Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden  Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants            Project SOUND – 2012 (o...
Low and Northerly: Groundcover Plants from theNorthern and Central CA Coast              C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake        ...
What makes a good                                                                               groundcover plant?        ...
The California coast has inspired for centuries http://www.bon-voyage.co.uk/destinations/california_holidays/itineraries  ...
But the CA coast inspires gardeners for a                   different reason…http://blog.travelpod.com/travel-photo/ranlo/...
Some of our best native groundcovers come from       the N. & Central California coast© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys ...
Central &                                                                                   N. Maritime                   ...
 ZONE 16: Central and Northern   Sunset Zones                                                          California Coast t...
Let’s take a road                                                                      trip up Hwy 1                      ...
Our Central and Northern Coastal areas a         unique in many ways                                  © Project SOUND
We share some plants with the Central  and Northern Maritime chaparral                 Black sage – Salvia mellifera     ...
   Arctostaphylos andersonii Manzanitas of the                A. canescens                                  A. crustace...
Not surprisingly, our local flora has the most in                    common with that of the Central Coast                ...
California rainfall – quite a range, evenalong our coasts                              http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum...
Our first stop: Point Sal                                                    Located in the northwestern part of         ...
Home to a unique flora                                                                       Transition zone between N. &...
Salvia leucophylla ‘Pt.                                                                                 Sal Spreader’     ...
We continue our                                                                    road trip up Hwy 1                     ...
Hearst Castle – San Simeon                                               http://www.nordicgeospatial.com/about_ushttp://ww...
Hearst/San Simeon Coast/ Arroyo de la Cruz                                                                     Old ocean ...
Rainfall: Central Coast                               Our rainfall Much cooler summers as well                            ...
The Arroyo de la Cruz region: special    © 2011 Chris WinchellMouth of Arroyo de la Cruz, ridge immediately south of creek...
Arroyo de la Cruz – unique conditions =              unique plants A variety of communities, chaparral, coastal sage scru...
Arroyo de la Cruz has also provided us             some wonderful garden cultivars                                        ...
* Arroyo de la Cruz Manzanita –                        Arctostaphylos cruzensis© 2011 Chris Winchell                      ...
* Arroyo de la Cruz Manzanita –                                                 Arctostaphylos cruzensis                  ...
Low-growing Manzanitas:                                                                   perfect for your garden?        ...
Ground cover manzanita                                                                                  Size:            ...
Who can resist a                         manzanita in bloom?                       Blooms:                            Wi...
 Soils:Central coast plant        Texture: adaptable – sandy soils in                            nature                 ...
Good looking                                                                                    evergreen shrub           ...
Why the variability in growth habit?                                                        © 2006 Steve Matson © 2011 Chr...
Some species occur along the entire CA coasthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/5682527020/                      ...
Western Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium bellum
Western Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium bellum                                               Not a grass at all – a       ...
Sisyrinchium bellum                                                                   Arroyo de la Cruz                   ...
Other sisyrinchium cultivars                                                                                              ...
Seaside Daisy - Erigeron glaucus                              © Project SOUND
Two California Daisys                     E. foliosus (Leafy):Erigeron foliosus                        Mountain ranges &...
Seaside Daisy – Erigeron glaucus                                                                                          ...
 Borders       Using Erigeron                                                      Edges & low hedges          glaucus  ...
Horticultural cultivars of                                                                                                ...
Ceanothus of the northern maritime           chaparral                Ceanothus cuneatus var.                 fasciculari...
Ceanothus – California Lilacs Some 55 species Common names: California Lilac, Mountain lilac,  Wild lilac, Buckbrush, Bl...
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var.                                                                                  thyrsiflorus ...
* Hearst’s (San Simeon) Ceanothus –                              Ceanothus hearstiorumhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ce...
* Hearst’s Ceanothus – Ceanothus hearstiorum                       Central coast endemic – San Luis                      ...
Hearst’s Ceanothus – low grower                                                           Size:                          ...
Heavenly, old-                                                             fashioned flowers                              ...
Hearst’s Ceanothus                                      Soils:       likes clay                                          ...
Low-growing Ceanothus                                                                           Ground covers – slopes   ...
Coastal ground covers conquer slopes   http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/howto/slope.htmlArtemisia californica Canyon Gray ...
Using ground covers with different   characteristics adds interest                               © Project SOUND
http://www.intermountainnursery.com/demonstration_garden_list.htm Salvia ‘Bee’s Bliss’ with Dwarf Coyote Bush (Baccharis p...
Lower-growing Coyote Bush cultivars ‘Pigeon Point – low groundcover    1-2 ft tall    Up to 12 ft wide    Very bright ...
On our way to Big Sur, we enjoy the coast near Morro Bay                                                                 ...
California’s famous ‘Elfin Forests’                                                                         Elfin forest ...
California’s famous ‘Elfin Forests’                                                                             Unusual a...
Maritime Ceanothus – Ceanothus maritimus © 2006 Steve Matson                                  © Project SOUND
Maritime Ceanothus – Ceanothus maritimus                                                               Endemic to San Lui...
Low-growing Maritime Manzanita                                   Size:                                         1-3 ft ta...
Who can resist ‘em?                                                                     Blooms:                          ...
A plant for the coast –                                 Soils:      and beyond                                           ...
Maritime Ceanothus                                                     in the garden                                      ...
