Magnificent Manzanitas 2011

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Magnificent Manzanitas 2011

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Magnificent Manzanitas C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve December 3 & 6, 2011 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. The genus Arctostaphylos  In the Heath family (Ericaceae)  Includes the Manzanitas and Bearberries, blueberries  Manzanitas occur in the chaparral of western North America, from southern British Columbia through much of northern and central Mexico.  The three species of Bearberries have adapted to arctic and subarctic climates, and have a circumpolar distribution in northern North America, Asia and Europe. © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Why do people fall in love with Manzanitas?  Showy, sweet-smelling flowers in winter/early spring  Evergreen foliage  Red bark  Interesting, architectural growth patterns  Edible fruits/medicinal leaves  Attracts hummingbirds, native bees & butterflies  Because they’re rare in the wilds  Because they are a part of California’s unique wild heritage © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Whatever the reason, people want to include manzanitas in their gardens…. And that can be a challenge for those of us living in western L.A. county © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Success with manzanitas begins with choosingthe best species or cultivar for your conditions © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Tailor the manzanita to your conditions (rather than the other way around)  Soil conditions:  Texture/drainage  pH  Size: height & width/spread  Growth pattern/speed  Light/temperature  Water regimen  Aesthetics:Fortunately, there are more than forty species of Arctostaphylos inCalifornia not to mention all the cultivars, subspecies and hybrids. © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Many species require well-drained soils  Soil texture/Drainage Soil type Approximate time to drain Hard-pan or days sodic soils Clay 3-12 hours Loam 20-60 minutes dig hole 1 ft x 1 ft Sandy Loam 10-30 minutes fill with water and let drain Sand cant fill the hole, fill hole again, measure drains too fast time for water to drain © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Many manzanitas like a slightly acidic soil  Most manzanitas originate in areas with more acidic soil due to:  Higher rainfall  Effects of chaparral/woodland plants  The rock material from which the soils were derived  Our local garden soils tend to range from 6.5 to 7.5 – and some may be as high as 7.8+Soils under pine trees and oaks will be more acidic © Project SOUND
  10. 10. So, you really should test your soil pH if you want to grow manzanitas  A simple garden soil pH test kit is adequate for the job – no need for fancy equipment  If your soil is Alkaline (pH > 7.5) consider planting in a large pot  If your soil is neutral or slightly acid (pH 6.0 – 7.5) choose manzanitas that like a slightly acid soil and use an organic mulch  If your soil is acid (pH 5.0-5.9)http://nogmoseedbank.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/planning-for-spring-planting-season-part-5-conducting-a-soil-test/ you can plant even those that need acidic soils © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Can’t I just amend my soil to lower the pH?  Actually, it’s not that easy:  Takes a lot of effort to lower soils pH – and you have to keep doing it because pH keeps ↑  Acid fertilizers also increase the soil N levels – often too high for CA native plantshttp://www.learn2grow.com/gardeningguides/lawns/planting/Incorp  Chemical amendments:oratingAmendments.aspxIf you’re acidifying 1000 sq ft of  sulfur or iron/ammonium/soil with sulfur, a 1.0 change in aluminum sulfatepH (from 7.5 to 6.5) requires 11pounds of the product for sandy  Natural amendments: pine straw;soil and 23 pounds for claylikesoil. oak leaf mold  ? Coffee grounds/acid compost © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Size matters: most Manzanitas eventually want to grow to their natural size http://www.flickr.com/photos/97607362@N00/4375161245/ http://travel.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474977173759 © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Manzanita species grow from < six inches (some coastal species) to twenty feet tall (many interior species). http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Mar08.html http://www.fresno.