Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden    Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants              Project SOUND – 201...
Magnificent Manzanitas    C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake     CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve       Madrona Marsh Preserve       ...
The genus Arctostaphylos           In the Heath family (Ericaceae)           Includes the Manzanitas and            Bear...
Why do people fall in love with Manzanitas?                      Showy, sweet-smelling flowers in                       w...
Whatever the reason, people want to include     manzanitas in their gardens…. And that can be a challenge for those of us ...
Success with manzanitas begins with choosingthe best species or cultivar for your conditions                              ...
Tailor the manzanita to your conditions       (rather than the other way around)                                      Soi...
Many species require well-drained soils                                   Soil texture/Drainage                          ...
Many manzanitas like a slightly acidic soil                                                       Most manzanitas        ...
So, you really should test your soil pH if              you want to grow manzanitas                                       ...
Can’t I just amend my soil to lower the pH?                                                                   Actually, i...
Size matters: most Manzanitas eventually    want to grow to their natural size      http://www.flickr.com/photos/97607362@...
Manzanita species grow from < six inches (some coastal  species) to twenty feet tall (many interior species).             ...
Don’t forget the widthhttp://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/swest/msg0309450418785.html   Arctostaphylos rudis "Burton B...
The right plant, grown correctly, will live for more  than 100 years (especially the larger forms).  http://123terry.com/p...
Let’s say you want to replace an old tree         with a large manzanita  http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Mar08.html      ...
Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca© 2008 Gary A. Monroe                                    © Project SOUND
Bigberry Manzanita:                                                                                         shrub or tree ...
Why choose Manzanita cultivars?               Because they have better size,                shape, color, etc.           ...
Arctostaphylos glauca                                                                                              ‘Los An...
Arctostaphylos glauca           ‘Frazier Park’                              From Frazier Park/ Mt.                       ...
Arctostaphylos glauca                                                                                         ‘Margarita P...
Arctostaphylos glauca                                                                                                     ...
Arctostaphylos                                             ‘Canyon Blush’                                         Arctost...
Allelopathy: chemical warfare in the garden                                                                               ...
Common Manzanita – Arctostaphylos manzanitahttp://lucioledesign.com/blog/?attachment_id=552                               ...
Common Manzanita – Arctostaphylos manzanita                                                                Central & nort...
Common Manzanita: large size                                                                                           Si...
Most manzanitas like                                                 Soils:                                              ...
Why do garden manzanitas need a well-drained soil?                                                           It’s what th...
Watering Manzanitas: a few pointers                                                                         Look to the p...
Then modify according to your conditions                     Temperature                     Soil characteristics       ...
Watering manzanitas: some tips                Be sure that ‘expert advice’ is                 appropriate for your area  ...
Planting and establishing manzanitas    The best time to plant is in the Fall to early Winter, when soils     are moist. ...
Treat as a shrub or tree                                                                                                 ...
Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Byrd Hill’                                                                                      ...
Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’                                                                                 To 15...
Arctostaphylos manzanita x A. densiflora       ‘Austin Griffiths’ Manzanita                     Hybrid: Arctostaphylos de...
Manzanita hybrids – more all the time!                                Are a cross between two species                    ...
Large Manzanitas: are they trees or shrubs?                                                 That’s debatable             ...
Most Manzanitas look good throughout their                        lifespan – even without pruning                         ...
‘Dr. Hurd’ grows up     to be a tree                                                                        http://3palmsn...
Pruning to shape – tree-like forms                                                                             Judicious ...
Start by choosing the right species – and   the right plant                                                               ...
Mother Nature trumps         Most manzanitas are not          going to have a single leader          (a single dominant t...
 Prune manzanitas only inAbove all, do no harm     warm, dry weather, to                          guard against diseases ...
Prune purposively                                                                                               If removi...
Can manzanitas be                      used in hedges &                        hedgerows?‘Austin Griffiths’               ...
Pointleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pungenshttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm              ...
Pointleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pungens                                                                              ...
Pointleaf Manzanita: variable over its range                                                                              ...
Manzanitas are primarily chaparral plants Environmental    Higher total moisture        Rain & snow        May also ha...
   Manzanitas contain a high percentage Manzanitas and fire                    of volatile compounds, which burn like    ...
If you need to worry about fire: choices                  Plant something other than a                   manzanita       ...
Flowers and fruits                                                                    Blooms:                            ...
Growing Manzanita from seed: difdicult                                                               Very difficult to ge...
Propagating manzanitas by layering is easy                                                              Propagate existin...
 Soils:Plant Requirements                                                                            Texture: well-drain...
Pointleaf Manzanita thrives                                                                           in dry gardens      ...
For a chaparral garden, plant with its         usual associates               Wedgeleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus cuneatus)   ...
Pruning Manzanitas for a hedge or pot             Choose the right species: should have a              more dense (less o...
Aesthetic and other considerations when         choosing a manzanita                 Open or dense growth                ...
* Otay Manzanita – Arctostaphylos otayensis© 2003 David Graber                                               © Project SOUND
* Otay Manzanita – Arctostaphylos otayensis                                                         Endemic to mountains ...
