade Brother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with occasional water – Zone 2 or even 2-3 in sandy soils  Will lose leaves – but survive – Zone 1-2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Large-flowered Monkeyflower: a show-stopper  In shady areas under trees – even near lawns with excellent drainage  Fine under oaks and otherJo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences summer-dry trees  Good choice for slopes – nice groundcover  Adds beauty and habitat value to the butterfly & hummingbird garden  As an attractive pot plant © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Watering the shrubby Monkeyflowers  Many do best with very good drainage – sandy or rocky soils are optimal  Most actually have a wide summer water tolerance in well-drained soils  More water (Zone 2 to 2-3)  Evergreen & lush  Possibly longer bloom season & more blooms  Likely shortens life  Less water (Zone 1-2 to 2)  Less prone to deer damage© 2000 Joseph Dougherty/  Better for plant health – longer life (15- 20 years possible)  Will lose it’s leaves and look like dead sticks (or very sickly) © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Several natural cultivars are available‘Esselen’ ‘White’ © Project SOUND
  36. 36. * Southern Bush Monkeyflower – Diplacus longiflorus http://www.laspili of- california/plants/ diplacus- longiflorus Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  37. 37. * Southern Bush Monkeyflower – Diplacus longiflorus  Southern CA: southwestern (ocean-influenced) & interior  San Gabriels; Verdugo Mtns, Chino Hills, foothills of OR Co.  Dry, coast and intermountain slopes to 5000 ft. – often on outcroppings, in intermittant streams or under oaks  In trade:calrecnum=5530  Diplacus auranticaus longiflorus  Mimulus longiflorus © Project SOUND © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College
  38. 38. Flowers: light orange or yellow (usually)  Blooms: in spring, usually Mar- July in our area  Flowers:  Typical Monkeyflower shape, but large size  Corollas are noticeably longer than other species (hence its name)  Flower color ranges from light toffee-orange, yellow to almost white; variable even within a single garden  Seeds: many tiny seeds in papery capsule typical of genus© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint MarysCollege © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Managing bush Monkeyflowers: follow Mother Nature’s cues  To keep your plant dense, pinch back new growth in spring/early summer  Cut back watering after flowering  Plants will need yearly reshaping - old growth becomes leggy, brittle.  Once the wood has hardened, prune off at least one-third to one-half of each stem, leaving a few inches of the current years wood. © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Forcing flowering with native Monkeyflowers – the choice is yours  If you treat them like a regular garden plant (deadhead, water & fertilizer) theyll flower for months and months  But theyll live for only a few years if you continually push the flowers.  They basically flower themselves to death. © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Diplacus linearis : similar to Sticky Monkeyflower but with narrower leaves © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Diplacus puniceus – one choice for reds ‘Pumpkin’ form J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database fornia_monkey_flower.html Grows in Orange & San Diego counties, Catalina © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Island Bush Monkeyflower – Diplacus parviflorusGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Island Bush Monkeyflower – Diplacus parviflorus  An ‘Island endemic’ - N. Channel Islands & San Clemente Island  Canyons & bluffs; often in part- shade © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Island Bush Monkeyflower: typical Diplacus  Size:  2-3 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Semi-deciduous sub-shrub  Perhaps a bit more woody than other species  Foliage:  Medium to dark green  Leave lance-shaped; glossy & sticky  Attractive© 2003 Loretta Metz © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Flowers contrast beautifully with the foliage  Blooms:  In spring – usually Mar-June or July  Fairly long bloom season  Flowers:  Medium size for Bush Monkeyflowers (~ 1 inch across)  Usually bright crimson red – but may be slightly orange; remind one of Catalina Snapdragon or CA Fuschia  Extremely showy – one of best flower colorsRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Collecting Monkeyflower seeds - easy  Let the capsules dry on the plant  Collect the capsules; place in a paper bag in a cool, dry place for several weeks  Either:  Break open capsules by hand  Rub over a mesh screen; separate seeds from chaff by pouring through a finer mesh  Store in a