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24200&letter=b &return=s_aP © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Don’t forget the widthhttp://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/swest/msg0309450418785.html Arctostaphylos rudis "Burton Beauty Manzanita". A. refugioensis © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The right plant, grown correctly, will live for more than 100 years (especially the larger forms). http://123terry.com/photos/mom_day_2008/mom_day_2008.html © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Let’s say you want to replace an old tree with a large manzanita http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Mar08.html © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca© 2008 Gary A. Monroe © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Bigberry Manzanita: shrub or tree  Easy-care shrub for slopes; good for erosion control  Specimen shrub; needs little pruning  As a small shade tree  As a key shrub/tree for the habitat garden: bees, butterflies, birds, humanshttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Why choose Manzanita cultivars?  Because they have better size, shape, color, etc.  Because they often are better adapted to garden conditions (and therefore more likely to thrive in your garden)  Garden tolerance - cultivars are often more tolerant of:  A little extra water  Soils that are not perfectly drained  Heat and cold  Salinity and higher pH © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Los Angeles’  Source plant: originally in the area of Mullholland Hwy. and Kanan Rd.  Smooth red bark and clean shiny foliage with pink- white flowers make the plant quite attractive.  Locally native – tolerates sandy soils of western L.A. County http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-frazier-park-manzanita © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-los-angeles
  21. 21. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Frazier Park’  From Frazier Park/ Mt. Pinos region ~ 5000 ft.  The form is low/dense for a Big Berry Manzanita.  Foliage is pale green, a glaucous green, making it appear whitish-bluish - beautiful accent plant in a garden.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-frazier-park-manzanita © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Margarita Pearl’  ? Big Berry manzanita (glauca) or a hybrid between A. glauca and A. wellsii  Very large flowers and berries – good for edibles garden  Foliage is a bright grey on new growth and dull grey on old growth – lovely colorhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-margarita-pearl © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Arctostaphylos glauca ‘Ramona’  From San Vicente/Ramona area (San Diego Co.)  Red bark, a very open form, clean glossy foliage. The plant looks almost artificial  Use as a specimen with lower green manzanitas and ceanothi under it, or as an elegant eight to ten foot hedge in a chaparral planting.  Ok in soils of pH 7.8, and might even be ok in pH 8.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca-ramona-manzanita © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Arctostaphylos ‘Canyon Blush’  Arctostaphylos glauca hybrid from a chance seedling in the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden.  Red-flushed new foliage andhttp://www.faroutflora.com/page/12/ blush pink flowers  4’ tall by 20 ft wide; climbing/ trailing form  Quite effective as a sprawling, large-scale groundcover, or cascading down a slope.  Use drip irrigation in place of overhead watering to reduce spread of this disease. © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Allelopathy: chemical warfare in the garden  Chaparral plants tend to ‘exclude’ other plants:  Shading or crowding out  Producing chemicals that are toxic to plants or seedlings  Some common trees/large shrubs that practice chemical warfare: Manzanitas/Bearberrieshttp://sierrafoothillgarden.wordpress.com/2011/04/10/allelopathic-plantswhat-%E2%80%9Ci-want-to-be-aloooone%E2%80%9D/   Walnuts  Oaks  Sycamore  California Bay laurel  Cottonwood  Non-natives like Forsythia, Tree-of-heaven, Black locust and Eucalyptus © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Common Manzanita – Arctostaphylos manzanitahttp://lucioledesign.com/blog/?attachment_id=552 © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Common Manzanita – Arctostaphylos manzanita  Central & northern California - Contra Costa County north to Humboldt, Trinity, and Shasta counties; and from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in Shasta County south to Mariposa County.  