Otay Manzanita: medium to large shrub                                                     Size:                          ...
Flower color                                                                      Vary even within species: Otay         ...
Why go to the nursery in Dec/Jan?                                                          Often can see both new &      ...
Otay Manzanita loves rocky soils                                       Soils:                                           ...
Otay Manzanita thrives                       in hot, inland gardens                       Good background shrub in       ...
So much habitat valuehttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pungens                         ...
Maybe you like the looks of OtayManzanita, but you live by the coast.. http://www.naturalfrontyards.com/choose-a-palette/c...
Fortunately, not all chaparral is the same:                   maritime chaparral                          http://www.cas.v...
* Morro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos morroensis © 2011 Chris Winchell                                     © Project SOUND
* Morro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos morroensis                                                                            ...
http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/02/olives-are-cured-and-some-cal-native.htmlHarmony & Sunset Manzanitas ‘soften’ a gra...
* Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia        http://www.worldbotanical.com/arctostaphylos.htm  ...
* Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia                                                          ...
Del mar Manzanita: gray-green to blue-green                                                                               ...
Plant Requirements                   Soils:                                           Texture: sandy (including         ...
Use Del Mar Manzanita                                                                   As a tall groundcover            ...
What to do with all      Beverages                             Manzanita ‘cider’   the fruits?               Syrup for ...
Need a shrub that can take a little more water but        looks like Del Mar Manzanita?                                   ...
* Pajaro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis© 1995 Dan Post                                           © Project SOUND
Pajaro Manzanita is great for                                                                                             ...
‘Myrtle Wolf’                                                                                           Naturally occurri...
‘Paradise’                                                                                     Naturally                 ...
‘Warren Roberts’                                                                     Very dense, slate-blue/blue-        ...
Versatile, garden-friendly                                                              ‘Sunset’                          ...
Manzanitas provide a wide range of                          foliage colorshttp://jayacarl.blogspot.com/2007/03/stone-wall-...
Foliage color is important factorA. densiflora – bright green                                                          htt...
Compare foliage                                                                        at the nursery                     ...
Perhaps you need a mid-size shrub                                                                              You could p...
* Mount Diablo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos auriculata                                                         Endemic to t...
Mount Diablo Manzanita: beautiful foliage                           Size:                                3-12 ft tall; u...
Flowers are pink!                       Blooms: winter to early spring                       Flowers:                   ...
A. auriculata can take a    Soils:    little more water           Texture: well-drained                                ...
Arctostaphylos auriculata Knobcone Point                    3-6 ft tall; 6-8 ft wide –                     spreading with...
‘Greensphere’                                    Rounded shrub, 5’ tall x 6’ wide;                                       ...
The lowest of the lowhttp://seedbyte.blogspot.com/2009_12_11_archive.html                                                 ...
Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii© 2007 Penny DeWind                                              © Project ...
Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos                         edmundsii                         http://slosson.ucdavis.edu...
Arctostaphylos edmundsii                                                                                                  ...
Arctostaphylos edmundsii                           An unusually small                                                    ...
Arctostaphylos edmundsii                                                                       ‘Bert Johnson’             ...
‘Ophio-viridis’ hybrid                       1 ft by 4-6 ft                       Bright green foliage;                 ...
Purisima Manzanita – Arctostaphylos purissima  © 2004 David Graber                                     © Project SOUND
Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
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Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
Magnificent Manzanitas   2011
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Magnificent Manzanitas 2011

