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The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
The Name Game - Notes
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The Name Game - Notes

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  • 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden The Name Game: Taxonomy, Local & Island Endemic Plants C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants March 6th & 9th, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Scientific names were developed to What’s in a name? Scientific names get around some of the limitations of common names  Common names  Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)  Are the names that most  Swedish botanist and physician gardener’s (and others) use  Considered the “father” of modern taxonomy  Developed from common use, over time  Was a keen observer of plants  Described nature as a Divinely-inspired  Often describe some harmonious system in which every distinctive feature of the organism fulfills a specific role to plant - or where it came from maintain the general balance  Named approximately 4,400 species of  Problems with common names: animals and 7,700 species of plants.  The same name may be used to  Was the first to consistently use a describe several, very binomial system of classification, different plants giving organisms a one-word general name (called the genus) associated  Do not imply any relationship http://www.library.otago.ac.nz/exhibitions/linnaeus/walls/wall_linnaeus.jpg with a one-word specific epithet. between plants – loss ofCatalina Snapdragon important informationGambelia (Galvezia) speciosa His many publications encouraged the standardization of binomial nomenclature © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  • 2. 1/6/2013  Taxonomy: the systematic Charles Darwin and ‘TheWhat’s in a name? study and classification of plants and animals Origin of Species’  ‘Artificial’ (for convenient ‘pigeon- hole’ing)  Insights:  ‘Natural’ (reflecting underlying  The environment shapes biologic/evolutionary connections) which individuals survive & pass on their genetic  Linnaean taxonomy was actually an material (genes) ‘artificial’ system – but he was an excellent observer, so it did  Given enough time, new reflect natural connections (ie, species can arise from things that are genetically related often tend to share physical ancestral ones (morphologic) traits)  There are true biologic  True ‘Natural’ systematics relationships – in the past – required 1) better microscopes; between some species. 2) increasing interest in plant morphology; 3) an understanding  You can determine these of the concept of species & relationships through evolution – e.g., Charles Darwin studying similarities and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species_Plantarum differences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Plant Systematics: the interrelationship The scientific name between ‘natural’ taxonomy, evolution and  Ideally, a new species is given a formal, scientific name phylogeny  The generic name is listed first (with its first letter capitalized), followed by a second term, the specific name (or specific epithet)  International Code of Botanical Nomenclature – specifies the format and conventions  U.S. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) - facilitates sharing biologic info. by providing a common framework for taxonomic data http://www.alonnissos.org/page9/files/taxonomy%20tree.jpg Catalina Snapdragon  Sometimes regional experts don’t Gambelia speciosa Nutt. agree with ITIS © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.anbg.gov.au/asbs/newsletter/book-review-74a-a.gif 2
  • 3. 1/6/2013 What is a species?  Some definitions of species  Biological Species Concept - they cannot interbreed & produce viable offspring; interbreeding studies  Morphospecies Concept - they are Lyonothamnus floribundus different morphologically and do not ssp. aspleniifolius come in contact for interbreeding  Genetic Species Concept – still working on Kingdom Plantae – Plants this – how similar must they be toSubkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants constitute a species?Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plantsDivision Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants  Practical definition - Practically, biologists define species as populations ofClass Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons organisms that have a high level ofSubclass Asteridae genetic similarity.Order ScrophularialesFamily Scrophulariaceae – Figwort family  The field of taxonomy is changing withGenus Gambelia Nutt. – greenbright our increasingly sophisticated toolsSpecies Gambelia speciosa Nutt. – showy greenbright Lyonothamnus floribundus © Project SOUND ssp. floribundus © Project SOUND How do species arise/develop? How The Channel Islands of California are does this relate to island species? unique places  The four Southern  Speciation: The evolutionary Channel Islands are formation of new biological San Nicolas, Santa species, usually by the division of a Barbara, Santa single species into two or more Catalina, and San genetically distinct ones. Clemente.  