On ‘dry’, well-drained, sunny sites in Ponderosa shrub forest, California mixed evergreen forest, Northern oak woodlands, Chaparral, Montane chaparralhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3492© 1994 David Graber © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Common Manzanita: large size  Size:  6-12+ ft tall – as tall as 20’  4-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Large evergreen shrub/small tree  Open, upright habit – many long twisted trunks give it an umbrella-like shape  Peeling red-brown bark  Foliage:  Bright green to slightly blue- green  Leaves simple, rounded© 2009 John Malpashttp://atlantis.mendocino.edu/jxerogeanes/AGR%2053/Arctostaphylos%20manzanita-%20Whole%20plant.jpg © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Most manzanitas like  Soils:  Texture: any with very good well-drained soils drainage  pH: 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic) ; may need to amend or use mulch to acidify (pine needles; oak leaves)  Light:  Full sun (coast) to part-shade – even under tall pines  Water:  Winter: adequate/supplement  Summer: occasional water ishttp://www.intermountainnursery.com/demonstration_garden_list.htm best – 1-3 times per summer (Zone 1-2) Best away from the coast; likes cooler winters  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: use an organic mulch; pine needles are great! © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Why do garden manzanitas need a well-drained soil?  It’s what they are adapted to (root system anatomy)  It keeps you/Mother Nature from over-watering  Winter rain events can ‘drown’ plants in standing water/water-logged soils  Too much summer rain promotes fungal diseases to which manzanitas are susceptiblehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/starlingfeather/297644619/ © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Watering Manzanitas: a few pointers  Look to the plant’s natural climate as a starting point:  Lots of rain yearly – some species from very N. coasthttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-  Deeper/more frequent wintermorroensis-park-view-manzanita rains – higher elevation chaparral & woodlands  Summer monsoons in August – San Diego county species  Significant summer fog – species from the central and northern CA coast http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/mounttam/Interesting © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Then modify according to your conditions  Temperature  Soil characteristics  Wind, fog and other climatic differences © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Watering manzanitas: some tips  Be sure that ‘expert advice’ is appropriate for your area  Use conventional drip irrigation only to get plants started the first year  Use soaker hoses, soaker-drip or a plain old hose for deep, occasional water of established plants  Only use overhead spray for coastal species that need a fake ‘fog spray’ © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Planting and establishing manzanitas  The best time to plant is in the Fall to early Winter, when soils are moist.  Treat manzanitas as 1 full Water Zone above their final Zone for the first 2 summers. This will often be either Zone 2 or 2-3 (watering every 7-14 days).  Water as the soil starts to dry. Inspect the soil down a few inches to get a true idea of sub-surface moisture. Moisture meters are an inexpensive and effective way to check out the amount of water in the soil.  By 3rd summer decrease to ½ Zone above final Zone.  Ultimately, in about 3-5 years, your manzanitas, can take their final zone - may become independent of your care. © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Treat as a shrub or tree  As a shade tree  As an exotic accent  As a large foundation shrub  On dry slopes  For habitat valuehttp://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/forums/showthread.php?t=432 © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-manzanita-dr-hurd-manzanita-tree http://www.sanjose.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=2528&return=l4_aD
  36. 36. Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Byrd Hill’  Naturally occurring variant  A more compact version of A. manzanita (8-10 H x 8 W)  Upright; nice sculpted form.  Very drought tolerant. No summer water (or just 1-2 times per summer – Zone 1-2) once established  Excellent for wildlife.http://www.californianativeplants.com/index.php/catalog/item/arctostaphylos-manzanita-byrd-hill © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’  To 15’ tall & wide; fast grower  More garden tolerant: some summer water, richer soil, than Arctostaphylos glauca  Tolerates clay or sandy soils  Tree or shrub form – your choice  Reliable drought-tolerant plant in our areahttp://lucioledesign.com/blog/?attachment_id=552 http://www.santacruz.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=2528&return=l9_aC © Project SOUND http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/images/new_botimages/large/0118_2_j.jpg