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Magnificent Manzanitas C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve December 3 & 6, 2011 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. The genus Arctostaphylos  In the Heath family (Ericaceae)  Includes the Manzanitas and Bearberries, blueberries  Manzanitas occur in the chaparral of western North America, from southern British Columbia through much of northern and central Mexico.  The three species of Bearberries have adapted to arctic and subarctic climates, and have a circumpolar distribution in northern North America, Asia and Europe. © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Why do people fall in love with Manzanitas?  Showy, sweet-smelling flowers in winter/early spring  Evergreen foliage  Red bark  Interesting, architectural growth patterns  Edible fruits/medicinal leaves  Attracts hummingbirds, native bees & butterflies  Because they’re rare in the wilds  Because they are a part of California’s unique wild heritage © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Whatever the reason, people want to include manzanitas in their gardens…. And that can be a challenge for those of us living in western L.A. county © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Success with manzanitas begins with choosingthe best species or cultivar for your conditions © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Tailor the manzanita to your conditions (rather than the other way around)  Soil conditions:  Texture/drainage  pH  Size: height & width/spread  Growth pattern/speed  Light/temperature  Water regimen  Aesthetics:Fortunately, there are more than forty species of Arctostaphylos inCalifornia not to mention all the cultivars, subspecies and hybrids. © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Many species require well-drained soils  Soil texture/Drainage Soil type Approximate time to drain Hard-pan or days sodic soils Clay 3-12 hours Loam 20-60 minutes dig hole 1 ft x 1 ft Sandy Loam 10-30 minutes fill with water and let drain Sand cant fill the hole, fill hole again, measure drains too fast time for water to drain © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Many manzanitas like a slightly acidic soil  Most manzanitas originate in areas with more acidic soil due to:  Higher rainfall  Effects of chaparral/woodland plants  The rock material from which the soils were derived  Our local garden soils tend to range from 6.5 to 7.5 – and some may be as high as 7.8+Soils under pine trees and oaks will be more acidic © Project SOUND
  10. 10. So, you really should test your soil pH if you want to grow manzanitas  A simple garden soil pH test kit is adequate for the job – no need for fancy equipment  If your soil is Alkaline (pH > 7.5) consider planting in a large pot  If your soil is neutral or slightly acid (pH 6.0 – 7.5) choose manzanitas that like a slightly acid soil and use an organic mulch  If your soil is acid (pH 5.0-5.9)http://nogmoseedbank.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/planning-for-spring-planting-season-part-5-conducting-a-soil-test/ you can plant even those that need acidic soils © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Can’t I just amend my soil to lower the pH?  Actually, it’s not that easy:  Takes a lot of effort to lower soils pH – and you have to keep doing it because pH keeps ↑  Acid fertilizers also increase the soil N levels – often too high for CA native plantshttp://www.learn2grow.com/gardeningguides/lawns/planting/Incorp  Chemical amendments:oratingAmendments.aspxIf you’re acidifying 1000 sq ft of  sulfur or iron/ammonium/soil with sulfur, a 1.0 change in aluminum sulfatepH (from 7.5 to 6.5) requires 11pounds of the product for sandy  Natural amendments: pine straw;soil and 23 pounds for claylikesoil. oak leaf mold  ? Coffee grounds/acid compost © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Size matters: most Manzanitas eventually want to grow to their natural size http://www.flickr.com/photos/97607362@N00/4375161245/ http://travel.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474977173759 © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Manzanita species grow from < six inches (some coastal species) to twenty feet tall (many interior species). http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Mar08.html http://www.fresno.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24200&letter=b &return=s_aP © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Don’t forget the widthhttp://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/swest/msg0309450418785.html Arctostaphylos rudis "Burton Beauty Manzanita". A. refugioensis © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The right plant, grown correctly, will live for more than 100 years (especially the larger forms). http://123terry.com/photos/mom_day_2008/mom_day_2008.html © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Let’s say you want to replace an old tree with a large manzanita http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Mar08.html © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca© 2008 Gary A. Monroe © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Bigberry Manzanita: shrub or tree  Easy-care shrub for slopes; good for erosion control  Specimen shrub; needs little pruning  As a small shade tree  As a key shrub/tree for the habitat garden: bees, butterflies, birds, humanshttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Why choose Manzanita cultivars?  Because they have better size, shape, color, etc.  Because they often are better adapted to garden conditions (and therefore more likely to thrive in your garden)  Garden tolerance - cultivars are often more tolerant of:  A little extra water  Soils that are not perfectly drained  Heat and cold  Salinity and higher pH © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Los Angeles’  Source plant: originally in the area of Mullholland Hwy. and Kanan Rd.  Smooth red bark and clean shiny foliage with pink- white flowers make the plant quite attractive.  Locally native – tolerates sandy soils of western L.A. County http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-frazier-park-manzanita © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-los-angeles