Allopatric Speciation -- speciation  Catalina - 26 miles & occurs in geographic isolation in many ways our closest neighbor  Founder Effect Speciation -- a special kind of allopatric speciation  San Clemente – 49 in a small isolated population on miles – a bit more the edge of a species range http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm distant in several ways © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  • 4. 1/6/2013 Traveling by ti-at http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/catalina/ http://www.laurelcanyon.org/Images /EarlyPhotos/TongvaCanoeEtching.j Channel Islands – magical places that some people pg never want to leave  The Tongva people lived on Catalina Island for http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jensenl/visuals/album/2006/catalina/IMG_1349.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www- over 7,000 years. personal.umich.edu/~jensenl/visuals/album/2006/catalina/&usg=__z0Gzu8ecXJHx5dzfWJdpegGFwQM=&h=500&w=800&sz=158&hl=en&start=280&itbs=1&tbnid=NQDkmxmRitZD3M:&tbnh=89&tbnw=143&prev= © Project SOUND © Project SOUND /images%3Fq%3Dcatalina%2Bisland%2Bcalifornia%26start%3D270%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1 What is unique about islands? What is unique about islands?  Separated from the mainland by water  Sometimes for great distances  Sometimes for long periods  May have different climate http://www.synergygis.com/geog/rs/images/Catalina_CA_USGS_DEM_Overview.jpghttp://www.catalinachamber.com/images/Photos/High/CatalinaIslandWest.jpg  Moister – more  May have unusual/steep terrain – are really mountain peaks fog and rain  May have different rocks & soils from mainland  Warmer –  May have limited area insulated by ocean  Limits the number of species & individuals  Increases the effects of human interventions http://www.uptake.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/channelislandsca1.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  • 5. 1/6/2013 Some species are endemic to Catalina What is unique about islands? © 2006 BonTerra Consulting  Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. floribundus 20,000 years ago, this unique sub-species of ironwood tree grew abundantly on the mainland. Now, this tree exists nowhere else in the world but Catalina.  Cercocarpus traskiae The rarest of the Catalina endemics. Only seven of these small shrubs or trees occur naturally in a single canyon.  Eriogonum giganteum var. giganteum Often have unique flora and fauna – and fauna may effect flora. Grows on dry, rocky slopes throughout Catalinas interior. Changes with Example: plants may not be subject to certain diseases or to large the seasons - from white in the spring, to beige, light brown, then deep russet in the fall herbivores (sheep)  . © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Also endemic to Catalina Other common Catalina plants are more widely distributed…including on the mainland  Heteromeles arbutifolia - Toyon  Rhus integrifolia – Lemonadeberry  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii This sub-species is a Catalina endemic.  Ribes viburnifolium Used in landscaping as a native ground cover for shady areas. Extremely fragrant. Grows in San Diego Co. as well as on Catalina http://www.uncledougs.com/Dudleya_hassei.jpg  Eriodictyon traskiae Dudleya hassei This evergreen shrub has a pungent fragrance The only Catalina endemic which is a succulent. Look for it on the slope at and sprawling growth habit. Yerba Santa occurs on Catalina and in coastal Ventura and San Luis the foot of the Wrigley Memorial. Obispo Counties. Arctostaphylos catalinae When the manzanita fruit ripens, its color resembles the brilliant wine-red  Solanum wallacei bark - and the ground squirrels love it. A member of the deadly nightshade family, the Wild Tomato also occurs on other Channel Galium catalinense ssp. catalinense Islands and Guadalupe, off the coast of Mexico. A perennial herb found mostly on rocky outcroppings on the lee side of http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/prunus-lyonii Catalina. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  • 6. 1/6/2013Catalina Ceanothus - Ceanothus arboreus Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus  Native to Catalina. Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz & Guadalupe Islands  Source of many commercial cultivars – ‘Ray Hartmen’ is C. arboreus X C. griseus hybridhttp://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus Big-pod Ceanothus – Ceanothus megacarpus  Coast of S. CA from Santa Barbara to San var. insularis Diego Co. – CA endemic  var. insularis – Channel Isl. (Catalina & San Clemente in south)  var. megacarpus – mainland (Santa Monica Mtns our nearest) var. megacarpus  Dry, chaparral slopes below 2000 ft. http://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Ceanothus+megacarpus+var.+insularis 6