labeled envelope in a cool, dry place © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Growing shrubby monkeyflowers from seed  Start in spring (or indoors)  Most locally grown seed need no treatment; mountain & N. CA seed may need cold-moist treatment (stratification)  Mix seed with fine, dry sand (to aid in spreading)  Prepare pots – regular potting mix fine – water well & place in bright place  Sprinkle sand/seed mixture over potting soil  Water seeds in; keep soil moist © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Island Monkeyflower  Soils: is undemanding  Texture: well-drained best, but clays OK  pH: any local  Light:  Morning sun or dappled/light shade for best color & growth  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with occasional water – Zone 2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Use Island Monkeyflower for a touch of red  As an attractive pot plant © Project SOUND© 2004 Heath McAllister
  51. 51. * Santa Susanna Bush Monkeyflower – Diplacus rutilus © Project SOUND© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College
  52. 52. Diplacus rutilus - Santa Susana Monkey Flower © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Most CA native Monkeyflowers have warm-colored flowers/foliage http://www.wildflower .org/plants/result.php ?id_plant=DIGR5 Show.htm Like CA Poppies, they add a ‘spot of sunlight’ to the garden © Project SOUND
  54. 54. in so many settings © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Why so much variability in the Monkeyflowers? Two ‘forms’ of Diplacus puniceus © Project SOUND
  56. 56. How do species arise/develop? Howdoes this relate to the Monkeyflowers?  Speciation: The evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by the division of a single species into two or more genetically distinct ones.  Allopatric Speciation -- speciation occurs in geographic isolation – many mountain (& even foothill) species/populations have been separated for 1000’s of years  Founder Effect Speciation -- a special kind of allopatric speciation in a small isolated population on the edge of a species range – ‘Island Endemics’ © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Artificial (and natural) garden hybridization has occurred in annual Mimulus for years  In Britain, CA native Mimulus guttatus & M. moschatus have hybridized naturally with Chilean M. luteus and M. cupreus  Artificial crosses were made with Australian & Indian varieties and with CA native M. bigelowii from S. CA deserts to obtain spotted & pink forms © 2004 James M. Andre  These have now naturalized in many parts of the British Isles © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Recently, the hybridizing trend has spread to the shrubby Monkeyflowers  Plant breeders have had a field day with the perennial monkeyflowers.  Major breeders: Richard Persoff, David Verity (UCLA), Phil Van Soelen (Cal Flora Nursery) Donald Sexton at UC Davis Arboretum, and Lee Lenz at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.  Native plant nurseries such as Yerba Buena Nursery, Tree of Life Nursery, Theodore Payne Foundation, and Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, and others have gotten into the business.  Every year there seem to be more/new/better cultivars every year!!!!. © Project SOUND
  59. 59. David Verity  20-year breeding program with bush monkeyflowers at the UCLA Botanic Garden [Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden].  Goal: true breeding strains with large flowers  Developed many hybrids, some with colors not seen in nature, such as violet-red and pink. ‘Valentine’  Program curtailed when the university needed his growing grounds for other purposes. Cuttings/seeds to interested nurseries and botanic gardens before plants were destroyed.  Some still available: the vivid red Valentine, the white-throated Ruby Silver, the durable orange cultivar fittingly just called Hybrid Orange and the eponymous Verity White. ‘Ruby Silver’ © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Richard Persoff  Started collecting seeds and cuttings of interesting natural varieties of CA species 40 years ago  Goal: plants that are vigorous and pest-resistant; has also selected for non-sticky cultivars.  Has produced some promising material that is being sold under the name, ‘Persoff’s Hybrids’. The following all belong to this group:  ‘Becky’: Apricot-colored blossoms.  ‘Grady’: Golden-yellow flowers.  ‘Jack’: Burgundy-red flowers.  ‘Maddie’: Palest cream-colored blossoms.  ‘Miranda’: Light orange flowers.  ‘Sam’: Pale, butter-yellow flowers.  ‘Trish’: Dusky rose-pink blossoms. © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Scott Trees – Ornamental Plant Breeder  Ph.D. Plant Genetics - Senior Plant Breeder New Crops at Ball Horticultural Company ; Senior Plant Breeder New Crops at PanAmerican Seed Company  Ball Ornamental Plants ‘Curious Monkeyflower Series’ - wild-collected monkeyflowers crossed with ‘commercial material’  Goal: profuse displays of large, frilly flowers borne on compact plants  First released in 2010  Peek-a-Boo White, others in this series include Georgie Yellow (AKA Georgie Boy Yellow), Georgie Red (AKA Kissable Red) and Georgie Tangerine (AKA Tempting Tangerine).‘Georgie Red’ / ‘Kissable Red’ © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Mimulus hybrids – yellows Georgie White ‘Sam’ ‘Georgie Yellow’ ‘Jellybean Gold’ ‘Payne’s Yellow’ © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Mimulus hybrids - oranges lay.asp?plant_id=3548 ‘Dos Equis’ ‘Peach’ Georgie Tangerine ‘Verity Hybrid Orange’ ‘Jelly Bean Light Orange’ ‘Pumpkin’ © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Mimulus hybrids - reds ‘Jack’ hybrid ‘Ruby Silver’ ‘Valentine’ ‘Jellybean Dark Pink’ _list.asp?cat_id=9&page=19 ‘Georgie Red’ ‘Trish’ © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Many good things about the hybrids…  Glorious color palette: any warm color is possible – pastel to bright  Flowers large & showy – like azaleas or some tropical plant  Some of them have other desirable traits:  Compact  Less sticky  May be more ‘garden hardy’ – take a little more water, etc.  All of these features increase interest in CA native plants ‘Trish’ © Project SOUND
  66. 66. My misgivings about the hybrids… Parentage (particularly as the breeding gets more into the hands of traditional plant breeders rather than CA native plant enthusiasts) Integrity of local native species & varieties – particularly in a family known for both hybridization and naturalization Unintended consequences of breeding:  Loss of habitat value  Loss of vigor  Loss of drought-tolerance Many have not been in gardens very long – so we don’t really know how well they’ll do © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Producing new hybrids at home  Select two parent species with desirable characteristics  Hand pollinate (making sure that your pollen is the only pollen that is allowed to pollinate)  Collect the seedsReally no different frombreeding orchids or other  Grow up the plants to seetypes of plants – just requires what you get – will likely betime & patience a real mixture of traits © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Scarlet Monkeyflower - Mimulus cardinalis © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Growing Scarlet Monkeyflower is ease itself!  Quite easy  Light: partial shade is best; tolerates full sun to full shade  Soils: any texture: pH from acid to alkali – very versatile  Water: one of the “water- loving” monkeyflowers © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Uses in the garden  On slopes, as a ground cover  Bordering paths and roads  In planters (probably also large pots)  In informal garden beds  In hummingbird gardens  Wet spots in the garden (low spots; under birdbath; where it receives sprinkler spray)  Beside ponds and streams  It can grow in a pond setting as well, as long as the crown is above the waterline © Project SOUNDNov/WildlifeGardens1102/WildlifeGarden11021.html
  71. 71. ** Mimulus cardinalis natural cultivars ‘Yellow’ – natural cultivar from WA state Santa Cruz Island Gold © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Why the interesting coloration? Surely not to attract us – or is it….?  It turns out the Monkeyflowers can tell us a great deal about the co- evolution of flowers & their pollinators daylight UV light © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Kelsey J.R.P. Byers (grad student, U of WA) is using M. cardinalis hybrids to study plant-pollinator interactionsMimulus cardinalis hummingbird  Studies are providing answers to:  Genetics of flower color and scent Artificial hybrids production  The cues pollinators use to findMimulus lewisii appropriate flowers bumblebee © Project SOUND
  74. 74. But maybe you were thinking of something more petite….. © Project SOUND
  75. 75. * Primrose Monkeyflower – Mimulus primuloides© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  76. 76. * Primrose Monkeyflower – Mimulus primuloides  Primarily NW CA - Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada  var. (ssp) primuloides - locally in San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Mt. Pinos  var (ssp) linearis – very short – N. CA  Moist meadows, seeps & stream sides to 11000 © Project SOUND© 2001 Steve Schoenig
  77. 77. Primrose Monkeyflower is small & dainty  Size:  6-12 in tall; ssp. linearis is < 6 in  to 12 in wide; slowly increases  Growth form:  Evergreen herbaceous perennial  Low, even mat-like habitGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences  Foliage:  Leaves opposite; variable in shape,  Variable in color from green to purple-green, shaggy-hairy to hairless © Project SOUND © 2001 Steve Schoenig