  21. 21. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Frazier Park’  From Frazier Park/ Mt. Pinos region ~ 5000 ft.  The form is low/dense for a Big Berry Manzanita.  Foliage is pale green, a glaucous green, making it appear whitish-bluish - beautiful accent plant in a garden.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-frazier-park-manzanita © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Margarita Pearl’  ? Big Berry manzanita (glauca) or a hybrid between A. glauca and A. wellsii  Very large flowers and berries – good for edibles garden  Foliage is a bright grey on new growth and dull grey on old growth – lovely colorhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-margarita-pearl © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Ramona’  From San Vicente/Ramona area (San Diego Co.)  Red bark, a very open form, clean glossy foliage. The plant looks almost artificial  Use as a specimen with lower green manzanitas and ceanothi under it, or as an elegant eight to ten foot hedge in a chaparral planting.  Ok in soils of pH 7.8, and might even be ok in pH 8.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-ramona-manzanita © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Arctostaphylos ‘Canyon Blush’  Arctostaphylos glauca hybrid from a chance seedling in the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden.  Red-flushed new foliage andhttp://www.faroutflora.com/page/12/ blush pink flowers  4’ tall by 20 ft wide; climbing/ trailing form  Quite effective as a sprawling, large-scale groundcover, or cascading down a slope.  Use drip irrigation in place of overhead watering to reduce spread of this disease. © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Allelopathy: chemical warfare in the garden  Chaparral plants tend to ‘exclude’ other plants:  Shading or crowding out  Producing chemicals that are toxic to plants or seedlings  Some common trees/large shrubs that practice chemical warfare: Manzanitas/Bearberrieshttp://sierrafoothillgarden.wordpress.com/2011/04/10/allelopathic-plantswhat-%E2%80%9Ci-want-to-be-aloooone%E2%80%9D/   Walnuts  Oaks  Sycamore  California Bay laurel  Cottonwood  Non-natives like Forsythia, Tree-of-heaven, Black locust and Eucalyptus © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Common Manzanita – Arctostaphylos manzanitahttp://lucioledesign.com/blog/?attachment_id=552 © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Common Manzanita – Arctostaphylos manzanita  Central & northern California - Contra Costa County north to Humboldt, Trinity, and Shasta counties; and from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in Shasta County south to Mariposa County.  On ‘dry’, well-drained, sunny sites in Ponderosa shrub forest, California mixed evergreen forest, Northern oak woodlands, Chaparral, Montane chaparralhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3492© 1994 David Graber © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Common Manzanita: large size  Size:  6-12+ ft tall – as tall as 20’  4-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Large evergreen shrub/small tree  Open, upright habit – many long twisted trunks give it an umbrella-like shape  Peeling red-brown bark  Foliage:  Bright green to slightly blue- green  Leaves simple, rounded© 2009 John Malpashttp://atlantis.mendocino.edu/jxerogeanes/AGR%2053/Arctostaphylos%20manzanita-%20Whole%20plant.jpg © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Most manzanitas like  Soils:  Texture: any with very good well-drained soils drainage  pH: 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic) ; may need to amend or use mulch to acidify (pine needles; oak leaves)  Light:  Full sun (coast) to part-shade – even under tall pines  Water:  Winter: adequate/supplement  Summer: occasional water ishttp://www.intermountainnursery.com/demonstration_garden_list.htm best – 1-3 times per summer (Zone 1-2) Best away from the coast; likes cooler winters  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: use an organic mulch; pine needles are great! © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Why do garden manzanitas need a well-drained soil?  It’s what they are adapted to (root system anatomy)  It keeps you/Mother Nature from over-watering  Winter rain events can ‘drown’ plants in standing water/water-logged soils  Too much summer rain promotes fungal diseases to which manzanitas are susceptiblehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/starlingfeather/297644619/ © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Watering Manzanitas: a few pointers  Look to the plant’s natural climate as a starting point:  Lots of rain yearly – some species from very N. coasthttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-  Deeper/more frequent wintermorroensis-park-view-manzanita rains – higher elevation chaparral & woodlands  Summer monsoons in August – San Diego county species  Significant summer fog – species from the central and northern CA coast http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/mounttam/Interesting © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Then modify according to your conditions  Temperature  Soil characteristics  Wind, fog and other climatic differences © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Watering manzanitas: some tips  Be sure that ‘expert advice’ is appropriate for your area  Use conventional drip irrigation only to get plants started the first year  Use soaker hoses, soaker-drip or a plain old hose for deep, occasional water of established plants  Only use overhead spray for coastal species that need a fake ‘fog spray’ © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Planting and establishing manzanitas  The best time to plant is in the Fall to early Winter, when soils are moist.  Treat manzanitas as 1 full Water Zone above their final Zone for the first 2 summers. This will often be either Zone 2 or 2-3 (watering every 7-14 days).  Water as the soil starts to dry. Inspect the soil down a few inches to get a true idea of sub-surface moisture. Moisture meters are an inexpensive and effective way to check out the amount of water in the soil.  By 3rd summer decrease to ½ Zone above final Zone.  Ultimately, in about 3-5 years, your manzanitas, can take their final zone - may become independent of your care. © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Treat as a shrub or tree  As a shade tree  As an exotic accent  As a large foundation shrub  On dry slopes  For habitat valuehttp://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/forums/showthread.php?t=432 © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-manzanita-dr-hurd-manzanita-tree http://www.sanjose.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=2528&return=l4_aD