  • 7. 1/6/2013 var. insularis var. megacarpus  May be slightly larger  Sometimes a bit shorter  Leaves, generally alternate and slightly smaller  Leaves opposite and slightly larger  Grows on the mainland  Grows on most of the  ??? Other, as yet unknown Channel Islands differences (chemicals; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adenostoma_sprsifolium_and_Ceanothus_megacarpus.jpg disease resistance; heat http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm resistance; etc) In Santa Monica Mountains © 2001 CDFA Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Characteristics of Big-pod Ceanothus ‘Covered with snow-like flowers’  Size:  Blooms:  4-16 ft tall  In winter to early spring; usually  8-10 ft wide Jan.-March  Growth form:  Bloom period - weeks  Upright (more common) or  Flowers: sprawling woody shrub  Clusters of small flowers  Compact & dense  Petals white to slightly pink or  Young bark reddish purple  Foliage:  Dark purple center http://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html  Simple leaves – rounded to  Fruits: wedge-like – typical Ceanothus  Lumpy spherical capsule leaves  Red-green & sticky  Leaves are upright on branches  In three parts; each part holds aJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Roots: shallow; not basal burl, so no seed re-sprouting after fire © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/upperzumacanyon09.html © 2009 Gary A. Monroe 7
  • 8. 1/6/2013 Why the ‘soapy’  Ceanothus flowers (& sometimes Big-pod Ceanothus leaves) were used to make a mild flowers? soap or shampoo – preferred soap reproduces by stored seeds for washing babies  Rub the flowers in warm water –  Cannot reproduce by re-sprouting get a soapy, nice-smelling froth after a fire – relies on seeds stored in the ‘natural mulch’  Why? saponins - plants that (duff) - ~ 2 million seeds/acre contain quite high concentrations of saponins have often been used http://www.hazmac.biz/seedphotoslistgenus.html  Seed pods burst open, flinging as an alternative soap. the heavy seeds  Other examples – CA natives:  Seeds have thick, tough seed  Soap Lily (Chlorogalum coat – can lie in waiting for years pomeridianum) roots (probably hundreds of years)  Yucca roots  Mock Orange (Philadelphus  Ceanothus seeds only germinate http://www.fotolog.com/treebeard/56541746 lewisii) flowers & leaves in response to range fires and forest fires in the wild. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDBig-pod Ceanothus  Soils: Big-pod Ceanothus – spectacularis a chaparral shrub  Texture: rocky or sandy best in bloom, pretty the rest of the – needs well-drained soil  pH: any local year  Light:  Nice as an informal hedge – or  Full sun to light shade include it in a hedgerow  Benefits from afternoon shade in hot inland gardens http://www.ssseeds.com/database/db_testvv.php3?uid=103  Can prune to shape into a small tree  Water:  In a chaparral-themed garden  Winter: needs good winter rains  Anywhere you need a large,  Summer: low needs – Zone 1- water-wise shrub 2 (water very infrequently, if at all, once established)  As a habitat plant - CA Hairstreak, Green Hairstreak  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; larval food likes an organic mulch J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3373/3275037528_782b3c6c8f.jpg?v=0 8
  • 9. 1/6/2013 Big-pod Ceanothus teaches us 5 Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii things about S. CA island specieshttp://www.calliebowdish.com/SBPlaces.htm1. Sometimes the same species is found on both the islands and on the mainland2. Variants are similar enough to be grouped in the same species – yet different enough to be considered the different variants.3. Differences between variants can reflect the fact that the variants have not interbred for some time (have ‘drifted’ apart); alternatively the ‘founder’ plants could have differed from the original (usually mainland) population in significant ways4. Taxonomy based on morphologic (physical) traits can be difficult – what’s important?5. Sometimes it makes sense to preserve variants – particularly those from unusual sites. They may have important differences Donald Myrick © California Academy of Sciences that we don’t even know about © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Blairs Wire-lettuce – Stephanomeria (Munzothamnus) blairii Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii  Endemic to San Clemente Island  When a species is named,  Rocky canyon walls in it is placed within a island bluff scrub genus. From a scientific point of view this can be  The only problem is, regarded as a hypothesis what genus does it that the species is more belong in? closely related to other species within its genus – http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1868,1869 may change with new information © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  • 10. 1/6/2013 What is the appropriate genus? Blair’s wire-lettuce/Munzothamnus - attractive sub-shrub  Has been placed in several taxonomic homes.  Size:  Initially placed in Stephanomeria;  2-4 ft tall  3-4 ft wide  Transferred to Malacothrix (P. Munz 1935).  