The Name Game - Notes


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The Name Game - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden The Name Game: Taxonomy, Local & Island Endemic Plants C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants March 6th & 9th, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Scientific names were developed to What’s in a name? Scientific names get around some of the limitations of common names  Common names  Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)  Are the names that most  Swedish botanist and physician gardener’s (and others) use  Considered the “father” of modern taxonomy  Developed from common use, over time  Was a keen observer of plants  Described nature as a Divinely-inspired  Often describe some harmonious system in which every distinctive feature of the organism fulfills a specific role to plant - or where it came from maintain the general balance  Named approximately 4,400 species of  Problems with common names: animals and 7,700 species of plants.  The same name may be used to  Was the first to consistently use a describe several, very binomial system of classification, different plants giving organisms a one-word general name (called the genus) associated  Do not imply any relationship with a one-word specific epithet. between plants – loss ofCatalina Snapdragon important informationGambelia (Galvezia) speciosa His many publications encouraged the standardization of binomial nomenclature © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013  Taxonomy: the systematic Charles Darwin and ‘TheWhat’s in a name? study and classification of plants and animals Origin of Species’  ‘Artificial’ (for convenient ‘pigeon- hole’ing)  Insights:  ‘Natural’ (reflecting underlying  The environment shapes biologic/evolutionary connections) which individuals survive & pass on their genetic  Linnaean taxonomy was actually an material (genes) ‘artificial’ system – but he was an excellent observer, so it did  Given enough time, new reflect natural connections (ie, species can arise from things that are genetically related often tend to share physical ancestral ones (morphologic) traits)  There are true biologic  True ‘Natural’ systematics relationships – in the past – required 1) better microscopes; between some species. 2) increasing interest in plant morphology; 3) an understanding  You can determine these of the concept of species & relationships through evolution – e.g., Charles Darwin studying similarities and differences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Plant Systematics: the interrelationship The scientific name between ‘natural’ taxonomy, evolution and  Ideally, a new species is given a formal, scientific name phylogeny  The generic name is listed first (with its first letter capitalized), followed by a second term, the specific name (or specific epithet)  International Code of Botanical Nomenclature – specifies the format and conventions  U.S. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) - facilitates sharing biologic info. by providing a common framework for taxonomic data Catalina Snapdragon  Sometimes regional experts don’t Gambelia speciosa Nutt. agree with ITIS © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 What is a species?  Some definitions of species  Biological Species Concept - they cannot interbreed & produce viable offspring; interbreeding studies  Morphospecies Concept - they are Lyonothamnus floribundus different morphologically and do not ssp. aspleniifolius come in contact for interbreeding  Genetic Species Concept – still working on Kingdom Plantae – Plants this – how similar must they be toSubkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants constitute a species?Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plantsDivision Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants  Practical definition - Practically, biologists define species as populations ofClass Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons organisms that have a high level ofSubclass Asteridae genetic similarity.Order ScrophularialesFamily Scrophulariaceae – Figwort family  The field of taxonomy is changing withGenus Gambelia Nutt. – greenbright our increasingly sophisticated toolsSpecies Gambelia speciosa Nutt. – showy greenbright Lyonothamnus floribundus © Project SOUND ssp. floribundus © Project SOUND How do species arise/develop? How The Channel Islands of California are does this relate to island species? unique places  The four Southern  Speciation: The evolutionary Channel Islands are formation of new biological San Nicolas, Santa species, usually by the division of a Barbara, Santa single species into two or more Catalina, and San genetically distinct ones. Clemente.  Allopatric Speciation -- speciation  Catalina - 26 miles & occurs in geographic isolation in many ways our closest neighbor  Founder Effect Speciation -- a special kind of allopatric speciation  San Clemente – 49 in a small isolated population on miles – a bit more the edge of a species range distant in several ways © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Traveling by ti-at /EarlyPhotos/TongvaCanoeEtching.j Channel Islands – magical places that some people pg never want to leave  The Tongva people lived on Catalina Island for over 7,000 years. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND /images%3Fq%3Dcatalina%2Bisland%2Bcalifornia%26start%3D270%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1 What is unique about islands? What is unique about islands?  Separated from the mainland by water  Sometimes for great distances  Sometimes for long periods  May have different climate  Moister – more  May have unusual/steep terrain – are really mountain peaks fog and rain  May have different rocks & soils from mainland  Warmer –  May have limited area insulated by ocean  Limits the number of species & individuals  Increases the effects of human interventions © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Some species are endemic to Catalina What is unique about islands? © 2006 BonTerra Consulting  Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. floribundus 20,000 years ago, this unique sub-species of ironwood tree grew abundantly on the mainland. Now, this tree exists nowhere else in the world but Catalina.  Cercocarpus traskiae The rarest of the Catalina endemics. Only seven of these small shrubs or trees occur naturally in a single canyon.  Eriogonum giganteum var. giganteum Often have unique flora and fauna – and fauna may effect flora. Grows on dry, rocky slopes throughout Catalinas interior. Changes with Example: plants may not be subject to certain diseases or to large the seasons - from white in the spring, to beige, light brown, then deep russet in the fall herbivores (sheep)  . © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Also endemic to Catalina Other common Catalina plants are more widely distributed…including on the mainland  Heteromeles arbutifolia - Toyon  Rhus integrifolia – Lemonadeberry  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii This sub-species is a Catalina endemic.  Ribes viburnifolium Used in landscaping as a native ground cover for shady areas. Extremely fragrant. Grows in San Diego Co. as well as on Catalina  Eriodictyon traskiae Dudleya hassei This evergreen shrub has a pungent fragrance The only Catalina endemic which is a succulent. Look for it on the slope at and sprawling growth habit. Yerba Santa occurs on Catalina and in coastal Ventura and San Luis the foot of the Wrigley Memorial. Obispo Counties. Arctostaphylos catalinae When the manzanita fruit ripens, its color resembles the brilliant wine-red  Solanum wallacei bark - and the ground squirrels love it. A member of the deadly nightshade family, the Wild Tomato also occurs on other Channel Galium catalinense ssp. catalinense Islands and Guadalupe, off the coast of Mexico. A perennial herb found mostly on rocky outcroppings on the lee side of Catalina. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013Catalina Ceanothus - Ceanothus arboreus Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus  Native to Catalina. Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz & Guadalupe Islands  Source of many commercial cultivars – ‘Ray Hartmen’ is C. arboreus X C. griseus hybrid © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus  Coast of S. CA from Santa Barbara to San var. insularis Diego Co. – CA endemic  var. insularis – Channel Isl. (Catalina & San Clemente in south)  var. megacarpus – mainland (Santa Monica Mtns our nearest) var. megacarpus  Dry, chaparral slopes below 2000 ft. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 var. insularis var. megacarpus  May be slightly larger  Sometimes a bit shorter  Leaves, generally alternate and slightly smaller  Leaves opposite and slightly larger  Grows on the mainland  Grows on most of the  ??? Other, as yet unknown Channel Islands differences (chemicals; disease resistance; heat resistance; etc) In Santa Monica Mountains © 2001 CDFA Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Characteristics of Big-pod Ceanothus ‘Covered with snow-like flowers’  Size:  Blooms:  4-16 ft tall  In winter to early spring; usually  8-10 ft wide Jan.-March  Growth form:  Bloom period - weeks  Upright (more common) or  Flowers: sprawling woody shrub  Clusters of small flowers  Compact & dense  Petals white to slightly pink or  Young bark reddish purple  Foliage:  Dark purple center  Simple leaves – rounded to  Fruits: wedge-like – typical Ceanothus  Lumpy spherical capsule leaves  Red-green & sticky  Leaves are upright on branches  In three parts; each part holds aJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Roots: shallow; not basal burl, so no seed re-sprouting after fire © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2009 Gary A. Monroe 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Why the ‘soapy’  Ceanothus flowers (& sometimes Big-pod Ceanothus leaves) were used to make a mild flowers? soap or shampoo – preferred soap reproduces by stored seeds for washing babies  Rub the flowers in warm water –  Cannot reproduce by re-sprouting get a soapy, nice-smelling froth after a fire – relies on seeds stored in the ‘natural mulch’  Why? saponins - plants that (duff) - ~ 2 million seeds/acre contain quite high concentrations of saponins have often been used  Seed pods burst open, flinging as an alternative soap. the heavy seeds  Other examples – CA natives:  Seeds have thick, tough seed  Soap Lily (Chlorogalum coat – can lie in waiting for years pomeridianum) roots (probably hundreds of years)  Yucca roots  Mock Orange (Philadelphus  Ceanothus seeds only germinate lewisii) flowers & leaves in response to range fires and forest fires in the wild. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDBig-pod Ceanothus  Soils: Big-pod Ceanothus – spectacularis a chaparral shrub  Texture: rocky or sandy best in bloom, pretty the rest of the – needs well-drained soil  pH: any local year  Light:  Nice as an informal hedge – or  Full sun to light shade include it in a hedgerow  Benefits from afternoon shade in hot inland gardens  Can prune to shape into a small tree  Water:  In a chaparral-themed garden  Winter: needs good winter rains  Anywhere you need a large,  Summer: low needs – Zone 1- water-wise shrub 2 (water very infrequently, if at all, once established)  As a habitat plant - CA Hairstreak, Green Hairstreak  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; larval food likes an organic mulch J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Big-pod Ceanothus teaches us 5 Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii things about S. CA island species Sometimes the same species is found on both the islands and on the mainland2. Variants are similar enough to be grouped in the same species – yet different enough to be considered the different variants.3. Differences between variants can reflect the fact that the variants have not interbred for some time (have ‘drifted’ apart); alternatively the ‘founder’ plants could have differed from the original (usually mainland) population in significant ways4. Taxonomy based on morphologic (physical) traits can be difficult – what’s important?5. Sometimes it makes sense to preserve variants – particularly those from unusual sites. They may have important differences Donald Myrick © California Academy of Sciences that we don’t even know about © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii  Endemic to San Clemente Island  When a species is named,  Rocky canyon walls in it is placed within a island bluff scrub genus. From a scientific point of view this can be  The only problem is, regarded as a hypothesis what genus does it that the species is more belong in? closely related to other species within its genus –,1868,1869 may change with new information © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 What is the appropriate genus? Blair’s wire-lettuce/Munzothamnus - attractive sub-shrub  Has been placed in several taxonomic homes.  Size:  Initially placed in Stephanomeria;  2-4 ft tall  3-4 ft wide  Transferred to Malacothrix (P. Munz 1935).  P. H. Raven (1963) considered it "clearly a  Growth form: relictual and highly isolated genus," based on  Sub-shrub with woody base and leaf shape & vegetative architecture, which herbaceous new growth are significantly distinct from those found in any species of Stephanomeria or  Semi-evergreen (stress Malacothrix. He erected Munzothamnus for deciduous) it. Recent genetic studies suggest he may  Stems thick & fleshyStephanomeria – Wire-lettuce be correct – not similar to Stephanomeria  Foliage:  Others emphasized similarities to Stephanomeria - concluded that the species  Bright to medium-green leaves belongs in Stephanomeria (G. L. Stebbins et – medium size al. 1953). :  Mostly clustered at the base or  similar number/appearance of chromosomes at ends of branches  certain similarities between their pappi  Quite attractive, even when not (number and "coarseness") blooming  pollen size and sculpturing Malacothrix – Cliff Aster © Project SOUND © Rick York and CNPS © Project SOUND Flowers are lovely Likes a coastal climate  Soils:  Texture: sandy or rocky,  Blooms: well-drained soils  In summer - usually July-Aug,  pH: any local but possible into Sept.  Flowers open over several weeks  Light:  Full sun to part-sun; suggest  Flowers: some afternoon shade in hot Robert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Aster-like (or Wire-lettuce-like) gardens heads  Water:  Lovely pale pink or purple – nice, old-fashioned color  Winter: needs good winter rains – starts to grow with  Nectar attracts hummingbirds, the rains bees, butterflies and other  Summer: wide tolerance: insects quite dry (Zone 1-2) to Zone 2 (possibly even 2-3 in sandy  Seeds: soils)  Small, sunflower-type  Seed-eating birds love them  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © 2005 Dieter Wilken © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Blair’s Munzothamnus is a Why do names keep changing? nice flowering perennial  Traditionally, researchers relied on observations of  Has not been used much in gardens anatomical differences and due to rarity. interbreeding studies to distinguish species. This  Lovely in an old-fashioned mixed information is still used in native perennial bed. Looks like an helping to define species. English garden plant.  Try with Cirsium occidentale,  Thanks to advances in research techniques, including DNA Delphinium cardinale, Mimulus analysis, a great deal of aurantiacus, Eriophyllum nevinii additional knowledge about the (another island endemic) differences and similarities between species has become  Does fine in a large pot (at least available in the last few for several years) decades.