  38. 38. Arctostaphylos manzanita x A. densiflora ‘Austin Griffiths’ Manzanita  Hybrid: Arctostaphylos densiflora Sentinel X Arctostaphylos manzanita Dr. Hurd  Tall open shape with bright foliage & pink flowers of A. densiflora  8-10 ft tall; 6-8 ft wide  Sandy soils best; clay ok  Good for habitat hedges/dry hedgerows © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Manzanita hybrids – more all the time!  Are a cross between two species  Can occur in the wilds – and do – but many species never come in contact in the wilds  Hybrids occur readily in the garden setting – manzanita species are ‘promiscuous’  Some hybrids combine the best traits of both parents (‘hybrid cultivars’)  Impact on wild populations – a real potential problem (but not in lower‘Austin Griffiths’ Manzanita elevation western L.A. county) © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Large Manzanitas: are they trees or shrubs?  That’s debatable  Some native shrubby species - mainly those native to California - certainly reach tree size.  However, they generally branch or fork near the ground, thus lacking the single trunk of a tree.Arctostaph​ylos Bird Hill and Lyonothamn​usplanifolia both have open ‘tree-like’ growth  ? ‘multi-trunk small tree’habit that allow them to be ‘pruned up’ intosmall ‘trees’. © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Most Manzanitas look good throughout their lifespan – even without pruning © 2008 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczyhttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-auriculata/ http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/01/rain-frost- blooming-manzanitas.html At four years © Project SOUND
  42. 42. ‘Dr. Hurd’ grows up to be a tree http://3palmsnursery.com/ywup/ArctoDr%20Hurd.JPGhttp://www.heronshouse.com/Landscaping/California%20Natives.htmhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/5967389289/ ‘Dr. Hurd’ at 5 years http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-02-27/home-and-garden/28632634_1_prune-manzanitas-fruit- trees © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Pruning to shape – tree-like forms  Judicious shaping is possible.  The trick seems to be not to act too soon - until you can get a feel for the form the plant is taking - or too late, which would leave large pruning scars on the smooth, red bark. ‘Howard McMinn’http://dangergarden.blogspot.com/2010/03/walking-around-neighborhood.html http://blog.travelpod.com/travel-photo/keeleyhope/1/1267709433/manzanita.jpg/tpod.htm © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Start by choosing the right species – and the right plant http://www.heronshouse.com/Landscaping/California%20Natives.htmhttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_a/arcsun.html ‘Sunset’ ‘Howard McMinn’ © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Mother Nature trumps  Most manzanitas are not going to have a single leader (a single dominant trunk that starts at the ground and extends through the tree).  Trying to get that kind of tree will probably not be wise – work with the natural shape © Project SOUND
  46. 46.  Prune manzanitas only inAbove all, do no harm warm, dry weather, to guard against diseases fostered by cold and damp.  Don’t stress the plant by over-pruning:  If its young plant, remove no more than about 25% of its leaf / volume.  Limit pruning of older plants to 10% to 15%. You can always do more next year. © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Prune purposively  If removing a branch or trunk will improve the shape, remove it before it gets too big (< 1.5 inches is good). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manzanita.JPG http://www.juniperridge.com/wildcrafting_use.htm  Consider pinching small branch tips to redirect growth upward - pinching to an upward facing bud.  Most manzanitas wont form new leaves on a branch if you cut off the part of it that had leaves, so think hard before you cut. © Project SOUNDhttp://truevisiondesign.com/janet/fun/around-the-property/86-clearing-brush-and-the-joy-of-poison-oak
  48. 48. Can manzanitas be used in hedges & hedgerows?‘Austin Griffiths’ © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Pointleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pungenshttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Pointleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pungens  Foothills & mtns of the U.S. Southwest and NW Mexico – 2500-8000 ft.  Locally: San Gabriel & San Bernardino Mtns.  Rocky slopes, ridges, inhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi- http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flor a_id=1&taxon_id=250092319 chaparral, coniferous forestbin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3522 http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/arpu5.htm © Project SOUND http://www.birdandhike.com/Veg/Species/Shrubs/Arctos_pun/_Arc_pun.htm
  51. 51. Pointleaf Manzanita: variable over its range  Size:  3-10 ft tall – often 3-6 ft  3-8 ft wide – often 3-6 ft  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub/small tree  Upright, open habit  Smooth, red-brown peeling bark  In nature may grow in dense thickets  Foliage:  Thick, leathery leaves  Shiny wax coating  Produces volatile chemicals – helps to burn  Roots: shallow, fibrous © Project SOUNDhttp://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/arpu5.htm http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~greywolf/spectra/spec_curve.html