  78. 78. Flowers: suspended like violets above the foliage  Blooms:  Summer-bloomer in wild  Usually Spring to early summer (May-July) in local gardens  Flowers: © 2003 Steve Matson  Mid-size ( ½ - 1 inch across)  Bright yellow; often with red splotches  Relatively ‘open’ but with long throat – ‘hummingbird plant’  Held above the foliage – really nice presentation!  Vegetative reproduction: adds new plants on outside of clump © Project SOUNDCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  79. 79. Dividing the clumping perennial Monkeyflowers is easy  Wait until late winter/early spring – when you start to see new growth  Simply divide, making sure you include adequate roots  Repot – then treat gently (shade; no fertilizer) for ~ 4-6 weeks until rooting is complete © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Primrose Monkeyflower  Soils: likes a drink  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local but best if slightly acidic (5.0-7.0)  Light:  Full sun (with abundant water) to part-shade  Water:  Winter: fine with winter flooding  Summer: moist ground or right at water’s edge (Zone 3)  Fertilizer: fine (slightly decreased strength) or supply leaf mulch  Other: ‘difficult to grow’ only because of water requirements © Project SOUND© 2007 Neal Kramer
  81. 81. Grow Primrose Monkeyflower in damp places  Perfect for the bog or rain garden  In a well-watered pot  Around water features: streams,J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences waterfalls, fountains  Even tucked into corners of the veggie garden © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Human uses of Mimulus species  Mimulus species tend to concentrate sodium chloride and other salts absorbed from the soils in which they grow in their leaves and stem tissues.  Native Americans & early travelers in the American West used this plant as a salt substitute to flavor wild game.  The entire plant is edible, but reported to be very salty and bitter unless well cooked.  The juice squeezed from the plants foliage was used as a soothing poultice for minor burns and skin irritations.[ Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Annual (and short-lived perennial) Monkeyflowers often grow in seasonally moist places © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Seep (Common Yellow) Monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Seep (Common Yellow) Monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus  Found: Western N. America from Canada to N. Mexico  Former names: many (but not used in horticultural world)  Common habitats:  Moist to wet soils of springs, seeps, marshes, meadows, and stream banks  Generally terrestrial but sometimes found emergent or floating in mats © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Mimulus species are helping push back the frontiers of science  Several taxa, namely the yellow monkey-flowers (M. guttatus and relatives) and the section Erythranthe (including e.g. M. lewisii, M. cardinalis and M. parishii) are model organisms for research in ecology, genetics and genomics.  Why good model organisms?  Relatively small genome  High genetic diversity  Live in variety of environments – even within a species  Short generation time  Easy to make hybrid crosses  Natural hybridization barriers – wide range  The genome sequence of Mimulus guttatus was released in late spring, 2007. © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Mimulus guttatis sheds light on ecology: Microscale local adaptation on a thermal gradient  In Yellowstone Park, Mimulus guttatus is one of the few plant species growing in hot soils near thermal pools/vents.  Plants in thermal soils flower months earlier and senesce earlier due to rapid drying of the thermal soils.  Common garden experiments suggest that phenological (early bolting), morphological (short internodes, smaller flowers), and mating system (high self-fertility) differences between thermal and nonthermal Mimulus guttatus have a substantial genetic component.  This adaptive differentiation limits thermal-nonthermal gene flow at one high elevation site, but differentiation isab/FISHmanlab_Research_Adapt.html maintained in the face of substantial gene flow at the lower elevations. What we learn from the Monkeyflowers may play an important role in how we face the challenges of global climate change © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Many-flowered Monkeyflower – Mimulus floribundus © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Consider using annual Monkeyflowers  Edges of ponds (or in them)  Regularly watered flower beds  Under the bird bath; near fountains  Naturally damp areas of the garden; use with sedges (Carex) and rushes (Juncus)  In the wildflower garden/ prairie  In the vegetable garden – leaves & flowers are edible © Project SOUND