© 2005 Dieter Wilken  Flowers make nice cut flowers Also a good habitat plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Why do names keep changing? Lessons from Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii 1. Island species can be very different from  Many populations which were local mainland species formerly regarded as separate 2. Taxonomists can disagree – and often do species are now considered to be a so over time single taxon, and many formerly 3. New scientific tools can change the grouped populations have been split. classification of a plant a. Scanning electron microscope – seed &  Any taxonomic level (species, genus, pollen details Lump with Stephanomeria or family, etc.) can be synonymized or b. Molecular genetics (DNA analysis) – can does it deserve its own split, and at higher taxonomic look for similarities in actual genetic code; genus? levels, these revisions have been allows construction of genetic trees that still more profound. may be closer to the actual course of evolution 4. Taxonomic classifications are becoming more ‘natural’ over time (reflect underlying biology/evolution). This can be frustrating for the gardener, but invaluable for our understanding of © Rick York and CNPS plants. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Cercocarpus traskiae Cercocarpus traskiae  A single population in an arroyo on Santa Catalina Island  Slopes of a steep-sided, narrow, dry arroyo in a coastal sage scrub community  Named in honor of Blanch Trask naturalist – 1865-1916  On both U.S. and CA Endangered Species lists,6695,6705 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Catalina Mountain Mahogany Threats to endemic ‘Island’ plant species  Size:  10-15 ft tall  Large introduced herbivores have historically altered the  8-12+ ft wide flora and the landscape of Santa Catalina, San Clemente &  Growth form: other Channel Islands.  Large evergreen shrub or  Goats, pigs, bison, and deer were noted at the time of listing of small tree C. traskiae as a threatened species. The small size of the current C. traskiae population is attributed to the historical  Branches erect to spreading presence of goats, deer, and pigs  Long-lived  Invasive non-native plants pose as increasing threat now &  Foliage: in the future – increase fire threat  Leaves leathery, shiny above  Threat of hybridization – ‘genetic assimilation’ and wooly beneath  Very prominent lateral veins  Threat of limited genetic diversity – sometimes a small beneath – very different population becomes too inbred to be able to survive from Island Mountain Mahogany C. betuloides© 1993 Dean Wm. Taylor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 The problem of hybridization: What makes a species susceptible to genetic can be insidious. assimilation? Cercocarpus traskiae is a case study  Cercocarpus traskiae has hybridized locally with C. betuloides var.  Small number of individuals blancheae, which also occurs compared to other local species naturally on the island.  Ability to hybridize with local  The hybrids have been species – and close geographic characterized morphologically as well proximity to those as by enzyme (allozyme) and DNA differences.  Low genetic diversity – may limit reproduction within the species  Morphological assessments of hybridization have not always agreed  Low geographic diversity/lack of with the genetic results space – common problem for Channel Island species  Bottom line: only six genetically “pure” Cercocarpus traskiae trees in  Invasion by species with existance hybridization potential ts/islandmountainmahogany.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Management strategies for What genetic resources should we conserve endangered plant species (and why)?  For aesthetic/moral reasons  Because we don’t know all the ‘services’  Remove species that may hybridize with the desired species provided by individual species (medicines; habitat value; etc)  Remove other pressures to reproduction – e.g. herbivores that eat seedlings, other stressors – protect the remaining  Because more diversity means more likely individuals as source plants that species will survive changing conditions – in the near future  +/- Remove hybrid plants/seedlings usTraskiae.html  Loss of species uniquely adapted to certain  Save seeds – long-term storage conditions – we may need those genes  Vegetative propagation to create more individuals sometime  Plant out in appropriate sites:  Outbreeding/hybridization depression  Local area  Probably other reasons – need to study  Otherwise appropriate conditions more  No potential hybridizing species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii  Endemic to the Channel Islands – specifically Catalina & San Clemente Islands and Isla Guadalupe (Baja)  Uncommon in nature  Grows on rocky, grassy slopes, coastal canyons in coastal shrublands & CSS  Named after the Reverand Joseph Cook Nevin (1835-1913), of Los Angeles, a brilliant linguist and botanical collector, one of the first to collect on Catalina Island © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSan Clemente Island 49 miles from the mainland _am3z-EUbQKb3KDDSYghnFbRg9ww=&h=400&w=294&sz=22&hl=en&start=27&itbs=1&tbnid=cjb- xVNWpVZ78M:&tbnh=124&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsan%2Bclemente%2Bisland%2Bcalifornia%26start%3D18%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2 © Project SOUND %26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1 © Project SOUND 14