Ceanothus maritimus                                                                           ‘Frosty Dawn’               ...
Ceanothus maritimus       ‘Point Sierra’   This selection of the Maritime    ceanothus has smaller leaves than    most. W...
Ceanothus maritimus                                                                                             ‘Popcorn’ ...
Ceanothus maritimus                                                          ‘Valley Violet’                              ...
Onward & upward to                                                                             Big Sur                    ...
Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii© 2007 Penny DeWind                                              © Project ...
Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos                          edmundsii                         http://slosson.ucdavis.ed...
* Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeriBeatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences                          ...
* Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeri                                                                             ...
Hooker’s Manzanita is a                                                                                  natural groundcov...
Rainfall: Big Sur area                                Our rainfallMuch cooler summers as well –summer highs in the 70’s   ...
Hurricane Point                                                                                                           ...
* Carmel Creeper – Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis                                               © Project SOUND
* Carmel Creeper – Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis                                                                    ...
Carmel Creeper: it creeps            Size:                 2-3 ft tall                 6-15 ft wide            Growth ...
Flowers: ooh la-la Blooms: winter through spring:  any time from Dec. to April Flowers:      Usually a bright medium   ...
Extraordinarily    Soils:  adaptable            Texture: any, from sand to heavy                        clay            ...
Garden uses for Carmel Creeper As an attractive ground cover:      Under trees      On slopes      Mounded over walls/...
Ceanothus griseus                                                               ‘Diamond Heights’                         ...
Ceanothus griseus  ‘Hurricane Point’ 2-3 ft. tall x 20 ft wide in  many years Slower growth but give it  room to spread...
‘Kurt Zadnick’                                                                           Ceanothus                        ...
‘Yankee Point’ –                                                                                      Carmel Heights      ...
Ceanothus griseus ‘Yankee Point’                                                          Old garden standard – 30+ years...
Management of low-                                                                              growing Ceanothus         ...
Ceanothus: a hit in European gardens                                                                     “Ceanothus thyri...
Our trip takes us to the                                                                  San Francisco Bay               ...
* Glossyleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos nummulariahttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-nummularia/             ...
* Glossyleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos nummularia                                                                        ...
Glossyleaf Manzanita: variable habit                                                                     Size:           ...
Manzanita flowers                                                               Blooms:                                  ...
Grows under rage of    Soils:                               Texture: well-drained – sandy or        conditions          ...
Garden uses for Glossyleaf Manzanita                             Mounded groundcover under pines                         ...
Arctostaphylos nummularia                                                                                             ‘Sma...
Versatile ‘Emerald Carpet’   hybrid is garden friendly            and low Hybrid between Arctostaphylos  uva-ursi and A. ...
The climate above San Francisco Bay is              quite different from ours                                           ht...
Point Reyes                                            ~ 30 miles (50 km) north of San                                   ...
Rainfall: Point Reyes                                Our rainfallMuch cooler summers as well -highs in the 50’s           ...
Point Reyes: northern                                                                             Maritime chaparral at P...
* Point Reyes Ceanothus – Ceanothus gloriosus © 2006 Steve Matson                                      © Project SOUND
* Point Reyes Ceanothus – Ceanothus gloriosus                                                                          No...
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
Low & Northerly   2012
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Low & Northerly 2012

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This lecture was given in February, 2012 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’.

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Low & Northerly 2012

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Low and Northerly: Groundcover Plants from theNorthern and Central CA Coast C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve February 4 & 7, 2012 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What makes a good groundcover plant?  Low growth habit  Evergreen – nice color  Dense foliage – few gaps  Fast growth to mature size – then slow  Long-lived  Flowers, fruits and other features that make it good habitat  And, for today’s subject, should be woody (or at least half-woody)http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/california/northern-coast © Project SOUND
  4. 4. The California coast has inspired for centuries http://www.bon-voyage.co.uk/destinations/california_holidays/itineraries © Project SOUND
