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Luscious lupines 2009


This lecture was given in February, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

This lecture was given in February, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Native Plants of Western L.A. County Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  • 2. Luscious Lupines C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve February 7 & 10, 2009 © Project SOUND
  • 3. Lupines have long been garden favorites © Project SOUND
  • 4. The lupines - the genus Lupinus)  Also known as Lupins (Europe) bluebonnets, old maid’s bonnets or wolfbean  Two groups:  Old World lupines, (Mediterranean regions & E. Africa; 12-13 species  New World lupines (N. & S. America); 90% of the genus  Place of original origin???  ~ 165 species (or possibly more) worldwide  82 species in CA;  14 in western L.A. Co.In short, we have a wealth of  An additional 6-10 species in nearby Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mountainsnative lupines from our area © Project SOUND
  • 5. Lupines: an interesting genus in the Pea Family  Bloom time: February to July, but usually in spring – often depends on timing of rains  Larger-flowered species usually pollinated by large bees; small flowers may be self-fertilizing (Cleistogamy).  Flower color: white to various shades of blue and reddish-purple, and even a few yellow species  Leaves: palmately compound, with 5 to 9+ leaflets. The number of leaflets on an individual plant can vary.  Pea-like pods with hard seeds © Project SOUND
  • 6. Flowers are typical of the Pea family (Fabaceae) Silver Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonishttp://montana.plant-life.org/families/Fabaceae.htm  Five petals are highly modified:  Large banner petal (often with a white or yellow spot) – attract pollinators  Two small wing petals  Two (fused) keel petals – cover the male & female organs © Project SOUND
  • 7. Lupines & pollinators  Plant sex typically must be consummated by a third party (the wind, a hummingbird, or a bumblebee) that transfers pollen from one blossom to another.  To lure pollinators, plants clad themselves in colorful (to the pollinator – UV-colored flowers may appear white to us) flowers with seductive scents.  While the bee is fertilizing the flower, the plant is returning the favor, offering nectar, the insect equivalent of soda pop, and/or life-giving protein in the form of pollen.  Most lupine flowers offer just a bit of nectar, and just for ahttp://www.dailykos.com/story/2007/6/22/20290/0906 short time… © Project SOUND
  • 8. Lupines & pollinators Lupine flowers have characteristics to specifically attract large bees:  Purple/blue color  ‘guiding signs’  Heavy-duty landing pad Bumblebee blossoms often have some form of physical barrier that only the bulky insect can surmount.  In Lupines (and other Peas), the nectaries, along with the sexual organs, are enclosed in the fused keel petals.  When a bumblebee lands on the keel, its weight forces the keel petals to pop open, exposing the flowers private parts (and the nectar). Bumblebees ‘pump out’ the pollen © Project SOUND
  • 9. Lupine flowers are ‘color-coded for freshness’  The ‘banner spot’ on lupine flowers helps to guide the bumblebee to the proper landing spot; bees can see the Grape-soda Lupine contrasting colors  Lupines only make a small amount of nectar for the pollinator. To advertise that the flower is un- pollinated and has nectar, the banner petal or banner spot is bright white or yellow.  After the flower is pollinated, the banner petal turns reddish- https://www.hometownstation.com/local-news/scv-outdoor-report-2008- 04-17-13-01-2.html purple - a cue to pollinators that no more nectar is being produced by that flower This color change all involves a single  Bees (and even we) cannot pigment type – the anthocyanins discriminate well between blue- violet and magenta (bees can’t see red) © Project SOUNDhttp://www.spenceville.org/plant/Wildflowers.htm
  • 10. Other bumblebee plants  Trees/shrubs  California lilac (Ceanothus spp)  Desert willow (Chilopsis linearis)  Dogwood (Cornus glabrata)  Manzanitas (Arctostaphylos species)  Willows (Salix species)  Elderberry (Sambucus)  Wildflowers (perennials & Annuals)  Columbines (Aquilegia species)  Lupines (Lupinus species)  Milkweeds (Asclepias species)  Penstemons (Penstemon species)  Phacelias (Phacelia species)  Buckwheats (Eriogonum species)  Sages (Salvia species)  Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus & Encelia)  Goldenrods (Solidago & Euthamia species) © Project SOUND