  52. 52. Manzanitas are primarily chaparral plants Environmental  Higher total moisture  Rain & snow  May also have summer rains  Wider temperature extremes  More natural mulch Growth patterns  Evergreen  Longer growth season – spring through summer  May have growth/flowering after summer rains Role of fire: essential for many species © Project SOUND
  53. 53.  Manzanitas contain a high percentage Manzanitas and fire of volatile compounds, which burn like a torch when ignited.  They also carry a large amount of dead wood, making them all the more flammable.  Manzanita can act as a ladder fuel in landscapes, especially when planted adjacent to flammable structures such as homes, decks, fences, and trees. http://sandiegohiker.net/?p=408 Ladder fuels carry fire from the ground where it can be controlled toTough seed coats and sprouting treetops where it is difficult toroots/ burls are manzanita control.adaptations to life with fire  Flame lengths of manzanita can reach eight times the height of the shrub (i.e. a five foot tall manzanita can generate a 40 foot flame). © Project SOUND
  54. 54. If you need to worry about fire: choices  Plant something other than a manzanita  Plant species from Northern CA or cultivars that can take a little more water; then water them  Choose Bearberries, which are not so flammable but have the ‘manzanita look’ © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Flowers and fruits  Blooms:  Winter to early spring – in our area may be as early as Nov/Dec.  Provide needed winter color, nectarhttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm  Flowers:  Typical for the genus: small, white (pink blush) urn-shaped  Fruits:  Small (1/4 inch)  Ripen to showy red in summer; retained through fall  Vegetative reproduction: natural layering © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Growing Manzanita from seed: difdicult  Very difficult to germinate: have both a hard seedcoat and embryo dormancy  In nature, manzanita seeds germinate following fire. Fire provides exposure to heat/smoke and seedbedhttp://hazmac.biz/041206b/041206bArctostaphylosPungens.html preparation.  To mimic this natural process, some propagators sow seeds in a flat (wooden flat covered with aluminum foil) and burn a 3-4 inch layer of pine needles on top of the seedbed.  Seeds may take a year to germinate. Once seedlings germinate, they are transplanted to nursery containers. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Propagating manzanitas by layering is easy  Propagate existing manzanita plants using Mother Nature’s method - the layering technique.  A tender shoot is "pinned" (using a "U" shaped piece of wire) into the soil where it is left to take root for a growing season.  Slightly wound the stem with a sharp, clean knife and give supplemental water to promote root growth. http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/YouthAdventureProgra m/AsexualPropagation/AsexaulPropagation.htmlNatural ‘layering’ allows  After roots become established, thesome plants to form a thicket rooted plant can be severed from thegenerated from a single mother plant, grown up in a pot, andplant transplanted in fall following recovery. © Project SOUND
  58. 58.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: well-drained – sandy or rocky best, but others ok on slopes  pH: slightly acidic - 5.1-7.5  Light:  Full sun  Can take plenty of heat  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: in our area, best with occasional water (once a month in summer – Zone 1-2) but very drought tolerant; likes ‘summer monsoon’  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://www.educacionambiental.org.mx/atlas/anexo/CONABIO/Arctostaphylos%20pungens2.jpg  Other: organic mulch © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Pointleaf Manzanita thrives in dry gardens  Nice background shrub or in informal hedges  Hot, dry hills & slopes – erosion control  Place where you can enjoy flowers & fruits http://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htmhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ARPU5
  60. 60. For a chaparral garden, plant with its usual associates  Wedgeleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus cuneatus)  California buckthorn (Frangula californica)  Common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)  Birchleaf mountain-mahogany  Thickleaf yerba santa (E. crassifolium)  Flannelbush (Fremontodendron species)  CA coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica)  Tecate cypress (Cupressus forbesii)  Laurel sumac (Malosma laurina)  Black & White Sages (Salvia mellifera, Apiana) © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Pruning Manzanitas for a hedge or pot  Choose the right species: should have a more dense (less open) growth habit  Prune out branches that are ‘wrong’  Tip-prune/pinch new growth to promote fuller, bushy growth if desired © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Aesthetic and other considerations when choosing a manzanita  Open or dense growth pattern  Growth speed  Foliage color  Flower color  Size/color of fruits  ‘Garden hardiness’ – length of time used in gardens © Project SOUND