  5. 5. But the CA coast inspires gardeners for a different reason…http://blog.travelpod.com/travel-photo/ranlo/2/1279124248/northern-california-coast.jpg/tpod.html © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Some of our best native groundcovers come from the N. & Central California coast© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Central & N. Maritime Chaparral  “within the zone of summer fog incursion”  Features:  greater exposure to summer fog, humidity  mild temps. and moderate drought pressures  adaptations to different disturbance regimes (less frequent fire). © Project SOUNDhttp://www.elkhornsloughctp.org/reference/subissue_detail.php?SUBISSUE_ID=1
  8. 8.  ZONE 16: Central and Northern Sunset Zones California Coast thermal belts  Thermal belts (slopes from which cold air drains) in a coastal climate  Ocean dominated about 85 % of the time and by inland weather about 15%  A summer afternoon wind  More summer heat than Zone 17; warmer winters than inland  Cooler summers than Zones 22-24  ZONE 17: Marine effects in Southern Oregon, Northern and Central California  Mild, wet, almost frostless winters; cool summers w/ frequent fog or wind.  Muted sunlight much of the yearhttp://www.digitalseed.com/gardener/climate/plantclimate_map_ca.html  Summer highs ~ 65-70º F © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Let’s take a road trip up Hwy 1  Central coast  Point Sal/Guadalupe  San Simeon/Arroyo de la Cruz  Big Sur  Rocky point  Yankee Point/Diamond Heights  Northern coast  Point Reyeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:California_State_Route_1.svg  Ft. Bragg © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Our Central and Northern Coastal areas a unique in many ways © Project SOUND
  11. 11. We share some plants with the Central and Northern Maritime chaparral  Black sage – Salvia mellifera  Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Sticky Monkeyflower – Diplacus aurantiacus  Blue-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium bellum  Some grasses - Nassellas  Many native wildflowers © Project SOUND
  12. 12.  Arctostaphylos andersonii Manzanitas of the  A. canescens  A. crustacea northern maritime  Arctostaphylos cruzensis chaparral  A. edmundsii  A. glutinosa  A. hookeri hearstiorum  A. hookeri hookeriMany of these species are  A. montaraensisrare or endangered in the  A. montereyensiswild, but grown regularly in  A. morroensisthe garden  A. nummularia sensitiva  A. ohlone pro. sp.  A. pajaroensis  A. pumila  A. purissima  A. silvicola A. tomentosa (all ssp & forms) © Pr SOUND 
  13. 13. Not surprisingly, our local flora has the most in common with that of the Central Coast  The closer the native home of a plant to our own, the more similar are the:  Soils  Temperatureshttp://coast-santabarbara.org/  Rainfall  Etc  Plants from nearby coastal areas are easier to grow than those from further up the coast © Project SOUND
  14. 14. California rainfall – quite a range, evenalong our coasts http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread775456/pg2 © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Our first stop: Point Sal  Located in the northwestern part of Santa Barbara County, near the city of Guadalupe  Between Vandenberg Air Force Base and the Guadalupe Dunes.  Sandy/rocky promontory * http://www.cityprofile.com/california/photos/36781-guadalupe-point-sal-state-beach1.htmlhttp://www.localhikes.com/HikeData.ASP? © Project SOUNDDispType=1&ActiveHike=0&GetHikesStateID=&ID=4266
  16. 16. Home to a unique flora  Transition zone between N. & S. CA: unique plant species assemblages.   A mosaic of coastal sage scrub and foothill needle-grass with wildflowers, Giant Corepopsishttp://kcbx.net/~bdenneen/  Much influenced by ocean breezes, salt spray – like our own immediate coast © Project SOUND http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2001/09/fieldwork2.html http://www.ryono.net/pointsal/pointsal.html http://blogbisogno.wordpress.com/2009/08/page/2/
  17. 17. Salvia leucophylla ‘Pt. Sal Spreader’  Naturally occurring variants from Point Sal  Look like Purple Sage except usually shorter (2-3 ft)http://www.sm.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24489&return=l2_aO  Very variable in size, depending on water, other conditions  Purple Sage cultivars & hybrids may be easier to grow than the species © Project SOUND
  18. 18. We continue our road trip up Hwy 1  Central coast  Point Sal/Guadalupe  San Simeon/Arroyo de la Cruz *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:California_State_Route_1.svg © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Hearst Castle – San Simeon http://www.nordicgeospatial.com/about_ushttp://www.coastandocean.org/coast_v23_no3_2007/articles/Hiking_Hearst_04.htm © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Hearst/San Simeon Coast/ Arroyo de la Cruz  Old ocean beaches and bluffs  The soil varies from a near adobe through red clay on hard pan to a gray sand-rock composite.  It receives summer fog and rainfall of about 20-30 inches/yr  It is one of the most moderate climates in the world. Every day has a high of 60-65 degrees F. and a low of 50 degrees F. http://www.californiacoastline.org/cgi-bin/location.cgi? flags=0&year=current&latdeg=35.591167&longdeg=121.131667 Project SOUND ©http://justinsomnia.org/2006/09/driving-down-the-big-sur-coast/
  21. 21. Rainfall: Central Coast Our rainfall Much cooler summers as well © Project SOUND
  22. 22. The Arroyo de la Cruz region: special © 2011 Chris WinchellMouth of Arroyo de la Cruz, ridge immediately south of creek, east of Hwy 1 (SanLuis Obispo County, California, US) © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Arroyo de la Cruz – unique conditions = unique plants A variety of communities, chaparral, coastal sage scrub, riparian and grassland, mark this unique area. Its importance lies in the number of endemics that are found in this relatively small area; indeed, it has been called the "Cruzian pocket of endemism."  Ten species of plants considered rare or endangered are found here. Most have a restricted range.  It is the type locality of at least two species, Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. hearstiorum and Ceanothus hearstiorum which are found nowhere else.  Other rare species include Allium hickmanii, Arctostaphylos cruzensis, Bloomeria humilis, Calochortus clavatus ssp. recurvfolius, Campanula obispoensis (?), Ceanothus maritimus, Sanicula hoffmannii and Sanicula maritima.  © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Arroyo de la Cruz has also provided us some wonderful garden cultivars  Sisyrinchium bellum Arroyo de la Cruz‘  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. thyrsiflorus Arroyo de la Cruz‘http://www.flickriver.com/photos/billbouton/sets/72157603552645540/  Ceanothus maritimus Valley Violet‘ © Project SOUND