  90. 90. * Parish’s Monkeyflower – Mimulus parishii © 2001 Steve Schoenig © Project SOUND
  91. 91. * Parish’s Monkeyflower – Mimulus parishii  Plant of the desert foothills:  s Sierra Nevada, Southwestern California (and adjacent w Desert – desert side of San Gabriel mtns)  Desert Mountains (Granite, New York, Panamint mtns) ,7386,7431  Uncommon in wet, sandy stream sides, primarily in pinyon-juniper woodlands © Project SOUND
  92. 92. The Parish Brothers were important early plant collectors in S. CA Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838-1928) and William Fletcher Parish (1840-1918) - botanical collectors who lived on a ranch in San Bernardino, California They made extensive exploring trips through the mountains and deserts of the inland empire. Samuel was the more devoted of the two and corresponded with and was on very familiar terms with many of the leading botanists of the day "William served in the Civil War. Later he live in Long Beach. By 1906 he was living at Redondo, and later in Hermosa Beach.“ Many plant names honor these important collectors: Allium parishii, Atriplex parishii, Chaenactis parishii, Chamaesyce parishii, Cheilanthes parishii and many others endemic to Riverside and San Bernardino counties © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Parish’s Monkeyflower – quite a different look  Size:  < 1 ½ ft tall  1 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Erect habit; stout with substantial side-branching  Foliage:  Leaves simple, somewhat succulent; entire plant is hairy  Color: attractive light green © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Flowers: so sweet…  Blooms:  Summer in local mtns  Probably spring (Apr-June) in local gardens  Flowers: just exquisite  Small (< ½ inch)  Pale shell pink/purple with yellow markings  Lovely, old-fashioned look  Seeds:  Many little seeds  Experiment with cold treatment; follow seller’s instructions or ask © Project SOUND© 2009 James M. Andre
  95. 95. Annual Monkeyflowers: are annual wildflowersat heart  Soils:  Texture: any; well-drained best  pH: any local  Light: full sun or light shade  Water:  Winter: needs moist soils  Summer: let plants dry out after flowering ceases  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel/crushed rock mulch © Project SOUND
  96. 96. *Calico Monkeyflower – Mimulus pictusMark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  97. 97. *Calico Monkeyflower – Mimulus pictus  Southernmost Sierra Nevada and adjacent Tehachapi Mountains in Tulare and Kern Counties  Bare, sunny areas around shrubs, rock outcrops on granitic soils - elevation 300 – 4200 ft.  Forest and woodland habitat © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Calico Monkeyflower – a tiny delight!  Size:  usually 6-12 inches tall  ~ ½ - 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Upright with little branching  Foliage:  Medium green; stems and leaves may be red- or purple tinged  Leaves ovalish to lance-shaped; entire plant hairy © Project SOUNDMark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  99. 99. Flowers are tiny….  Blooms: in spring (Mar-May)  Flowers:  Small (< ½ inch across)  Petals very simple – flower looks flat and not much like a Monkeyflower  Color: white with maroon markings – very unique and showy (looks like calico print, hence the common name)  Capsules: small (~ ¼ inch) , papery with many little seeds© 2006 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Annual Monkeyflowers: easy from seed  Will re-seed nicely if happy; deadhead if you don’t want seedlings © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: likes well-drained sandy or rocky – any will do  pH: any local – pH down to 5.5  Light:  Morning sun to light shade.  Fine under taller trees  Water:  Winter: soil needs to be moist - supplement if needed  Summer: taper off after flowering is completed  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel/crushed rock mulch facilitates re-seeding© 2006 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Garden uses for Calico Monkeyflower  An unusual addition to any hanging basket.  Trailing over moist walls - Mimulus pictus is gorgeousMark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database trailing down, its bloom is an ivory white with beautiful, intricate markings.  Lovely amongst Goldenrods, Miner’s lettuce, etc.  Growing between stepping stones © Project SOUND
  103. 103. We’ve learned many things about our fascinating (and unique) CA native Monkeyflowers © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Look around your garden – there’s surely room for at least 1 Monkeyflower Visit Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden & Nurseries soon for inspirationSOUND © Project
  105. 105. Now let’s raffel off our Seep Monkeyflower © Project SOUND