  63. 63. * Otay Manzanita – Arctostaphylos otayensis© 2003 David Graber © Project SOUND
  64. 64. * Otay Manzanita – Arctostaphylos otayensis  Endemic to mountains of southern San Diego County (e.g., Guatay, Jamul, Otay), near border with Baja California & nearby S. Riverside County and northern Baja  Shallow volcanic soils, rock outcrops in chaparral, woodlands (1500-5200‘ elev.)http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3513© 2003 David Graber http://www.willhiteweb.com/california_climbing/trip_reports_099.htm © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Otay Manzanita: medium to large shrub  Size:  5-15 ft tall  4-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright, evergreen shrub – similar appearance to ‘Dr. Hurd’  Slow-growing; dense when young becoming more open  Red-brown shreddy bark  Foliage:  New leaves bright green  Older leaves more gray-green  Leaves spaced so ‘open’ look http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctostaphyl  Roots: fibrous; no burl os_otayensis © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Flower color  Vary even within species: Otay Manzanita can be pale or medium pink – different appearance  Best time to buy is now – can see flower color© 2005 Gene Wagner, RPh. A . pungens http://hy.bestpicturesof.com/pungens © Project SOUNDhttp://azwildflowers.blogspot.com/2007/04/pointleaf-manzanita.html
  67. 67. Why go to the nursery in Dec/Jan?  Often can see both new & older foliage color  Can see flower size, color and density of floral clusters – even if none on the 1-gallen you buy, nursery will likely have ahttp://www.intermountainnursery.com/retail_nursery.htm mature plant or pictures of the exact plant you’re buying  Perfect time to plant; you can choose and purchase now © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Otay Manzanita loves rocky soils  Soils:  Texture: loves rocky soils but also grows in clay  pH: mildly acidic (pH 6.0-7.0 is optimal)  Light:  Best in full sun, but will take a little shade  Fine in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: occasional water (Zone 1-2) when mature. Likes 1 August ‘monsoon shower’© 2003 David Graber  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Otay Manzanita thrives in hot, inland gardens  Good background shrub in woodland garden.  Lovely shape for specimen plant or informal hedge© 2003 David Graber  Flowers attract hummingbirds & insect pollinators; many birds and animals like the fruits © Project SOUND http://kate-campbell.blogspot.com/2011/09/manzanita-saving-celebrating-our.html
  70. 70. So much habitat valuehttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pungens © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Maybe you like the looks of OtayManzanita, but you live by the coast.. http://www.naturalfrontyards.com/choose-a-palette/california-coastal/ © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Fortunately, not all chaparral is the same: maritime chaparral http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoregions/51202.htm http://www.flickr.com/photos/tcorelli/page602/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.californiachaparral.com/factsandmyths/wheretofindchaparral.html
  73. 73. * Morro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos morroensis © 2011 Chris Winchell © Project SOUND
  74. 74. * Morro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos morroensis  Endemic to San Luis Obispo County, California, where it is known only from the vicinity of Morro Bay.  It is limited to a specific type of substrate: ancient dune sandshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3505 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arctostaphylos_morroensis_1.jpg © Project SOUND http://www.worldbotanical.com/arctostaphylos.htm http://www.flickr.com/photos/edgehill/3776478253/
  75. 75. http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/02/olives-are-cured-and-some-cal-native.htmlHarmony & Sunset Manzanitas ‘soften’ a gravel pathwayat the front entry: what other choices? © Project SOUND
  76. 76. * Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia http://www.worldbotanical.com/arctostaphylos.htm © Project SOUND
  77. 77. * Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia  Endemic to the south-central coast of San Diego County south into extreme northwestern Baja California  On coastal sandstone bluffs within the rare and threatened maritime chaparral plant http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3470,3472 community  Some of the best populations exist and are protected at Torrey Pines State Reserve © Project SOUND http://www.plantscomprehensive.com/sandiegonatives-blog?page=3