  • 11. But bumblebees aren’t the only pollinators © Project SOUND
  • 12. Yellow Tree Lupine - Lupinus arboreus © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys CollegeCA coast from Ventura north;Aggressive re-seeder – don’t plant near any native species © Project SOUND
  • 13. ‘Lupinus propinquus’ – Local form of Lupinus arboreus Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences Local endemic in Marin Co, right near shore; © Project SOUND
  • 14. If you really want a tree lupine, perhaps your should wait….for ‘L. payneii’  Shrub 4-8 ft. high from a trunk- like base, to 8 inches in diameter  Flowers very fragrant, varying from white through lilac, lavender, purple  Canyons of the Tapo Ranch, Santa Susana, May, 1918, Theodore Payne  ‘This plant has been under observation by Mr. Payne for some years. It grows on hillsides of a reddish clay with occasional outcroppings of gravel. Those with long lavender blooms are quite like a Wisteria in appearance and areThe Theodore Payne Foundation altogether the most showy of allrecently discovered some old seeds our southern lupines.’of ‘L. payneii’  This plant has been grouped with L. longifolius – but Theodore Payne (and others) suggested this was a separate species © Project SOUND
  • 15. Our local perennial lupines are sub-shrubs  Moderate sized : 2-4 ft tall & wide  Have a woody root/base  Branches are succulent, at least at their outer ends  Local species:  L. longifolius  L. chamissonis  L. albifrons  L. excubitus var. halii  L. formosusSilver Bush Lupine – Lupinus albifrons © Project SOUND
  • 16. Our local shrub lupines are very water-wise  Most are adapted for – and do best in – well-drained soils; some even thrive in sand  Most do best – and live longer – if given only modest amounts of summer water (Zone 1-2 or 2)  A very wet winter (or over- watering) can lead to the demise of shrub lupines – in all but the best-drained soils  Most will be somewhat summer dormant © Project SOUND
  • 17. Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius © 2005 Michael W. Tuma © Project SOUND
  • 18. Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius  Formerly Lupinus chamissonis var. longifolius  Southwestern CA from Santa Barbara to Baja  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral and oak woodland  Formerly frequent in the foothills and on bluffs along the seashore in Los Angeles, Orange & San Diego counties  Longifolius = long-leavedhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4099 © Project SOUND
  • 19. Garden conditions  Soils:  Texture: well-drained is a must (as for most local bush lupines)  pH: any local is fine  Light:  full sun (coastal) to part shade  Water:  Young plants: weekly (as needed) until established  Winter: moist soils; monitor & supplement in very dry years  Summer:  Quite drought-tolerant; can get by with no water in part-shade  Will take infrequent (1-2 x per month) if soils are well-drainedhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/bushlupine.html  Fertilizer:  None needed & use will likely decreaseLupines don’t like to be moved – lifespan (true for all the bush lupines)protect their rootsProtect young plants from predation © Project SOUND
  • 20. Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonis © Project SOUND
  • 21. Dune Lupine – Lupinus chamissonis  Immediate CA coast from L.A. Co. to Marin Co.  chamissonis: after Adelbert von Chamisso (1781-1838)  Born Louis Charles Adélaïde de Chamissot at the château of Boncourt in Champagne, France  Became a German botanist whohttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4053 botanized with J.F. Eschscholtz in the San Francisco Bay region in 1816 – he named the CA Poppy after Eschscholtz  During his time in California, Chamisso studied a number of native plant and animal species; his inventory is considered a valuable ecological record to this day. http://wiki.zum.de/Adelbert_von_Chamisso  Was also a poet & writer © Project SOUND
  • 22. Dune Lupine  Always found quite near the coast; on dunes, bluffs, ocean strandhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/ericinsf/2407184634/in/set-72157604496267203/  Pretty much always on rather sandy soils  Gets some water from ocean fog  Subjected to maritime conditions: wind, salt- spray © Project SOUND
  • 23. Lupine leaves – unusual & attractive  Why palmate shape?  ?? to funnel water to base of plant?  Why often silvery/velvety?  ?? Protection from insects  ?? Protection from sunlight  ?? To collect moisturehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/93523004@N00/2472655139/ © Project SOUND