  25. 25. * Arroyo de la Cruz Manzanita – Arctostaphylos cruzensis© 2011 Chris Winchell © Project SOUND
  26. 26. * Arroyo de la Cruz Manzanita – Arctostaphylos cruzensis  Endemic to coastal areas from northwest San Luis Obispo Co. to Southern Monterey Co.  Grows on old ocean beaches and bluffs  Occurs in a variety of habitats, including maritime chaparral, coastal scrub, conifer forest, and valley-foothill grassland.  Receives summer fog/rainfall of 20-30” per yearhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3466 © 2011 Chris Winchell © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-cruzensis
  27. 27. Low-growing Manzanitas: perfect for your garden?  Attractive, ‘neat-looking’ foliage ©J.S. Peterson  Red bark on interesting trunks/branches  Low-maintenance under the right conditions:  Needs good drainage  Low water in summer - susceptible to fungal diseases; deep watering (Zone 1/2)Jo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences  No fertilizerFlammable: manzanita plants contain  Coastal varieties will thrive alongvolatile compounds, which burn like a immediate coast – even right nexttorch when ignited – no a good choice to beachfor fire-prone areas © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Ground cover manzanita  Size:  2-3 ft tall  5-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading, low : mat-like tohttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-cruzensis mounded  Shreddy red bark  Dense – good coverage  Foliage:  Leaves bright green, shiny; may be hairy when young  Densely over-lapping on branch  Roots: no basal burl – so can’t re-sprout © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Who can resist a manzanita in bloom?  Blooms:  Winter/early spring  Usually Dec-Feb in S. Bay  Flowers:© 2006 Steve Matson  Small, urn-shaped flowers typical of manzanita  Pale pink blush  Large clusters – very showy  Sweet scent  Fruits:  The edible ‘little apples’  Hairy, ½ inch diameter; ripe in late summer or fall © Project SOUND
  30. 30.  Soils:Central coast plant  Texture: adaptable – sandy soils in nature  pH: any local – 6.0-8.0  Light:  Full sun only right along coast  Afternoon shade in most gardens; remember, average temperatures cooler (60-65º F. where it’s native)  Water:  Winter: good winter rains  Summer:  Needs supplemental summer water – Zone 2 to 2-3  Needs leaves washed down during dry summer – remember the summer fogs  Other: shouldn’t need much pruning; sterile technique, after blooming © Project SOUND © 2002 David Graber
  31. 31. Good looking evergreen shrub  Used as an evergreen woody ground cover – substitute for ivy  Good for slopes  Pair with its native associates for an evergreen medley:http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-cruzensis  Ceanothus hearstiorum  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus  Ceanothus griseus  Adenostoma fasciculatum  Iris douglasii  Baccharis pilularis  Salvia mellifera  Diplacus aurantiacus © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Why the variability in growth habit? © 2006 Steve Matson © 2011 Chris Winchell Tilden Botanical Garden Regional Parks Botanic Garden is a botanical garden in Tilden Park, Berkeley CA USAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctostaphylos_cruzensis © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Some species occur along the entire CA coasthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/5682527020/ © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Western Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium bellum
  35. 35. Western Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium bellum  Not a grass at all – a member of the Iris family (smallest member of the Iris family)  Distribution: Much of CA, OR  Habitat:  Open, generally moist,North/Central coast areas have produced grassy areassome attractive variants – now available as  Woodlandscultivars for the garden
  36. 36. Sisyrinchium bellum Arroyo de la Cruz  Dwarf selection - ~ 6 inches tall  Unusually large--1 1/2 inch wide--purple flowers in springhttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1292  Flowers a vivid purple flowers are held a bit above the 6 inch high foliage clump.  Useful in a dry border, on a bank, and in a rock garden. © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/5712113309/
  37. 37. Other sisyrinchium cultivars  ‘Rocky Point’  Dwarf habit, with broader leaves and violet blossoms Rocky Point, Big Surhttp://nativeson.typepad.com/plants/2010/05/sisyrinchium-bellum-rocky-point.html  ‘Ft. Bragg’  Dwarf habit, with broader leaves  Soft lavender in color, with violet centers http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv20278.php Cliffs near Ft. Bragg http://www.flickr.com/photos/dreedyphoto/page6/ © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Seaside Daisy - Erigeron glaucus © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Two California Daisys  E. foliosus (Leafy):Erigeron foliosus  Mountain ranges & hills of C. & western S. CA  Dry, sunny, rocky, brushy or wooded or grassy slopes  coastal sage scrub, chaparral and southern oak woodland  E. glaucus (Seaside)  Central to N. Coast (into OR)  Coastal bluffs, dunes,Erigeron glaucus beaches  Coastal Strand, Coastal Sage Scrub, Northern Coastal Scrub © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Seaside Daisy – Erigeron glaucus  Compact growth habit: < 1 ft  Leaves:  Thicker, fleshier  Larger: spatula shaped  More basal  Roots:  Rhizomes  Plant spreads into densehttp://www.calhortsociety.org/seed-exchange/seed-exchange-2002/seed-list-pages/large/Erigeron-glaucus-2.jpg mat-like colony  Flowers: no differences Much more “lush appearing” than leafy fleabane © Project SOUND