  36. 36. Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Byrd Hill’  Naturally occurring variant  A more compact version of A. manzanita (8-10 H x 8 W)  Upright; nice sculpted form.  Very drought tolerant. No summer water (or just 1-2 times per summer – Zone 1-2) once established  Excellent for wildlife.http://www.californianativeplants.com/index.php/catalog/item/arctostaphylos-manzanita-byrd-hill © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’  To 15’ tall & wide; fast grower  More garden tolerant: some summer water, richer soil, than Arctostaphylos glauca  Tolerates clay or sandy soils  Tree or shrub form – your choice  Reliable drought-tolerant plant in our areahttp://lucioledesign.com/blog/?attachment_id=552 http://www.santacruz.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=2528&return=l9_aC © Project SOUND http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/images/new_botimages/large/0118_2_j.jpg
  38. 38. Arctostaphylos manzanita x A. densiflora ‘Austin Griffiths’ Manzanita  Hybrid: Arctostaphylos densiflora Sentinel X Arctostaphylos manzanita Dr. Hurd  Tall open shape with bright foliage & pink flowers of A. densiflora  8-10 ft tall; 6-8 ft wide  Sandy soils best; clay ok  Good for habitat hedges/dry hedgerows © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Manzanita hybrids – more all the time!  Are a cross between two species  Can occur in the wilds – and do – but many species never come in contact in the wilds  Hybrids occur readily in the garden setting – manzanita species are ‘promiscuous’  Some hybrids combine the best traits of both parents (‘hybrid cultivars’)  Impact on wild populations – a real potential problem (but not in lower‘Austin Griffiths’ Manzanita elevation western L.A. county) © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Large Manzanitas: are they trees or shrubs?  That’s debatable  Some native shrubby species - mainly those native to California - certainly reach tree size.  However, they generally branch or fork near the ground, thus lacking the single trunk of a tree.Arctostaph​ylos Bird Hill and Lyonothamn​usplanifolia both have open ‘tree-like’ growth  ? ‘multi-trunk small tree’habit that allow them to be ‘pruned up’ intosmall ‘trees’. © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Most Manzanitas look good throughout their lifespan – even without pruning © 2008 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczyhttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-auriculata/ http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/01/rain-frost- blooming-manzanitas.html At four years © Project SOUND
  42. 42. ‘Dr. Hurd’ grows up to be a tree http://3palmsnursery.com/ywup/ArctoDr%20Hurd.JPGhttp://www.heronshouse.com/Landscaping/California%20Natives.htmhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/5967389289/ ‘Dr. Hurd’ at 5 years http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-02-27/home-and-garden/28632634_1_prune-manzanitas-fruit- trees © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Pruning to shape – tree-like forms  Judicious shaping is possible.  The trick seems to be not to act too soon - until you can get a feel for the form the plant is taking - or too late, which would leave large pruning scars on the smooth, red bark. ‘Howard McMinn’http://dangergarden.blogspot.com/2010/03/walking-around-neighborhood.html http://blog.travelpod.com/travel-photo/keeleyhope/1/1267709433/manzanita.jpg/tpod.htm © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Start by choosing the right species – and the right plant http://www.heronshouse.com/Landscaping/California%20Natives.htmhttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_a/arcsun.html ‘Sunset’ ‘Howard McMinn’ © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Mother Nature trumps  Most manzanitas are not going to have a single leader (a single dominant trunk that starts at the ground and extends through the tree).  Trying to get that kind of tree will probably not be wise – work with the natural shape © Project SOUND
  46. 46.  Prune manzanitas only inAbove all, do no harm warm, dry weather, to guard against diseases fostered by cold and damp.  Don’t stress the plant by over-pruning:  If its young plant, remove no more than about 25% of its leaf / volume.  Limit pruning of older plants to 10% to 15%. You can always do more next year. © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Prune purposively  If removing a branch or trunk will improve the shape, remove it before it gets too big (< 1.5 inches is good). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manzanita.JPG http://www.juniperridge.com/wildcrafting_use.htm  Consider pinching small branch tips to redirect growth upward - pinching to an upward facing bud.  Most manzanitas wont form new leaves on a branch if you cut off the part of it that had leaves, so think hard before you cut. © Project SOUNDhttp://truevisiondesign.com/janet/fun/around-the-property/86-clearing-brush-and-the-joy-of-poison-oak
  48. 48. Can manzanitas be used in hedges & hedgerows?‘Austin Griffiths’ © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Pointleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pungenshttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Pointleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pungens  Foothills & mtns of the U.S. Southwest and NW Mexico – 2500-8000 ft.  Locally: San Gabriel & San Bernardino Mtns.  Rocky slopes, ridges, inhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi- http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flor a_id=1&taxon_id=250092319 chaparral, coniferous forestbin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3522 http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/arpu5.htm © Project SOUND http://www.birdandhike.com/Veg/Species/Shrubs/Arctos_pun/_Arc_pun.htm
  51. 51. Pointleaf Manzanita: variable over its range  Size:  3-10 ft tall – often 3-6 ft  3-8 ft wide – often 3-6 ft  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub/small tree  Upright, open habit  Smooth, red-brown peeling bark  In nature may grow in dense thickets  Foliage:  Thick, leathery leaves  Shiny wax coating  Produces volatile chemicals – helps to burn  Roots: shallow, fibrous © Project SOUNDhttp://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/arpu5.htm http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~greywolf/spectra/spec_curve.html
  52. 52. Manzanitas are primarily chaparral plants Environmental  Higher total moisture  Rain & snow  May also have summer rains  Wider temperature extremes  More natural mulch Growth patterns  Evergreen  Longer growth season – spring through summer  May have growth/flowering after summer rains Role of fire: essential for many species © Project SOUND