P. H. Raven (1963) considered it "clearly a  Growth form: relictual and highly isolated genus," based on  Sub-shrub with woody base and leaf shape & vegetative architecture, which herbaceous new growth are significantly distinct from those found in any species of Stephanomeria or  Semi-evergreen (stress Malacothrix. He erected Munzothamnus for deciduous) it. Recent genetic studies suggest he may  Stems thick & fleshyStephanomeria – Wire-lettuce be correct – not similar to Stephanomeria  Foliage:  Others emphasized similarities to Stephanomeria - concluded that the species  Bright to medium-green leaves belongs in Stephanomeria (G. L. Stebbins et – medium size al. 1953). :  Mostly clustered at the base or  similar number/appearance of chromosomes at ends of branches  certain similarities between their pappi  Quite attractive, even when not (number and "coarseness") blooming  pollen size and sculpturing Malacothrix – Cliff Aster © Project SOUND © Rick York and CNPS © Project SOUND Flowers are lovely Likes a coastal climate  Soils:  Texture: sandy or rocky,  Blooms: well-drained soils  In summer - usually July-Aug,  pH: any local but possible into Sept.  Flowers open over several weeks  Light:  Full sun to part-sun; suggest  Flowers: some afternoon shade in hot Robert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Aster-like (or Wire-lettuce-like) gardens heads  Water:  Lovely pale pink or purple – nice, old-fashioned color  Winter: needs good winter rains – starts to grow with  Nectar attracts hummingbirds, the rains bees, butterflies and other  Summer: wide tolerance: insects quite dry (Zone 1-2) to Zone 2 (possibly even 2-3 in sandy  Seeds: soils)  Small, sunflower-type  Seed-eating birds love them  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © 2005 Dieter Wilken http://www.theodorepayne.org/gallery/pages/S/stephanomeria_blairii.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  • 11. 1/6/2013 Blair’s Munzothamnus is a Why do names keep changing? nice flowering perennial  Traditionally, researchers relied on observations of  Has not been used much in gardens anatomical differences and due to rarity. interbreeding studies to distinguish species. This  Lovely in an old-fashioned mixed information is still used in native perennial bed. Looks like an helping to define species. English garden plant.  Try with Cirsium occidentale,  Thanks to advances in research techniques, including DNA Delphinium cardinale, Mimulus analysis, a great deal of aurantiacus, Eriophyllum nevinii additional knowledge about the (another island endemic) differences and similarities between species has become  Does fine in a large pot (at least available in the last few for several years) decades.© 2005 Dieter Wilken  Flowers make nice cut flowers Also a good habitat plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Ehret-Methodus_Plantarum_Sexualis.jpg Why do names keep changing? Lessons from Stephanomeria/Munzothamnus blairii 1. Island species can be very different from  Many populations which were local mainland species formerly regarded as separate 2. Taxonomists can disagree – and often do species are now considered to be a so over time single taxon, and many formerly 3. New scientific tools can change the grouped populations have been split. classification of a plant a. Scanning electron microscope – seed &  Any taxonomic level (species, genus, pollen details Lump with Stephanomeria or family, etc.) can be synonymized or b. Molecular genetics (DNA analysis) – can does it deserve its own split, and at higher taxonomic look for similarities in actual genetic code; genus? levels, these revisions have been allows construction of genetic trees that still more profound. may be closer to the actual course of evolution 4. Taxonomic classifications are becoming more ‘natural’ over time (reflect underlying biology/evolution). This can be frustrating for the gardener, but invaluable for our understanding of © Rick York and CNPS plants. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  • 12. 1/6/2013 Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Cercocarpus traskiae Cercocarpus traskiae  A single population in an arroyo on Santa Catalina Island  Slopes of a steep-sided, narrow, dry arroyo in a coastal sage scrub community  Named in honor of Blanch Trask naturalist – 1865-1916  On both U.S. and CA Endangered Species lists http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6695,6705 http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/CPC_ProfileImage.asp?FN=872b © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Catalina Mountain Mahogany Threats to endemic ‘Island’ plant species  Size:  10-15 ft tall  Large introduced herbivores have historically altered the  8-12+ ft wide flora and the landscape of Santa Catalina, San Clemente &  Growth form: other Channel Islands.  Large evergreen shrub or  Goats, pigs, bison, and deer were noted at the time of listing of small tree C. traskiae as a threatened species. The small size of the current C. traskiae population is attributed to the historical  Branches erect to spreading presence of goats, deer, and pigs  Long-lived  Invasive non-native plants pose as increasing threat now &  Foliage: in the future – increase fire threat  Leaves leathery, shiny above  Threat of hybridization – ‘genetic assimilation’ and wooly beneath  Very prominent lateral veins  Threat of limited genetic diversity – sometimes a small beneath – very different population becomes too inbred to be able to survive from Island Mountain Mahogany C. betuloides© 1993 Dean Wm. Taylor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/CPC_ProfileImage.asp?FN=872b 12