  • 24. Dune Lupine – flowers that seem to glow Blooms:  Early spring; usually Feb-Apr in S. Bay  Depends on winter rains Flowers:  Silvery violet, with a hint of pink; white/yellow spot  Relatively large for local lupines  Arranged along flowering branches somewhat above foliage – not very long Vegetative reproduction: ?? © Project SOUND
  • 25. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: very well-drained; sandy is best  pH: any local  Light: full sun; true of most of the local lupines except those from mountain forests  Water:  Winter: needs adequate winter rain, but will not tolerate flooding© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Summer: best with very little summer along immediate coast (but will be drought deciduous); can give occasional water (Zone 1- 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: looks best if pruned back hard in winter © Project SOUND
  • 26. Dune Lupine is perfect for the coastal garden  As an attractive accent plant in coastal gardens  Nice addition to a dry silvery garden  In a garden featuring coast prairie or coastal strand palettes  Try with it’s natural coastal partners: Baccharis pilularis, Ericameria ericoides, Artemisia californica, Croton californicus, Camissonia cheiranthifolia, Agrostis pallens © Project SOUNDhttp://anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=1985&account=none
  • 27. Silver Bush Lupine – Lupinus albifronshttp://www.goingnativegardentour.org/pressroom/LupinusAlbifrons.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 28. Silvery Dune Lupine makes a nice mid-size shrub  Nice as a smaller foundation plant  Floral fragrance – plant wherehttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3175/2673277265_678df36ea6.jpg you can enjoy  Looks great with either yellow or pink-flowering native plants  Quite hardy – fine for parking strips, roadways  Nice addition to rock garden  Wonderful for the ‘evening garden’ with its silvery foliage http://norenes5percent.blogspot.com/2006_03_01_archive.html © Project SOUND
  • 29. Grape Soda Lupine – Lupinus excubitus var. halliihttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-excubitus © Project SOUND
  • 30. Grape Soda Lupine – Lupinus excubitus var. hallii  Fairly limited range: Catalina Island, Palos Verdes, Santa Monica Mtns, San Gabriels and into Baja  Harvey Monroe Hall (1874-1932)  Author (1902) of A Botanical Survey of San Jacinto Mountain  A collector of plants in the Mt. Pinos region in 1905 and on Santa Cruz Island in 1908.  Wrote a Flora of Yosemite (1912)  In charge of the University of California Herbarium at Berkeleyhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4065,4068 (1902- ).  After a trip to Europe in 1929 to study natural reserves, he proposed the creation of "Natural Areas," and specifically the White Mountains and Harvey Monroe Hall research areas near Yosemite National Park © Project SOUND
  • 31. Grape Soda Lupine in local foothills  Gravelly and sandy places  Chaparral & Sagebrush scrub to 4500’  Often on banks & hillsideshttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/lupinex2.htm © Project SOUND
  • 32. Grape Soda Lupine: sometimes silvery  Size: a bit smaller than other local bush lupines  2-3 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Typical sub-shrub local lupine  Mounded to slightly sprawlinghttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-excubitus  Foliage:  Mostly quite low/basal  Evergreen; silvery green, with velvety hairs  Quite attractive  Roots: like all lupines, has a taproot that resents disturbance © Project SOUND
  • 33. Local lupines – not always so silvery  Silvery plants are often larger and greener with more water & shadehttp://www.coestatepark.com/lupinus_albifrons_gp.htm http://www.csuchico.edu/bccer/Ecosystem/FloraFauna/pics/Flora/Lupinus_albifrons.JPG © Project SOUND
  • 34. Grape Soda Lupine has lovely flowers  Blooms:  Mid/late spring at higher elevations  Probably Mar-May in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  Similar in color & size to Dune Lupine  Range from silvery violet to light magenta-violet  Scented – reminiscent of grape soda  Attract bees, butterflies, even moths & humans!http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-excubitus © Project SOUND