  53. 53.  Manzanitas contain a high percentage Manzanitas and fire of volatile compounds, which burn like a torch when ignited.  They also carry a large amount of dead wood, making them all the more flammable.  Manzanita can act as a ladder fuel in landscapes, especially when planted adjacent to flammable structures such as homes, decks, fences, and trees. http://sandiegohiker.net/?p=408 Ladder fuels carry fire from the ground where it can be controlled toTough seed coats and sprouting treetops where it is difficult toroots/ burls are manzanita control.adaptations to life with fire  Flame lengths of manzanita can reach eight times the height of the shrub (i.e. a five foot tall manzanita can generate a 40 foot flame). © Project SOUND
  54. 54. If you need to worry about fire: choices  Plant something other than a manzanita  Plant species from Northern CA or cultivars that can take a little more water; then water them  Choose Bearberries, which are not so flammable but have the ‘manzanita look’ © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Flowers and fruits  Blooms:  Winter to early spring – in our area may be as early as Nov/Dec.  Provide needed winter color, nectarhttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm  Flowers:  Typical for the genus: small, white (pink blush) urn-shaped  Fruits:  Small (1/4 inch)  Ripen to showy red in summer; retained through fall  Vegetative reproduction: natural layering © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Growing Manzanita from seed: difdicult  Very difficult to germinate: have both a hard seedcoat and embryo dormancy  In nature, manzanita seeds germinate following fire. Fire provides exposure to heat/smoke and seedbedhttp://hazmac.biz/041206b/041206bArctostaphylosPungens.html preparation.  To mimic this natural process, some propagators sow seeds in a flat (wooden flat covered with aluminum foil) and burn a 3-4 inch layer of pine needles on top of the seedbed.  Seeds may take a year to germinate. Once seedlings germinate, they are transplanted to nursery containers. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Propagating manzanitas by layering is easy  Propagate existing manzanita plants using Mother Nature’s method - the layering technique.  A tender shoot is "pinned" (using a "U" shaped piece of wire) into the soil where it is left to take root for a growing season.  Slightly wound the stem with a sharp, clean knife and give supplemental water to promote root growth. http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/YouthAdventureProgra m/AsexualPropagation/AsexaulPropagation.htmlNatural ‘layering’ allows  After roots become established, thesome plants to form a thicket rooted plant can be severed from thegenerated from a single mother plant, grown up in a pot, andplant transplanted in fall following recovery. © Project SOUND
  58. 58.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: well-drained – sandy or rocky best, but others ok on slopes  pH: slightly acidic - 5.1-7.5  Light:  Full sun  Can take plenty of heat  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: in our area, best with occasional water (once a month in summer – Zone 1-2) but very drought tolerant; likes ‘summer monsoon’  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://www.educacionambiental.org.mx/atlas/anexo/CONABIO/Arctostaphylos%20pungens2.jpg  Other: organic mulch © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Pointleaf Manzanita thrives in dry gardens  Nice background shrub or in informal hedges  Hot, dry hills & slopes – erosion control  Place where you can enjoy flowers & fruits http://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htmhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ARPU5
  60. 60. For a chaparral garden, plant with its usual associates  Wedgeleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus cuneatus)  California buckthorn (Frangula californica)  Common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)  Birchleaf mountain-mahogany  Thickleaf yerba santa (E. crassifolium)  Flannelbush (Fremontodendron species)  CA coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica)  Tecate cypress (Cupressus forbesii)  Laurel sumac (Malosma laurina)  Black & White Sages (Salvia mellifera, Apiana) © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Pruning Manzanitas for a hedge or pot  Choose the right species: should have a more dense (less open) growth habit  Prune out branches that are ‘wrong’  Tip-prune/pinch new growth to promote fuller, bushy growth if desired © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Aesthetic and other considerations when choosing a manzanita  Open or dense growth pattern  Growth speed  Foliage color  Flower color  Size/color of fruits  ‘Garden hardiness’ – length of time used in gardens © Project SOUND
  63. 63. * Otay Manzanita – Arctostaphylos otayensis© 2003 David Graber © Project SOUND
  64. 64. * Otay Manzanita – Arctostaphylos otayensis  Endemic to mountains of southern San Diego County (e.g., Guatay, Jamul, Otay), near border with Baja California & nearby S. Riverside County and northern Baja  Shallow volcanic soils, rock outcrops in chaparral, woodlands (1500-5200‘ elev.)http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3513© 2003 David Graber http://www.willhiteweb.com/california_climbing/trip_reports_099.htm © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Otay Manzanita: medium to large shrub  Size:  5-15 ft tall  4-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright, evergreen shrub – similar appearance to ‘Dr. Hurd’  Slow-growing; dense when young becoming more open  Red-brown shreddy bark  Foliage:  New leaves bright green  Older leaves more gray-green  Leaves spaced so ‘open’ look http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctostaphyl  Roots: fibrous; no burl os_otayensis © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Flower color  Vary even within species: Otay Manzanita can be pale or medium pink – different appearance  Best time to buy is now – can see flower color© 2005 Gene Wagner, RPh. A . pungens http://hy.bestpicturesof.com/pungens © Project SOUNDhttp://azwildflowers.blogspot.com/2007/04/pointleaf-manzanita.html