  78. 78. Del mar Manzanita: gray-green to blue-green  Size:  3-6 ft tall; usually 3-5 ft  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Small to medium sized evergreen shrub w/ red bark  Rounded, upright to rambling form  Slow growing  Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green  Neat/tidy looking  Roots: re-sprouts from basal burl© 2007 Charles E. Jones http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glandulosa-ssp-crassifolia © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: sandy (including sand) or rocky are best  pH: slightly acidic (6.0- 7.6); many gardens in this range  Light:  Full sun along only on coast  Morning sun/dappled shade in other/hot gardens  Water:© 2006 Kai Palenscar  Winter: adequate;Look at the weather from the Torrey supplement if neededPines state park for clues about  Summer: Zone 1-2precipitation (occasional) best; fog; likes a ‘summer monsoon’ in Aug.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Use Del Mar Manzanita  As a tall groundcover  Under pines  As an informal hedge  With its usual associated species Comarostaphylis, Xylococcus, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Arctostaphylos_glandulosa Quercus and Salvia species.http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/m-Htm9oK65QX_9Kx7zPcDw © Project SOUND
  81. 81. What to do with all  Beverages  Manzanita ‘cider’ the fruits?  Syrup for cold drinks  Dried and ground for tea  Jelly & syrup  Dried and ground for a natural sweetener© 2010 James M. Andre http://www.wishtoyo.org/artifacts-wearables-seed-bead- necklaces.html © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Need a shrub that can take a little more water but looks like Del Mar Manzanita? © Project SOUND
  83. 83. * Pajaro Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis© 1995 Dan Post © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Pajaro Manzanita is great for coastal gardens  Prune up for a small, dense tree – good nesting sites  Use as a specimen/accent shrub – very attractive year-round,http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pajaroensis-paradise-manzanita with sculptural shape  As an all-round habitat plant – winter nectar, fruits and cover- nest sites  Has an ‘old-fashioned look’ – perfect for Edwardian or Victorian garden  Nice addition to a scent garden © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2994359348/
  85. 85. ‘Myrtle Wolf’  Naturally occurring cultivar  Particularly attractive http://botanicalgarden.berkeley.edu/waterwise/images/05_Arctostaphylos-cv-MWolf5.jpg  Bright/dark pink flowers  Light blue-green foliage  4-5 ft tall & wide  Takes a little more heat – good for hot bankshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/ © Project SOUND
  86. 86. ‘Paradise’  Naturally occurring cultivar from Regional Parks Botanic Garden  5-6 ft tall; 6-10 ft wide  Exceptional new foliage color  Needs very good drainagehttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_a/arcpajpar.html http://drystonegarden.com/ © Project SOUND
  87. 87. ‘Warren Roberts’  Very dense, slate-blue/blue- green foliage  Upright habit – good for small tree – 6 ft tall, 10 ft wide  New foliage orange-red – really nice colorhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/ © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Versatile, garden-friendly ‘Sunset’ http://www.rwa.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24200&retu rn=l7_p87  Hybrid - A. pajaroensis x A. hookeri ssp. hookeri  Very colorful new foliage  Low-growing – to about 3-4 ft – informal hedges  Chosen for garden hardiness © Project SOUNDhttp://xeraplants.com/Xera/SHRUB_A-B_09.html
  89. 89. Manzanitas provide a wide range of foliage colorshttp://jayacarl.blogspot.com/2007/03/stone-wall-with-manzanita.html http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-silvicola/ © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Foliage color is important factorA. densiflora – bright green http://en.flickeflu.com/set/72157622626294085 A. auriculata – silvery blue-green http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2011/02/yes-im-manzanita-freak-and-blooming.html A. pungens – gray-green A. glandulosa – blue-green © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Compare foliage at the nursery  Some things to consider:  Color of new leaves – may be red-tinged in some specieshttp://dangergarden.blogspot.com/2010/04/joy-creek-nursery.html  Color of mature leaves  Leaf shape  Whether leaves are hairy or shiny  Leaf size and density on branches  Whether leaves are upright on branches  Color of new brancheshttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-silvicola/ © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Perhaps you need a mid-size shrub You could plant Indian Hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica) – or choose a smaller size manzanitahttp://coldcalculation.blogspot.com/2006/09/workhorse-landscape-plants.html © Project SOUND