  • 35. Lupines are master catapultists In general, Mother Nature likes to spread genes around – locate genetically similar offspring away from parent plant This also keeps the new plants from competing for light, water & nutrients with the parent plant Lupines literally ‘fling’ their dried seeds away from the parent plant:  Drying pods under mechanical stress  When they reach a certain dryness they fail - dramatically The large seeds are then further carried by water or by small animals that may cache them © Project SOUND
  • 36. Collecting lupine seeds – several approaches  The nylon stocking technique  The paper bag techniquehttp://www.library.uiuc.edu/vex/toxic/lupine/lupine.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.kidsgardening.com/growingideas/PROJECTS/aug04/pg1.html
  • 37. Use Grape Soda Lupine in the scented garden  Great as an accent plant; foliage, flower & scented accent  Does well on hills, slopes, other ‘difficult’ areas  Great habitat plant; bees, blue butterflies, seed-eating ground birds like doveshttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/hallsbushlupine.html © Project SOUND
  • 38. What if I have a shady yard?http://www.downeasthost.com/vacationrental/lupine.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 39. Lupines from the local mountains and from the North can take more water  Native habitat: often more shady  Annual precipitation: for some, more like garden conditions  Examples (from local mountains):  Broad-leaf Lupine – Lupinus latifolius  Burke’s (Meadow/ Big-leaf) Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkei  Sickle-keeled Lupine - Lupinus albicaulis © Project SOUND
  • 40. * Broad-leaf Lupine – Lupinus latifolius © Project SOUND
  • 41. * Broad-leaf Lupine – Lupinus latifolius  Foothills of the Sierras, Coastal and Transverse Ranges  Locally: Santa Monica, Simi Valley, Santa ssp. latifolius Monica Mtns, San Gabriels  Moist places in woods, shady to open areas, many plant communities below 7500 ssp. parishiihttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4083,4088 © Project SOUND
  • 42.  parishii: after brothers Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838- 1928) and William Fletcher Parish (1840-1918), both botanical collectors who lived on a ranch in San ssp. parishii Bernardino, California  Made extensive exploring trips through the mountains and deserts.  Samuel was the more devoted of the two and corresponded with and was on very familiar terms with many of the leading botanists of his day.  William served in the Civil War as a sergeant and later sergeant-major. He is registered at San Bernardino up to 1890, and at Long Beach in 1892. By 1906 he was living at Redondo, and later in Hermosa Beach." In Santa Monica Mtns http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/lupinel.htm© 2004 Charles E. Jones © Project SOUND
  • 43. Flowers are quite showy Blooms:  Apr-July in local foothills  Probably Mar-May at lower elevations Flowers:  fragrant pinkish blue flowers  2-3 foot long spikes  Ssp. parishii particularly showy! Vegetative reproduction:  deep, lateral root system  can spread vegetatively from root sprouts, even from pieces of root © Project SOUND
  • 44. Broadleaf Lupine may fill your garden needs  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, though less picky than local natives  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade – light shade preferable in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: good winter water  Summer: can take regular water (Zone 2 or 2-3); ssp. parishii can take drier conditions  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  • 45. Burke’s (Meadow/ Big-leaf) Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkeiWet places in the mountains from San Gabriels, Sierras north © Project SOUND
  • 46. Sickle-keeled Lupine - Lupinus albicaulis From N. CA Coast Range and Sierra foothills © Project SOUND
  • 47. Managing our local shrubby lupines  Protect young plants from snails & slugs  Keep area around the plants weed-free  Don’t mulch right up to the woody base – prevent root fungal disease  Be very vigilant in removing these caterpillars  Remove old flower heads and woody foliage for neatness & to renew  Cut back to the base in late fall to winter. © Project SOUND
  • 48. Annual lupines add some magic to the gardenhttp://gardendjinn.typepad.com/garden/2008/03/index.html Coastal Palette combination http://www.wallno1.com/r-flowers-14-lupine-and-poppies-tehachapi-mountains-california-29867.htm Interior Palette combination © Project SOUND