  67. 67. Why go to the nursery in Dec/Jan?  Often can see both new & older foliage color  Can see flower size, color and density of floral clusters – even if none on the 1-gallen you buy, nursery will likely have ahttp://www.intermountainnursery.com/retail_nursery.htm mature plant or pictures of the exact plant you’re buying  Perfect time to plant; you can choose and purchase now © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Otay Manzanita loves rocky soils  Soils:  Texture: loves rocky soils but also grows in clay  pH: mildly acidic (pH 6.0-7.0 is optimal)  Light:  Best in full sun, but will take a little shade  Fine in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: occasional water (Zone 1-2) when mature. Likes 1 August ‘monsoon shower’© 2003 David Graber  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Otay Manzanita thrives in hot, inland gardens  Good background shrub in woodland garden.  Lovely shape for specimen plant or informal hedge© 2003 David Graber  Flowers attract hummingbirds & insect pollinators; many birds and animals like the fruits © Project SOUND http://kate-campbell.blogspot.com/2011/09/manzanita-saving-celebrating-our.html
  70. 70. So much habitat valuehttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pungens © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Maybe you like the looks of OtayManzanita, but you live by the coast.. http://www.naturalfrontyards.com/choose-a-palette/california-coastal/ © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Fortunately, not all chaparral is the same: maritime chaparral http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoregions/51202.htm http://www.flickr.com/photos/tcorelli/page602/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.californiachaparral.com/factsandmyths/wheretofindchaparral.html
  73. 73. * Morro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos morroensis © 2011 Chris Winchell © Project SOUND
  74. 74. * Morro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos morroensis  Endemic to San Luis Obispo County, California, where it is known only from the vicinity of Morro Bay.  It is limited to a specific type of substrate: ancient dune sandshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3505 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arctostaphylos_morroensis_1.jpg © Project SOUND http://www.worldbotanical.com/arctostaphylos.htm http://www.flickr.com/photos/edgehill/3776478253/
  75. 75. http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/02/olives-are-cured-and-some-cal-native.htmlHarmony & Sunset Manzanitas ‘soften’ a gravel pathwayat the front entry: what other choices? © Project SOUND
  76. 76. * Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia http://www.worldbotanical.com/arctostaphylos.htm © Project SOUND
  77. 77. * Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia  Endemic to the south-central coast of San Diego County south into extreme northwestern Baja California  On coastal sandstone bluffs within the rare and threatened maritime chaparral plant http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3470,3472 community  Some of the best populations exist and are protected at Torrey Pines State Reserve © Project SOUND http://www.plantscomprehensive.com/sandiegonatives-blog?page=3
  78. 78. Del mar Manzanita: gray-green to blue-green  Size:  3-6 ft tall; usually 3-5 ft  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Small to medium sized evergreen shrub w/ red bark  Rounded, upright to rambling form  Slow growing  Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green  Neat/tidy looking  Roots: re-sprouts from basal burl© 2007 Charles E. Jones http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glandulosa-ssp-crassifolia © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: sandy (including sand) or rocky are best  pH: slightly acidic (6.0- 7.6); many gardens in this range  Light:  Full sun along only on coast  Morning sun/dappled shade in other/hot gardens  Water:© 2006 Kai Palenscar  Winter: adequate;Look at the weather from the Torrey supplement if neededPines state park for clues about  Summer: Zone 1-2precipitation (occasional) best; fog; likes a ‘summer monsoon’ in Aug.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Use Del Mar Manzanita  As a tall groundcover  Under pines  As an informal hedge  With its usual associated species Comarostaphylis, Xylococcus, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Arctostaphylos_glandulosa Quercus and Salvia species.http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/m-Htm9oK65QX_9Kx7zPcDw © Project SOUND
  81. 81. What to do with all  Beverages  Manzanita ‘cider’ the fruits?  Syrup for cold drinks  Dried and ground for tea  Jelly & syrup  Dried and ground for a natural sweetener© 2010 James M. Andre http://www.wishtoyo.org/artifacts-wearables-seed-bead- necklaces.html © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Need a shrub that can take a little more water but looks like Del Mar Manzanita? © Project SOUND
  83. 83. * Pajaro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis© 1995 Dan Post © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Pajaro Manzanita is great for coastal gardens  Prune up for a small, dense tree – good nesting sites  Use as a specimen/accent shrub – very attractive year-round,http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pajaroensis-paradise-manzanita with sculptural shape  As an all-round habitat plant – winter nectar, fruits and cover- nest sites  Has an ‘old-fashioned look’ – perfect for Edwardian or Victorian garden  Nice addition to a scent garden © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2994359348/
  85. 85. ‘Myrtle Wolf’  Naturally occurring cultivar  Particularly attractive http://botanicalgarden.berkeley.edu/waterwise/images/05_Arctostaphylos-cv-MWolf5.jpg  Bright/dark pink flowers  Light blue-green foliage  4-5 ft tall & wide  Takes a little more heat – good for hot bankshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/ © Project SOUND
  86. 86. ‘Paradise’  Naturally occurring cultivar from Regional Parks Botanic Garden  5-6 ft tall; 6-10 ft wide  Exceptional new foliage color  Needs very good drainagehttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_a/arcpajpar.html http://drystonegarden.com/ © Project SOUND