  • 13. 1/6/2013 The problem of hybridization: What makes a species susceptible to genetic can be insidious. assimilation? Cercocarpus traskiae is a case study  Cercocarpus traskiae has hybridized locally with C. betuloides var.  Small number of individuals blancheae, which also occurs compared to other local species naturally on the island.  Ability to hybridize with localhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cercocarpustraskiae.JPG  The hybrids have been species – and close geographic characterized morphologically as well proximity to those as by enzyme (allozyme) and DNA differences.  Low genetic diversity – may limit reproduction within the species  Morphological assessments of hybridization have not always agreed  Low geographic diversity/lack of with the genetic results space – common problem for Channel Island species  Bottom line: only six genetically “pure” Cercocarpus traskiae trees in  Invasion by species with existance hybridization potential http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplan ts/islandmountainmahogany.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Management strategies for What genetic resources should we conserve endangered plant species (and why)?  For aesthetic/moral reasons  Because we don’t know all the ‘services’  Remove species that may hybridize with the desired species provided by individual species (medicines; habitat value; etc)  Remove other pressures to reproduction – e.g. herbivores that eat seedlings, other stressors – protect the remaining  Because more diversity means more likely individuals as source plants that species will survive changing conditions – in the near future  +/- Remove hybrid plants/seedlings http://www.hazmac.biz/090218/090218Cercocarp usTraskiae.html  Loss of species uniquely adapted to certain  Save seeds – long-term storage conditions – we may need those genes  Vegetative propagation to create more individuals sometime  Plant out in appropriate sites:  Outbreeding/hybridization depression  Local area  Probably other reasons – need to study  Otherwise appropriate conditions more  No potential hybridizing species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157604510160123/ 13
  • 14. 1/6/2013Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii Nevin’s Gilia – Gilia nevinii  Endemic to the Channel Islands – specifically Catalina & San Clemente Islands and Isla Guadalupe (Baja)  Uncommon in nature  Grows on rocky, grassy slopes, coastal canyons in coastal shrublands & CSS  Named after the Reverand Joseph Cook Nevin (1835-1913), of Los Angeles, a brilliant linguist and botanical collector, one of the first to collect on Catalina Island http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Gilia+nevinii © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSan Clemente Island http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072402466/student_view0/chapter18/virtual_vista.html 49 miles from the mainland http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tierradata.com/photocorecapweb1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tierradata.com/corecapweboutreach.htm&usg=_ _am3z-EUbQKb3KDDSYghnFbRg9ww=&h=400&w=294&sz=22&hl=en&start=27&itbs=1&tbnid=cjb- xVNWpVZ78M:&tbnh=124&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsan%2Bclemente%2Bisland%2Bcalifornia%26start%3D18%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2 © Project SOUND %26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1 © Project SOUND 14
  • 15. 1/6/2013 Many plants endemic to San Clemente Island Sheep, goats and naval artillery  Brodiase kinkiensis  Triteleia clementina  Erigonum giganteum formosum  Since 1934 the U.S. Navy has  Delphiniam kinkiense administered San Clemente Island.  Delphinum variedatum thornei  Lithophragma maximum  Their objective in the 1970s  Astragalus nevinii was to re-establish the  Lotus argophyllus adsurgens native ecosystem as much as possible.  Lotus dendroideus traskiae http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/earth/usa/clemente-cliff-browse.jpg  Malcothammus clementinus  This included the removal of  Camissonia guagalupoensis feral goats - the last goat clementina was exterminated in April 1991.  Castilleja grisea  Galium catalinense acrispum  Munzothammus blairii  Probabaly others © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://abdulazeem.files.wordpress.com/2006/11/WindowsLiveWriter/ConsequencesOfPola riceMeltingRisingSeale_E394/clip_image006%5B1%5D%5B3%5D.jpg The genus Gilia  ~ 25-50 species of flowering plants - family Polemoniaceae  Temperate/tropical regions of the Americas, from the western U.S. to northern Chile  Occur mainly in desert/dry areas. Globe Gilia – G. capitata  Herbaceous annual, rarely perennial  The leaves are spirally arranged, usually pinnate (rarely simple), forming a basal rosette in most species.  The flowers are produced in a panicle, with Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database a five-lobed corolla, which can be blue, white, pink or yellow. Nevin’s Gilia - pretty little plant that’s tougher  Gilia species are larval food plant for some species of moths than it looks © Project SOUND Bird’s-eye Gilia – G. tricolor © Project SOUND 15