  • 49. Growing native annual lupines is quite easy  Soils:  Texture: usually any; often do best in well- drained soils  Usually any local pH  Light:  full sun (best) to bright shade © 2001 Steven Thorsted  Need bare soil (light) to germinate and grow  Often fire-followers; or managed by Native Californians  Water:  Adequate winter/spring water  Best with no water after flowering  Fertilizer: none needed; a little probably won’t hurt © Project SOUNDhttp://www.gardengates.info/The%20Local%20Wildflower%20Page.htm
  • 50. Some of the best small lupines are native to S. CA © Lee Dittmann © Project SOUND http://flickr.com/photos/repetti/59953037/in/set-1295791/
  • 51. Miniature Lupine – Lupinus bicolorhttp://picasaweb.google.com/greenonfire/SWOregonFlora#5189166267831777570 © Project SOUND
  • 52. Bajada Lupine – Lupinus concinnus ssp. concinnusGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • 53. Bajada Lupine – Lupinus concinnus ssp. concinnus  A lupine of SW U.S. and adjoining regions of Mexico  At least two sub- populations - one desert; ?? Are they really subspecies  Open sandy areas to 5000‘ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4057  Grasslands/prairie  Both CA deserts  Common in disturbed areas, burns  concinnus: neat, well- made, elegant © Project SOUNDhttp://seinet.asu.edu/images/maps/seinet/swdots/Lupinus_concinnus.jpg
  • 54. Bajada Lupine – a petite charmer  Size:  < 1 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annualPatrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Upright or sprawling  Foliage:  Very hairy; velvety texture – appears silvery  Typical palmate leaves; quite basal, often low to ground  Looks like a desert plant © Project SOUNDGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 55. Flowers are also petite  Blooms:  Early spring; usually Mar.- Apr. in western L.A. Co.  Flowers: Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Color: red-purple to light pink  Small - ~ ¼ inch  Spread on low flowering stalks – may be only as tall as the leaves.  Don’t water after flowering ceases – important for proper seed development© 2003 Christopher L. Christie Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • 56. * Valley Lupine - Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus (Lupinus subvexus var. subvexus) Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Antelope Valley; W. San Gabriels © Project SOUND
  • 57.  Lupines come in a select The colors of lupine palette: white, pink, red, blues of many hues, yellow, apricot.  Many have bicolored flowers, usually including white or yellow contrasting with another color.  Why/how these colors?  The pigments:  Anthocyanins : appear blue/pink; change from blue to pink w/ increasing pH (alkalinity)  Carotenoids:  Appear yellow/orange  In Lupines, only seen if anthocyanins are lacking  How coloration evolved: co- evolution with pollinators  Large bees attracted by blue- purple flowers  Hummingbirds attracted byhttp://www.visionsofheaven.com/AAngels/newsletter_art/lupine.jpg red/red-violet/ orange © Project SOUNDhttp://www.beachwatchers.wsu.edu/ezidweb/shoreplants/Lupinusarboreus.htm
  • 58. * Yellow Chick Lupine - Lupinus densiflorus var. aureus (Lupinus microcarpus var. densiflorus) http://www.larnerseeds.com/_pages/wildflower_annual.html Antelope Valley; San Gabriels; Liebre Mtns © Project SOUND
  • 59. Mid-size annual lupines look great massed http://www.resimsite.com/img155.htm http://www.panoramio.com/photo/11104501 © Project SOUND
  • 60. Why include annual Lupines in your garden?  Attractive & unique foliage  Showy, decorative flowers; many shades of white, blue, lavender, magenta  Great habitat plants: © 2006 Chris Wagner, SBNF  Nectar: butterflies, native bees & even hummingbirds  Foliage: Blue Butterfly larval food  Seeds: ground-eaters like doves, quail  Improve soil nutrients (N)  Many are quite easy to grow once you get the seeds to germinate © Project SOUNDhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LUHI3
  • 61. Lupines: important role in ecosystems  The name Lupinus means "wolf," referring to the untrue notion that this plant robs nutrients from the soil.  In fact, Lupine (along with other species in the Pea family) actually adds useable nitrogen to the soil  Mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria  Bacteria for nodules (‘nitrogen fixing factories’) on roots  Nitrogen is converted to a form useable by plants – ‘nitrogen fixing’  Leave the roots in the soil after harvesting, to achieve full benefits  The down-side of increased soil Nhttp://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/12/07_mutualism.shtml © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/classes/pictures/lotus_nodules.jpg