  87. 87. ‘Warren Roberts’  Very dense, slate-blue/blue- green foliage  Upright habit – good for small tree – 6 ft tall, 10 ft wide  New foliage orange-red – really nice colorhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/ © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Versatile, garden-friendly ‘Sunset’ http://www.rwa.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24200&retu rn=l7_p87  Hybrid - A. pajaroensis x A. hookeri ssp. hookeri  Very colorful new foliage  Low-growing – to about 3-4 ft – informal hedges  Chosen for garden hardiness © Project SOUNDhttp://xeraplants.com/Xera/SHRUB_A-B_09.html
  89. 89. Manzanitas provide a wide range of foliage colorshttp://jayacarl.blogspot.com/2007/03/stone-wall-with-manzanita.html http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-silvicola/ © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Foliage color is important factorA. densiflora – bright green http://en.flickeflu.com/set/72157622626294085 A. auriculata – silvery blue-green http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/02/yes-im-manzanita-freak-and-blooming.html A. pungens – gray-green A. glandulosa – blue-green © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Compare foliage at the nursery  Some things to consider:  Color of new leaves – may be red-tinged in some specieshttp://dangergarden.blogspot.com/2010/04/joy-creek-nursery.html  Color of mature leaves  Leaf shape  Whether leaves are hairy or shiny  Leaf size and density on branches  Whether leaves are upright on branches  Color of new brancheshttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-silvicola/ © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Perhaps you need a mid-size shrub You could plant Indian Hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica) – or choose a smaller size manzanitahttp://coldcalculation.blogspot.com/2006/09/workhorse-landscape-plants.html © Project SOUND
  93. 93. * Mount Diablo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos auriculata  Endemic to the area surrounding Mount Diablo, in Contra Costa County (e San Francisco Bay Area)  occurs primarily in chamise or manzanita chaparral. It can also be found as an understory shrub in coast live oak woodland, 400-2000 elevationhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3456 © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Mount Diablo Manzanita: beautiful foliage  Size:  3-12 ft tall; usually 4-6 ft  5-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen woody shrub  Erect to mounded  Twigs hairy; older bark red  Foliage:  Gray-green; may be very fuzzy  Rounded, over-lapping leaves clasp the branches  Very unusual and lovely appearance© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Flowers are pink!  Blooms: winter to early spring  Flowers:  Usually pink – sometimes white  Usually hairy  Many flower clusters per plant – plant covered with flowers  Otherwise, fairly typical flowers for the genus  Fruits: small & hairy until mature.© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  96. 96. A. auriculata can take a  Soils: little more water  Texture: well-drained  pH: slightly acidic best  Light:  Full sun on coast  Morning sun/dappled shade in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with a little summer water (Zone 1-2 up to 2); rinse off occasionally in summer (be ‘the fog’)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: organic mulch (including oak and pine needles © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Arctostaphylos auriculata Knobcone Point  3-6 ft tall; 6-8 ft wide – spreading with erect stems  An unusual selection of manzanita that retains its close- set juvenile leaves, creating a unique fish scale-like effect  Foliage an attractive blue-green. Excellent in both coastal and inland gardens.  Pale pinkish-white flowers attract hummingbirds. © Project SOUND
  98. 98. ‘Greensphere’  Rounded shrub, 5’ tall x 6’ wide; almost perfectly spherical hybrid  Dense habit; compact new growth is attractive, reddish, ages to dark green.  Full sun to part shade.  Any soil, dry to semi-dry.  one of the easiest manzanitas to grow.http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/4297456024/ http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/235340/ © Project SOUND
  99. 99. The lowest of the lowhttp://seedbyte.blogspot.com/2009_12_11_archive.html © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii© 2007 Penny DeWind © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610653.pdf Many of the low-growing manzanitas grow in sandy coastal areas, suggesting that well-drained soils are important © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Arctostaphylos edmundsii ‘Carmel Sur’  Fast growing  Attractive dark gray-green foliage and dense, spreading habit.  < 1 ft. tall and 4 - 6 ft. across.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-edmundsii-carmel-sur-manzanita  Prefers coastal conditions but does well protected from hot afternoon sun inland.  Creeping main sterns send up many short, erect branchlets to form an attractive dense, lush-looking ground cover. © Project SOUND http://www.calown.com/nativegarden_plants.html
  103. 103. Arctostaphylos edmundsii  An unusually small shrub - < 2 ft ‘Big Sur’  Forms a small mound of dark green leaves and mahogany-red branches.  Unlike most smaller Manzanitas, this selection remains somewhat open, revealing the plants characteristic beautiful branching structure.http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1277Use along a path or draping over a wall where it can be appreciated upclose. © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Arctostaphylos edmundsii ‘Bert Johnson’  Flat mat-like stems hold gray- green leaves that flush bronze in early spring.  A compact mound forming selection to 2’ with shiny http://farm1.static.flickr.com/84/238318221_cec3be656f.jpg?v=0 foliage and light pink flowersExcellent native ground in springcover or in containers  Reliability in a range of garden situations. © Project SOUND
  105. 105. ‘Ophio-viridis’ hybrid  1 ft by 4-6 ft  Bright green foliage; overlapping leaves give© 2006 Steve Matson unique appearance  Recommended for use in containers, or where it can trail over a low wall - beautiful cascading growth.  Also good for hanging baskets. © Project SOUND
  106. 106. Purisima Manzanita – Arctostaphylos purissima © 2004 David Graber © Project SOUND
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