  • 16. 1/6/2013 Nevin’s Gilia reminds one of Bird’s-eye Gilia Gilias are all easy-to-grow  Soils: annual wildflowers  Texture: any  Size:  pH: any local  6-20+ inches tall & about as wide; size depends on water  Light:  Sun; perfectly fine with ½  Growth form: day of sun  Herbaceous annual  May be upright or  Water: sprawling – depends on  Winter: needs good conditions winter/spring water –  Delicate-looking delicate when young  Summer: none after  Foliage: flowering ceases  Leaves lacy, fern-like, somewhat basal – similar  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils to Bird’s-eye Gilia  Other: will reseed- not as  Easy to grow from seed abundantly as Globe Gilia © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers are sweetly Garden uses for old-fashioned native Gilias  Blooms:  In spring - usually Mar-May here  As a cute little pot  Long bloom period – at least a plant – place it near month where you sit so you can  Flowers: enjoy it  Loads of lavender trumpets withGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database blue anthers – no yellow or white  Massed in the front of on throat a flower bed  Just lovely  Mixed with other native grasses & wildflowers Bird’s-eye Gila  Nevin’s Gila - in an for comparison ‘Island-themed’ garden; © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya 16
  • 17. 1/6/2013 The connection between the Channel Islands, The earth’s crust is made up of giant plates mainland mountains and the Palos Verdes peninsula  Some rocks (Catalina schist) found in only 2 places – Catalina & PV  Some rocks (Poway Conglomerate – derived from ancient Poway River rocks) are found in neither place – but are on other Channel Islands  So, what’s going on  New molten rock is constantly being added in deep here? oceanic trenches – as a result, the plates collide and ride over one another. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The connection between S. Channel Coastal mountains were formed as the Pacific Islands and mainland mountains Plate moved under the N. Amer. Plate  The North American West Coast illustrates some of the complex geology that develops along a plate boundary.  The original source of rocks in our mountain ranges (and Channel Islands) were probably ancient island arcs, similar to perhaps Japan or the Philippines.  The high areas (original islands) were compressed and ‘scraped  These original island arcs werehttp://www.urbanedpartnership.org/target/fragile_habitats/geo_of_Ca.html off’ as the Pacific Plate moved under the N. American Plate the high points (‘mountains’) of the Pacific Plate  The whole area, was extensively faulted, folded, uplifted and eroded to form the current S. CA coastal topography. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 17
  • 18. 1/6/2013 Why the connection between S. Channel Geologically, there are likely 3 ‘Island Island and Baja Island species? Clusters’ off the coast of S. CA  Northern Channel Islands/Santa Monica Mountains  Catalina/PV/?? Santa Ana Mountains  San Clemente/San Nicolas/Isla Guadalupe (Baja)  Move 120-160 km to the NW – or even more.  So San Clemente Island was probably really was once offhttp://www.geol.ucsb.edu/faculty/atwater/Research/SOCAL.pdf the coast of Baja – shared geology at the very least!  About 20 million years ago, the Pacific plate (which is slipping under the N. American Plate) began moving NW compared to  Of course other factors have also played a role in the the N. American Plate intervening time  This resulted in the formation of the San Andreas fault, among other things © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Giant Coreopsis – Coreopsis gigantea Giant Coreopsis – Coreopsis gigantea  South-Central Coast, north & central parts of South Coast, Channel Islands (all)  On mainland, limited to a few peninsulas right on the coast http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1008,1013 Alice Eastwood - May 12 1896 - Pt. Sal Pt. Sal (near the boundary between Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
  • 19. 1/6/2013 Like something dreamed up by Dr. Seuss…  Size:  2-6 ft tall; rarely 8-10 ft in wild  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial sub-shrub; base is woody  Trunk is succulent; secondary woodiness  drought deciduous – drops all leaves in summer. Looks like a weird sculpture  Foliage:  Bright green in spring  Typical, lacy leaves of coreopsis http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anacapa-Island-Coreopsis.jpg On Anacapa Island © Project SOUND http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2008/04/coreopsis_gigantea.php © Project SOUND ? Is Giant Coreopsis ‘giant’ because of Flowers are a bright spot in spring mild island climates?  Blooms:  Islands have milder climates – less likely to  Late winter to mid-spring - usually experience frosts – surrounded by water March-April in local gardens  Herbaceous plants which typically die back from cold on mainland areas are released from  Flowers: seasonality when they become island colonizers.  