  • 62. Truncated Lupine is a small/mid-size lupine  Size:  1-2 ft tall & wide (usually ~ 1 ft)  Growth form:  Somewhat conical – kind of like a pine tree  Foliage:  Typical lupine gray-green  Typical lupine leaves – but with trucated leaflets (hence its common name)  Roots:  Tap-root; best if seeded in ground © 2003 Michael Charters  Like all lupines, have symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria © Project SOUNDhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Lupinus_truncatus.htm
  • 63. Truncated Lupine – lovely flowers  Blooms: usually March-April in S. Bay  Flowers:  Sparsely distributed on spike well-above foliage  Color: violet-purple to magenta; becomes darker after pollination  Fragrant  Pollinated usually by larger bees  Seeds:  Relatively large; mottled brown  In hairy pods that break apart explosively, flinging the seeds © 2003 Michael Charters  Eaten by doves, quailhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Lupinus_truncatus.htm © Project SOUND
  • 64. Tricks to propagating lupines from seed  Generally, fresh seeds need no pretreatment.  Stored seeds may benefit from scarification or hot water treatment but results vary by species and other conditions – if seeds germinate poorly, try the treatments  Scarify using sandpaper for 5 minutes. Heat water (hot tap water) and soak seeds overnight. Seeds that do not imbibe need to be re-scarified and soakedhttp://www.hazmac.biz/060828/060828LupinusExcubitusHallii2.html  As a rule, lupines resent handling, but may be started in flats if shifted while still small and transplanted with no delay. Seeds may also be planted in fiber pots and the plants can be set intact into the beds, after first removing the bottom section of the pot © Project SOUND
  • 65. Consider direct seeding – even for local shrub lupines  In San Francisco, the National Park Service has found that hand broadcasting and raking in Lupinus spp. seeds worked better than planting nursery propagated seedlings—in fact, their transplants had only 10%http://www.sciencebuff.org/newsletter_1_october_2008.php survival.  To plant in situ, seeds should be broadcast where wanted (bare ground), raked in, and covered lightly with twiggy branches © Project SOUND
  • 66. Stinging Lupine is another moderate-size local lupine  Size:  1-4 ft tall (including flowering stalk)  1-2 ft wide  Growth form: basal rosette of foliage (mounded).  Foliage:  Typical blue-green lupine color  Leaves are typical for Lupine, but slightly larger, more rounded & showy© 2005 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © Project SOUND
  • 67. Because they are vulnerable on bare slopes,Stinging Lupines need protection from predation © 2002 Hartmut Wisch © Project SOUND
  • 68. Warfare in the garden: Lupine defenses  Lupines have succulent young leaves. They protect themselves with:  Physical barriers: hairs  Chemical warfare:  ‘stinging’ hairs; release chemicals that induce allergic skin rash  Toxic substances in their foliage  Toxic seeds (at least to mammals)http://www.smmtc.org/plant_of_the_month_200604_Lupine.htm © Project SOUND
  • 69. What is lupine  Many lupines (and others in the pea family) produce levels of alkaloids toxicity? (bitter tasting compounds) that make the seed unpalatable and sometimes toxic.  Eating mature/dried plants & pods can cause several syndromes (the green plants are usually safe): (1) convulsions after exercise due to alkaloids in the seeds; (2) liver damage caused by fungal toxins (phomopsins) produced by Phomopsis spp. growing in the seeds, which also causes intermittent photosensitization (called also lupinosis);http://www.ars.usda.gov/pandp/people/people.htm?personid=4284 (3) possibly precipitation of acute attacks So, never eat lupine seeds; of copper poisoning; if kids/animals may be (4) skeletal myopathy; and tempted to eat pods/seeds, (5) pregnancy toxemia and acetonemia in then remove mature pods cows.  In animals, toxicity occurs when animals consume large amounts of pods in a brief period © Project SOUND
  • 70. Coulter’s Lupine – Lupinus sparsiflorus http://www.delange.org/LupineCoulters/LupineCoulters.htm © Project SOUND
  • 71. Coulter’s Lupine – Lupinus sparsiflorus ssp. sparsiflorus  The species: southwestern U.S. & bordering regions of Mexico, Baja  ssp. sparsiflorus:  Western CA & Baja ssp. sparsiflorus  Locally: Gardena Plain (Hawthorne), PV, Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns, Sanhttp://seinet.asu.edu/seinet/symbiota/taxa/taxaprofile.php?taxon=Lupinus%20sparsiflorus Clemente Island © Project SOUND