  41. 41.  Borders Using Erigeron  Edges & low hedges glaucus  Accent plant  In a rock garden  Near pools & ponds  Ground coverhttp://www.laspilitas.com/plants/pictures/a269.jpgGreat addition to a North coastthemed garden © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Horticultural cultivars of Seaside Daisy  Variable in size and number of flowers and plant  Choose the one you like best http://www.mostlynatives.com/notes/erigeronglaucuscs.jpg ‘Cape Sebastian’ cultivar http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/eriglasb.htm ‘Sea Breeze’ cultivarhttp://www.callutheran.edu/Academic_Programs/Departments/Biology/Wildflowers/gf/plants/category/gar-1670.htm http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=2213 ‘Olga’ cultivar ‘Bountiful’ cultivar © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Ceanothus of the northern maritime chaparral  Ceanothus cuneatus var. fascicularis  Ceanothus cuneatus var. rigidus  Ceanothus gloriosus var. gloriosus  Ceanothus gloriosus var. exaltatus  Ceanothus gloriosus var. porrectus  Ceanothus hearstiorum  Ceanothus maritimus © Pr SOUND
  44. 44. Ceanothus – California Lilacs Some 55 species Common names: California Lilac, Mountain lilac, Wild lilac, Buckbrush, Blueblossum Quite variable in habit:  evergreen and deciduous  prostrate to erect shrubs and small trees.  Flowers small, in clusters, showy en masse Flower color: white through many shades of blue, deep violet.   Range: southern Canada to Guatemala  Mainly in California (over 40 species)  Some also in the eastern US and Rocky Mountains.  Have the ability to fix large amounts of nitrogen via root-inhabiting microbes (actinomycetes).   © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. thyrsiflorus Arroyo de la Cruz  Bright shiny leaves  Medium-blue flowers  Large mounding shrub orhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ceanothus-thyrsiflorus-big-sur-california-lilac groundcover, great for erosion control or a low, broad hedge.  Best with a little summer water and afternoon shade in our climate © Project SOUND http://plantayflor.blogspot.com/2010/09/ceanothus-thyrsiflorus-var-repens.html
  46. 46. * Hearst’s (San Simeon) Ceanothus – Ceanothus hearstiorumhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus_hearstiorum © Project SOUND
  47. 47. * Hearst’s Ceanothus – Ceanothus hearstiorum  Central coast endemic – San Luis Obispo & Monterrey counties – near Arroyo de la Cruz; very rare in nature  Coastal, low, grassy hills  Receives summer fog/rainfall of 20- 30” per year© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Hearst’s Ceanothus – low grower  Size:  generally < 1 ft tall  3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen woody (half-woody) shrub  Prostrate habit; radiates out from Picture from Rob Rizzardi central stem like a star  Slow-growing but long-lived  Foliage:  Leaves bright to medium green  Small, narrow and glandular; unique  Has a nice scent when wet © Project SOUNDhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus_hearstiorum
  49. 49. Heavenly, old- fashioned flowers  Blooms: in spring – usually Mar- Apr in our area  Flowers:  Small with prominent anthers – typical of ceanothus species Lavender to medium bluehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus_hearstiorum   In dense clusters – very showy  Sweet scented; old-fashioned  Can be used to make a mild soap –as can the foliage  Fruits: hard knobby fruits – birds eat the seeds © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Hearst’s Ceanothus  Soils: likes clay  Texture: clays best, loams/rocky fine – not for sandy soils  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun on immediate coast  Afternoon shade in hotter inland gardens  Water:http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Ceanothus-hearstiorum/  In the wild: summer fog and rainfall of about 20-30 inches. Every day has a high of 60-65º F. and a low of 50º F.  In your garden: Water Zone 2 or 2- 3 (occasional summer water); rinse off leaves every few weeks in dry summer periods  Other: organic mulch; prune after blooming or to remove diseased © Project SOUNDPicture from Rob Rizzardi
  51. 51. Low-growing Ceanothus  Ground covers – slopes  In large planters  To hide retaining wallshttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=3107 http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Ceanothus-hearstiorum/ http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/may.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1249
  52. 52. Coastal ground covers conquer slopes http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/howto/slope.htmlArtemisia californica Canyon Gray Canyon , Ceanothus hearstiorum, CeanothusYankee Point, and Salvia sonomensis Mrs. Beard Mrs. Beard. © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Using ground covers with different characteristics adds interest © Project SOUND
  54. 54. http://www.intermountainnursery.com/demonstration_garden_list.htm Salvia ‘Bee’s Bliss’ with Dwarf Coyote Bush (Baccharis pilularis) cultivar © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Lower-growing Coyote Bush cultivars ‘Pigeon Point – low groundcover  1-2 ft tall  Up to 12 ft wide  Very bright green foliage; larger leaves than species  Most common dwarf form for coastal areas ‘Twin Peaks 2’ – low groundcover or hedge  Usually 1 – 3 ft tall; will mound to 5 ft if not regularly sheared  6 ft wide  Dense growth; can be shaped  Leaves smaller, darker gray-green & more deeply toothed than species © Project SOUND
  56. 56. On our way to Big Sur, we enjoy the coast near Morro Bay  Central coast  Point Sal/Guadalupe  San Simeon/Arroyo de la Cruz *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:California_State_Route_1.svg Maritime chaparral at the Los Osos Elfin Forest Preserve on Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo © Project SOUND