Typical yellow Coreopsis heads –  In Mediterranean climates (hot dry summers) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coreopsis_gigantea intense gold-yellow, 3” across plants that store water (succulents) have a  Held on thin flower stalks abovehttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/giantcoreo survival advantage – but they are limited in sizepsis.html by winter frosts. the bright green foliage – really striking  Plants which are normally succulent may develop secondary woodiness in areas with little frost.  Bee pollinated This is seen on islands in dry regions throughout the world.  Seeds:  Is Coreopsis gigantea, a much larger plant than  Sunflower seeds; loved by birds other native species of Coreopsis, ‘giant’ because © 2006 Steve Matson it grows in ‘frost-free zones’ (Channel Islands  Vegetative reproduction: can start and a few restricted sites on the mainland)? from pieces of broken stems © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 19
  • 20. 1/6/2013  Soils: Giant Coreopsis adds and unusualPlant Requirements  Texture: well-drained, sandy soils are best note to the coastal garden  pH: any local  Fine with salt/maritime exposure  As an unusual pot plant  Light: full sun  As a specimen plant (most  Water: common use)  Winter: be careful not to over-water in winter http://www.anniesannuals.com/special_pgs/pom/0610/default.asp?account=none  In a border  Summer: quite drought-  In a Channel Island tolerant, but in nature gets summer mists; Zone 1-2 themed gardenhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coreopsis_gigantea  Fertilizer: fine in garden soils  On sunny coastal hillsides/  Other: not frost-hardy; best slopes along coast where danger of frost is minimal.  Along pathways http://farm1.static.flickr.com/170/451543125_a1f4bb7a09.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Mission Manzanita – Xylococcus bicolor Mission Manzanita – Xylococcus bicolor  Local endemic: S. CA coastal region from L.A. to San Diego counties, Catalina Island  Hot, dry slopes, chaparral < 2000 ft. elevation http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3616,3617 Grows on the slopes above Sunland http://www.cnpssd.org/plantlistpdfs/xylococcusbicolor.pdf © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 20
  • 21. 1/6/2013 Mission Manzanita: ‘Manzanita in hot/dry mode’ What is this plant, anyway?  Size:  6-10+ ft tall (usually 6-8)  ‘At first, I couldnt figure out what it was - it had the beautiful reddish-  6-10 ft wide brown twisted bark reminiscent of a Manzanita, but it also had these odd,  Growth form: leathery, elliptical-shaped leaves  Woody shrub that were sort of curled or rolled under, and a profusion of little black  Single or multi-trunk; berries. I was stumped - was this rounded shape some kind of manzanita-ceanothus-  Red-brown, shreddy bark oak-elderberry experiment gone wrong?’  Foliage:  Similar to Coffeeberry:  Originally called Arctostaphylos leathery/waxy above, wooly clevelandii, part of the manzanita beneath and bearberry genus. Name was changed to Arctostaphylos bicolor in  Leaf edges roll in drought 1923, then to Xylococcus bicolor in 1974.  Roots: re-sprouting ability – typical of chaparral plants© 2008 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2003 Michael Charters http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Xylococcus_bicolor.html Flowers are like their Fruits are also showy Manzanita cousins  Fruits ripen in spring/early summer  Blooms:  Color varies from dark red to  In winter, after rains begin almost black usually Dec. to Feb.  Look like a cross between  Flower buds form previous Manzanita & Coffeeberry fruits summer – assures quick- http://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Ericaceae/EricaceaeK ey.htm flowering  Loved by birds (esp. Thrashers & Jays) and humans alike  Flowers:  Can be used to make ‘cider’ type  Shaped like Manzanita (and drink other Heaths);  Make a fine jelly, sauce, syrup –  Flower color may be white, need a lot as fruits is thin- pink to darker pink fleshed  Showy in bloom  Excellent hummingbird plant  Seeds: hard coat – usually sprout after trip through alimentary canal (coyote; Grizzlies) & some heat © Project SOUND © 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND 21
  • 22. 1/6/2013  Soils:Easy to grow & maintain  Texture: any well-drained; sandy Mission Manzanita thrives on & rocky are best, well-drained hot, dry conditions clays possible (water judiciously)  pH: any local  Nice choice for evergreen  Light: full sun shrub – looks good all year with a little summer water  Water:  Young plants: water regularly  Good choice for informal (Zone 2-3) for first 1-2 years hedge or included in a water-  Mature plants: very drought wise mixed hedgerow tolerant, but looks best with some summer water (Zone 1-2 to  Stars on hot, dry slopes – 2 works well) consider for hot, sunny gardens  Fertilizer: none needed; likes a layer of organic mulch  Excellent habitat plant  Other: prune as needed or to shape;  Edible – and showy - berries can prune severely to rejuvenate old plants© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Channel Island Scrub Oak – Quercus pacifica S. California’s Scrub Oaks  Scrub Oak is a general name for several species of small, shrubby, evergreen oaks, including the following species:  California Scrub Oak (Quercus berberidifolia)  Leather Oak (Quercus durata)  Coastal Scrub Oak (Quercus dumosa)  Tucker Oak (Quercus john-tuckeri)  Channel Island Scrub Oak (Quercus pacifica)  Santa Cruz Island Oak (Quercus parvula)  Sonoran Scrub Oak (Quercus turbinella) © 2001 Tony Morosco © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 22