  • 72. You’ve probably seen this lupine in the desert or on burn areas http://waynesword.palomar.edu/sagefls2.htm © Project SOUND
  • 73. Coulter’s Lupine: upright form gives acompetitive advantage?  Size:  2-3 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual wildflower  Upright growth  Foliage:  Leaves often blue-green  Leaflets often folded (like ahttp://www.delange.org/LupineCoulters/LupineCoulters.htm taco shell)  Flowers: held rather high above foliage - and above other annuals  Note: foliage, seeds and pods are particularly toxic © Project SOUND
  • 74. Annual lupines: sun & winter water is the trick  Soils:  Texture: most, but do best in well- drained sandy or rocky soils  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs adequate water for good growth; supplement if needed  Summer: none after pods develop  Fertilizer: none; like poor soilshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Lupinus_sparsiflorus.htm © Project SOUND
  • 75. Arroyo (Succulent) Lupine – Lupinus succulentis © Project SOUND
  • 76. Succulent Lupine – Lupinus succulentis  Other names: Arroyo Lupine; Hollow-leaf Lupine  Grows in open and disturbed areas, grassy slopes < 2500 ft  Roots: 3 ft; nitrogen-fixing  Flowers: mostly blue, but may be pinkish or white  Pollinators: bees  Food source for: hummingbirds, larva of various butterflies, bees  Self-sows easily if seed falls on bare ground; can remain in ground for years waiting for good winter rainshttp://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Fabaceae/Lupinus_succulentus © Project SOUND
  • 77. Garden uses for mid- size annual lupines  For their wonderful blue-violet color  Unusual color for sun-lovers; most good blues are in shade-loving native annuals  Combine with yellow-flowered annuals for an eye-popping show http://gardendjinn.typepad.com/garden/page/2/  In gardens featuring Coastal Prairie, Coastal Shrubland, CSS and desert plant palettes  For dune/slope stabilization  Combine with their usual partners: annual wildflowers (CA poppy; Owls Clover), bulb/corms and native grasses  Look absolutely fabulous massed  And great candidates for pots http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/lupines2.htmMassing plants increases habitat value © Project SOUND
  • 78. Summer Lupine – Lupinus formosushttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/lupinus-formosus © Project SOUND
  • 79. Summer Lupine – Lupinus formosus  Western U.S. from OR to Baja  Most of CA west of Sierras  Locally: Griffith Park, ?Palos Verdes, San Clemente Isl, foothills of Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns  Usually in dry clay soils, grasslands, openhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4072,4073 areas under pines, oaks & chaparral shrubs, generally in valleys © Project SOUND
  • 80. In wild – summer bloomer© 2008 Toni Corelli © Project SOUND
  • 81. Summer Lupine: a rare summer-blooming perennial lupine  Size:  2-3 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Usually upright growth; most foliage quite low (< 1 ft.)  Foliage:  Leaves relatively large for lupine; leaflets broad  Densely hairy; silvery or gray- green  Roots: spreads via underground rhizomeshttp://www.coestatepark.com/lupinus_formosus_gp.htm © Project SOUND
  • 82. Welcome blooms in late spring/summer  Blooms:  Mid/late spring or later  Usually May-July in S. CA  Flowers:  Medium size: ~ ½ inch  Often pale lavender or pink- lavender  Very fragrant; nice addition to summer garden  Vegetative reproduction: yes© 2008 Toni Corelli © Project SOUND
  • 83. Summer Lupine is well suited to water- wise summer gardens…  Soils:  Texture:  Just about any;  Well-drained is best, but takes anything from sandy to clay  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Young plants: good water first year  Winter: needs adequate; supplement if needed – take care not to over water in clay soils  Summer: best with none/little (Zone 1http://www.coestatepark.com/lupinus_formosus_gp.htm or 1-2 best; 2 in sandy soils); withhold after flowering © Project SOUND
  • 84. So, take a tip from the ultimate gardener (Mother Nature) © Project SOUND
  • 85. Consider using some of our water-wise local natives © Project SOUND
  • 86. Add a little zip to your spring garden… http://www.southwestgardener.com/blogs/labels/desert.html © Project SOUND
  • 87. And enjoy local lupines, even (especially?) on a rainy day! © Project SOUND