  57. 57. California’s famous ‘Elfin Forests’  Elfin forest is a nickname given to several similar dwarfed plants ecosystems, mainly in coastal Temperate Californian and montane Tropical regions  Include communities of dwarfed/tiny plants.  Some CA Elfin Forests:  Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park (N/ CA coast)  El Moro Elfin Forest Natural Area (Morro Bay)  San Luis Obispo Elfin Forest (Higher up on Cuesta Ridge in SLO county).http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g32661-d2169512-Reviews-Elfin_Forest_Preserve-Los_Osos_San_Luis_Obispo_County_California.html © Project SOUND
  58. 58. California’s famous ‘Elfin Forests’  Unusual areas: chaparral that can be waterlogged in the winter, and arid and nearly desert-like in the summer  Plants have adapted accordingly, and are generally much shorter, smaller, and compact thanhttp://blog.slocountyhomes.com/2009/03/elfin-forest-boardwalk-trail.html/ related plants elsewhere.  Even trees and shrubs, such as Cypress (Cupressus), Oak (Quercus), and Madrone (Arbutus menziesii) rarely grow more than 20 ft (7 m) tall in these plant communities.http://www.kayharden.com/galy16b.html © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Maritime Ceanothus – Ceanothus maritimus © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Maritime Ceanothus – Ceanothus maritimus  Endemic to San Luis Obispo County California, where it is known from only a few occurrences in the vicinity of Hearst Ranch.  Grows on old ocean beaches and bluffs < 500 ft; soil varies from a near adobe through red clay on hard pan to a gray sand-rock composite  High precipitation (20-30”); summer fog; temperate climatehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6586,6589,6625 © 2011 Chris Winchell http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ceanothus-maritimus © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Low-growing Maritime Manzanita  Size:  1-3 ft tall  5-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen woody shrub; moderate to slow growth rate  Low, spreading or more mounded habit  Reddish gray bark aging to gray  Stems stiff-looking  Foliage:  Leaves small, wedge-shaped, shiny medium green above; hairy beneath  Roots: support nitrogen-fixing bacteria© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Who can resist ‘em?  Blooms:  In spring – usually Feb to April in our part of the world  Flowers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus_maritimus  Dense clusters of typical 5- part pattern of ceanothus  Deep blue to violet to almost white  Sweet scented – good for insect pollinators  Native Californians used to make mild soap  Fruits: dry capsule, usually horned at top; birds eat seedshttp://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ceanothus+maritimus © Project SOUND
  63. 63. A plant for the coast –  Soils: and beyond  Texture: adaptable – best in clays, fine in sandy soils  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun on coast, to part shade inland (morning sun fine)  Good under tall trees  Water:© 2011 Chris Winchell  In wild: 2x our annual rainfall; summer fogs  Summer: needs water at least several times a month in inland gardens – Zone 2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: dislikes being moved and pruning – leave it alone if possiblehttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Ceanothus-maritimus/ © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Maritime Ceanothus in the garden  Good choice for fire-prone areas, with summer water  Slopes  Groundcover – neat-looking  Parking strips  Pair with other low coastal groundcovers: Salvia leucophylla ‘Pt. Sal’, Ceanothus maritimus, and Lessingia filaginifolia ‘Silver Carpet’http://www.vcstar.com/photos/2010/feb/08/86887/ © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Ceanothus maritimus ‘Frosty Dawn’  Selection of Ceanothus maritimus from the hills south of Arroyo de la Cruz in San Luis Obispo County  2 feet tall by up to 5 feet wide  Performs best in coastal climates but has also proved successful in inland gardens.  Lovely and toughhttp://www.flickriver.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157625418384199/ © Project SOUNDhttp://greenlifestudios.com/gallery-detail.php? http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Ceanothus_maritimus_Frosty_dawnid=15&cat_id=2&keywords=Frosty_Dawn_California_Lilac
  66. 66. Ceanothus maritimus ‘Point Sierra’ This selection of the Maritime ceanothus has smaller leaves than most. With its stiff branching the effect is similar to Cotoneaster. Denser and lower than the species, this maritimus selection is tolerant of interior heat if given modest shade 2 to 3 feet tall by up to 5 feet wide with thick leathery 1/4 to 1/2 inch long leaves Lavender blue flowers appear in early spring. The blue violet flowers emerge from dusty white buds in late winter. © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Ceanothus maritimus ‘Popcorn’  A tidy groundcover that requires little maintenance. Heavy bloomer. Compact, thick leaves. Best on coast. Good substitute for cotoneaster. 3 H x 6 W. Moderate to slow.  White flowers in spring http://cascadiannurseries.blogspot.com/2011/07/first-look-monrovias-new-introductions.htmlhttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_c/ceamarpop.html © Project SOUND http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Ceanothus_maritimus_Popcorn
  68. 68. Ceanothus maritimus ‘Valley Violet’  UC Davis Arboretum All- Star selection, 2010.   3 ft tall; 3-4 ft widehttp://arboretum.ucdavis.edu/allstars_detail_57.aspx  performs well in a variety of settings.  It can take full sun or part shade, requires very little water once established, develops into an attractive mound that needs no pruning  Super-showy violet colored flowers on long flowering stalks – really different © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Onward & upward to Big Sur  Central coast  Point Sal/Guadalupe *  San Simeon/Arroyo de la Cruz  Big Sur  Rocky point  Yankee Point/Diamond Heightshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:California_State_Route_1.svg Point Sur © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii© 2007 Penny DeWind © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Little Sur Manzanita – Arctostaphylos edmundsii http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610653.pdf Many of the low-growing manzanitas grow in sandy coastal areas, suggesting that well-drained soils are important © Project SOUND