  • 23. 1/6/2013 Channel Island Scrub Oak – Quercus pacifica Channel Isl Scrub Oak: in many ways a typical scrub oak  Size:  Endemic on three of the California  6-15 ft tall Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, and Santa Rosa.  10-15 ft wide  Island Chaparral, woodlands,  Growth form: margins of grasslands  Large shrub or small tree  Gray, furrowed bark at maturity  Is a species of concern  Rather dense – heavily branched © 2001 Tony Morosco  Foliage:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501070  Medium-sized leathery leaves  Surfaces glandular & waxy  Have star-shaped hairs (trichomes)  larval food for Hairstreaks, Duskywings, CA Sister butterflies  Roots: Both shallow & deep roots © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/endemics.htm http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/Quercus-pacifica1.htm http://128.253.177.182/taxpage/0/0/79/binomial/Quercus%20pacifica.html Flowers are understated Island Oak: not picky  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils  pH: any local  Blooms: in winter to early spring – usually Jan-Mar  Light: full sun  Flowers:  Water:  Separate male & female  Winter: need adequate flowers on the same tree winter/spring rain,  Male flowers on long trailing particularly for good seedhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Quercus_pacifica catkins crop  Mostly wind pollinated  Summer: none or very little; Zone 1 or 1-2 once  Seeds: established http://128.253.177.182/taxpage/0/0/79/binomial/Quercus%20pacifica.html  Are acorns  Shorter & lighter than Q.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Don’t over-water; susceptible to oak agrifolia; thinner than Q. root rot fungus in the genus Armillaria  Other: leave the leaf litter in berberidifolia place; important for plant health & for ground-dwellers © 2005 Dieter Wilken © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 23
  • 24. 1/6/2013 Scrub Oaks – so What is that scrub oak, anyway? versatile  Excellent on dry slopes, for erosion control  May be appropriate for parking strips  Can bonsai – or trim as a hedge/screen  Superb habitat plant  Butterflies  Other insects  Wide range of birds  Provides food, perches, nesting sites (CA Towhee)© 2001 Tony Morosco © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/quercus/scrub_oaks.html © Project SOUND So where did this oak come from? Those promiscuous white oaks – difficult to classify & understand  It is likely that Q. pacifica is phylogenetically close to Q. berberidifolia or possibly represents a hybrid between Q. berberidifolia and Q. douglasii. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501070  Other stable hybrids suggest  Closely resembles Q. berberidifolia, but differs in having that widespread hybridization has consistently spatulate leaves with a narrowed leaf base, and acute- occurred on the islands between tapered fruit, with thinner cups. Leaf vestiture otherwise is similar the scrub oaks and either Q. to berberidifolia, but that species has typically square or rounded- attenuate leaf bases and blunter, heavier fruit. lobata or Q.douglasii, neither of which occur in abundance, but are  Quercus pacifica also appears to be closely related to Q . Douglasii, found in isolated pockets. Both a tree-oak, whether by direct descent or by hybridization with of these are larges trees. another species no longer extant on the islands. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 24
  • 25. 1/6/2013 The hand of man on local islands Acorns: an important source of food  Jays  Jays harvest acorns and stash them for the winter – usually within 1-2 miles of the source  Credited for the wide distribution of Oaks across the Northern Hemisphere.  Humans http://www.hotel-metropole.com/events http://www.catalinachamber.com/mediafilming/whats-new/bison  Eat acorns as a staple food  Also increase the distribution of oaks – by transporting and planting acorns http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/sci/Quercus-pacifica.htm  ?? Role of humans in the distribution of coastal/Island CA oakshttp://laist.com/2009/03/31/new_37-mile_trail_to_open_on_catali.php http://i.ehow.com/images/a04/qt/gg/plant-acorns-pot-800X800.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Many Channel Island species make great garden plants  There are many interesting features of the flora of California’s Channel Islands  The islands – and their plant species – provide a natural lab in which to study how species form, change and even disappear © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 25

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