  93. 93. * Mount Diablo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos auriculata  Endemic to the area surrounding Mount Diablo, in Contra Costa County (e San Francisco Bay Area)  occurs primarily in chamise or manzanita chaparral. It can also be found as an understory shrub in coast live oak woodland, 400-2000 elevationhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3456 © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Mount Diablo Manzanita: beautiful foliage  Size:  3-12 ft tall; usually 4-6 ft  5-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen woody shrub  Erect to mounded  Twigs hairy; older bark red  Foliage:  Gray-green; may be very fuzzy  Rounded, over-lapping leaves clasp the branches  Very unusual and lovely appearance© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Flowers are pink!  Blooms: winter to early spring  Flowers:  Usually pink – sometimes white  Usually hairy  Many flower clusters per plant – plant covered with flowers  Otherwise, fairly typical flowers for the genus  Fruits: small & hairy until mature.© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  96. 96. A. auriculata can take a  Soils: little more water  Texture: well-drained  pH: slightly acidic best  Light:  Full sun on coast  Morning sun/dappled shade in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with a little summer water (Zone 1-2 up to 2); rinse off occasionally in summer (be ‘the fog’)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: organic mulch (including oak and pine needles © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Arctostaphylos auriculata Knobcone Point  3-6 ft tall; 6-8 ft wide – spreading with erect stems  An unusual selection of manzanita that retains its close- set juvenile leaves, creating a unique fish scale-like effect  Foliage an attractive blue-green. Excellent in both coastal and inland gardens.  Pale pinkish-white flowers attract hummingbirds. © Project SOUND
  98. 98. ‘Greensphere’  Rounded shrub, 5’ tall x 6’ wide; almost perfectly spherical hybrid  Dense habit; compact new growth is attractive, reddish, ages to dark green.  Full sun to part shade.  Any soil, dry to semi-dry.  one of the easiest manzanitas to grow.http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/4297456024/ http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/235340/ © Project SOUND
  99. 99. The lowest of the lowhttp://seedbyte.blogspot.com/2009_12_11_archive.html © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii© 2007 Penny DeWind © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610653.pdf Many of the low-growing manzanitas grow in sandy coastal areas, suggesting that well-drained soils are important © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Arctostaphylos edmundsii ‘Carmel Sur’  Fast growing  Attractive dark gray-green foliage and dense, spreading habit.  < 1 ft. tall and 4 - 6 ft. across.http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-edmundsii-carmel-sur-manzanita  Prefers coastal conditions but does well protected from hot afternoon sun inland.  Creeping main sterns send up many short, erect branchlets to form an attractive dense, lush-looking ground cover. © Project SOUND http://www.calown.com/nativegarden_plants.html
  103. 103. Arctostaphylos edmundsii  An unusually small shrub - < 2 ft ‘Big Sur’  Forms a small mound of dark green leaves and mahogany-red branches.  Unlike most smaller Manzanitas, this selection remains somewhat open, revealing the plants characteristic beautiful branching structure.http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1277Use along a path or draping over a wall where it can be appreciated upclose. © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Arctostaphylos edmundsii ‘Bert Johnson’  Flat mat-like stems hold gray- green leaves that flush bronze in early spring.  A compact mound forming selection to 2’ with shiny http://farm1.static.flickr.com/84/238318221_cec3be656f.jpg?v=0 foliage and light pink flowersExcellent native ground in springcover or in containers  Reliability in a range of garden situations. © Project SOUND
  105. 105. ‘Ophio-viridis’ hybrid  1 ft by 4-6 ft  Bright green foliage; overlapping leaves give© 2006 Steve Matson unique appearance  Recommended for use in containers, or where it can trail over a low wall - beautiful cascading growth.  Also good for hanging baskets. © Project SOUND
  106. 106. Purisima Manzanita – Arctostaphylos purissima © 2004 David Graber © Project SOUND

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