  72. 72. * Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeriBeatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  73. 73. * Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeri  Native range extends from the coastal San Francisco Bay Area to the Central Coast http://www.elkhornsloughctp.org/factsheet/factsheet.php?SPECIES_ID=1  Sandy, coastal pine or oak woods, coastal scrub < 1000 ft© 1991 David Graber © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Hooker’s Manzanita is a natural groundcover  Under trees  On slopes  In front yards - evergreen http://absbonsai.org/gallery/displayimage.php?pid=834http://128.253.177.181/imgs/dws/r/Ericaceae_Arctostaphylos_hookeri_18909.html http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-hookeri-wayside-manzanitahttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=173 © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Rainfall: Big Sur area Our rainfallMuch cooler summers as well –summer highs in the 70’s © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Hurricane Point near Big Sur  The many climates of Big Sur result in an astonishing biodiversity, including many rare and endangered species  Arid, dusty chaparral-covered hillshttp://xasauantoday.com/2011/09/16/serra-hill/ exist within easy walking distance of lush riparian woodland.  The mountains trap most of the moisture out of the clouds; fog in summer, rain and snow in winter.  This creates a favorable environment for coniferous forests, including the southernmost habitat of the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), which grows only on lower coastal slopes thathttp://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~karthik/pics/2005-06-1-BigSur/web/html/dscf0076.html are routinely fogged in at night. Big Sur Coastline from Hurricane Point http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Sur © Project SOUND
  77. 77. * Carmel Creeper – Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis © Project SOUND
  78. 78. * Carmel Creeper – Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis  Northern & Central CA coast (var. horizontalis from Monterey Co.)  Chaparral, coastal scrub, closed- cone-pine forests. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6586,6589,6615 http://www.sb.watersavingplants.com/listplants.php?index=9http://www.flickriver.com/photos/80651083@N00/tags/montereycounty/ © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Carmel Creeper: it creeps  Size:  2-3 ft tall  6-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody (half-woody) evergreen groundcover; fast-growing  May be flat or slightly mounded  Foliage:  Shiny, medium/dark green leaves – almost unreal looking  Dense foliage – hardly see branches  Neat, attractive appearance  Roots:  Symbiotic relationship with N- fixing bacteria © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Flowers: ooh la-la Blooms: winter through spring: any time from Dec. to April Flowers:  Usually a bright medium blue, but may be lighter  Dense clusters of tiny flowers – really showy in a good year (many years)  Sweet scent attracts bees and other insect pollinators Seeds:  In strange dry capsules that split open; birds eat them © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Extraordinarily  Soils: adaptable  Texture: any, from sand to heavy clay  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun only along coast  Part-shade (afternoon shade) best in most situations – good under trees  Water:  Winter: supplement in dry winters  Summer: Occasional summer water – Zone 2 for species and cultivars  Fertilizer: none needed, but light fertilizer won’t kill it © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Garden uses for Carmel Creeper As an attractive ground cover:  Under trees  On slopes  Mounded over walls/retaining walls © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Ceanothus griseus ‘Diamond Heights’  Variegated leaves  3 - 4 ft. wide; low  Scant, light blue flowers in spring  Best with light shade in hot regions.http://blog.jannelsonlandscapedesign.com/?cat=78 http://thehumanfootprint.wordpress.com/2009/11/29/california-natives-part-3-groundcovers- © Project SOUNDhttp://www.bambooandmore.info/2012_01_09_archive.html manzanitas-ceanothus/
  84. 84. Ceanothus griseus ‘Hurricane Point’ 2-3 ft. tall x 20 ft wide in many years Slower growth but give it room to spread Flowers light blue Yankee Point has been called a more restrained version of this cultivar. © Project SOUND
  85. 85. ‘Kurt Zadnick’ Ceanothus  2 to 3 feet tall, spreading or trailing 6 feet or more  Bright indigo blue flowers in spring  More garden tolerant than Yankee Point © Project SOUNDhttp://www.landscaperesource.com/plants/ceanothus-kurt-zadnik.htm
  86. 86. ‘Yankee Point’ – Carmel Heights  Ever wonder where ‘Yankee Point’ ceanothushttp://www.sawbuck.com/property/California/93923_Carmel/7659172-98-Yankee-Point originated? http://www.carmelrealtycompany.com/index.cfm/person-Barbara_Ehrenpreis_11.htm http://www.sammcleod.com/properties/111YANKEEPOINT.html © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Ceanothus griseus ‘Yankee Point’  Old garden standard – 30+ years  2-3 ft tall and 10 ft wide; fast  Darker leaves than species  Great groundcover, slopes, etc.http://www.fresno.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=24194&return=l5_aS © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Management of low- growing Ceanothus  Proper watering is key:  Overwatering is often the cause of death; make sure they are in well- drained soil.  Once established, apply deep infrequent irrigation in the dry season.http://www.cuyamaca.edu/oh170/Thumbnail_Pages/Ceanothus_griseus.asp  Do not fertilize; like slightly acidic ‘Yankee Point’ soils so use organic mulch  Only minimal pruning  Pinch back tips during the growing season to shape – unless you have deer  Prune branches only if they are less than 1” in diameter, and only after the spring bloom when flowers have faded.  Use sterile technique  Ceanothus tend to be short-lived (5-15 years) often due to disease (too much water, fertilizer, pruning) http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/cegrhyp3.htm © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Ceanothus: a hit in European gardens  “Ceanothus thyrisflorus,  blueblossom, was the first California species to receive both botanical and horticultural recognition . . . when it was collected by botanist Adelbert von Chamisso on the Russian ship Rurik’s  expedition to California in 1816.   “The Royal Horticultural Society received seeds of Ceanothus thyrisflorus from Richard Brinsley Hinds from the 1837 expedition of HMS Sulphur, making it thehttp://www.gardenaction.co.uk/plantfinder/ceanothus-california- first California species introduced into European gardens “lilac_1.asp  Even today, it is not uncommon in Britain to see Ceanothus espaliered against a south-facing brick wall. © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Our trip takes us to the San Francisco Bay  Central coast  Point Sal/Guadalupe  San Simeon/Arroyo de la Cruz  Big Sur  Rocky pointhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:California_State_Route_1.svg  Yankee Point/Diamond Heights  Northern coast  Point Reyes  Ft. Bragg http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/recovery/mapped93/index.php?p=dom-NCCC SOUND © Project
  91. 91. * Glossyleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos nummulariahttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-nummularia/ © Project SOUND
  92. 92. * Glossyleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos nummularia  North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, w San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Tamalpais, Santa Cruz Mtns)  Rocky sites, woodland, coniferous forest, < 1500 ft  AKA ‘Fort Bragg Manzanita’http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3510 http://www.thevoiceofalliant.com/FunSun.html http://www.parksconservancy.org/visit/park-sites/mount-tamalpais.html © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Glossyleaf Manzanita: variable habit  Size:  2-6 ft tall; usually 2-3 in nature  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Dense evergreen shrub  Habit varies from low and spreading (rocky, exposed sites), mounded to © 2006 Steve Matson larger upright shrub (forest sites)  Red bark  Foliage:  Leaves rounded, tidy looking  Dark shiny green above; lighter beneath  Roots: no burl – don’t coppice!http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arctostaphylos_nummularia_1.jpg © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Manzanita flowers  Blooms:  In winter; usually Dec-Feb locally, tho’ may be a few blooms at other times  Flowers: © 2006 Steve Matson  Small, urn-shaped flowers typical of the genus  Pale pink; sweetly scented  Flower clusters slightly more open and other species  Flowers pollinated by large bees – ‘buzz pollination’  Fruits:  Edible ‘apples’ in summer/fallhttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Arctostaphylos-nummularia/ © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Grows under rage of  Soils:  Texture: well-drained – sandy or conditions rocky best  pH: slightly acidic; may want to amend with peat moss  Light:  Best with afternoon shade  Good choice for under trees (pines; oaks)  Water:  Winter: gets a lot in its native habitat – supplement if needed© 2004 Aaron Schusteff  Summer: gets summer rain and fog – Zone 2-3 and wash-downs  Fertilizer: light applications of acid fertilizer  Other: best near the coast © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Garden uses for Glossyleaf Manzanita  Mounded groundcover under pines and similar tall trees  Along coast, with other species for a north coast themed garden: Allium unifolium, Diplicus aurantiacus, Baccharis pilularis, Pinus attenuata, Fragaria vesca, Satureja douglasii © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND© 2004 Aaron Schusteff
  97. 97. Arctostaphylos nummularia ‘Small Change’  Selected for its small leaves which are bronze when young.  2-3 H x 3-4 W; mounding or spreading  Coast: full sun; Inland: part shade  Well-draining, acidic soils - good choice for planting under pines.  Provide afternoon sun and extra water in inland gardens.http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Arctostaphylos_nummularia_Small_Change © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Versatile ‘Emerald Carpet’ hybrid is garden friendly and low Hybrid between Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and A. nummularia – best traits of both parents groundcover to very low hedge http://www.pasadena.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=243&return=l8_aK © Project SOUND
  99. 99. The climate above San Francisco Bay is quite different from ours http://angrylambie-landscapes.buzznet.com/user/photos/wildflowers-northern-california-coast/? id=66160771http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_Reyes © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Point Reyes  ~ 30 miles (50 km) north of San Francisco on Highway 1  A prominent cape  The Point Reyes Peninsula is bounded by Tomales Bay on the northeast and Bolinas Lagoon on the southeast.  The headland is protected as part of Point Reyes National Seashore.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_Reyes © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_Reyes
  101. 101. Rainfall: Point Reyes Our rainfallMuch cooler summers as well -highs in the 50’s © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Point Reyes: northern  Maritime chaparral at Point Reyes maritime chaparral intergrades with mixed evergreen forest and is bordered by coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) groves and riparian woodlands  Common maritime chaparral species at Point Reyes include Eastwoods manzanita (Arctostaphylos glandulosa), glossyleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos nummularia), chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), giant chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla), http://www.meetup.com/bay-areakayakers/events/12581031/ buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus), and chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana). Also of importance in this vegetation type are the rare species Bolinas Manzanita (Arctostaphylos virgata), Point Reyes ceanothus (Ceanothus gloriosus var. exaltatus), and Masons ceanothus (Ceanothus masonii). © Project SOUNDhttp://www.math.cmu.edu/~pikhurko/Gallery/110320PointReyes/33.html http://roadjournals.viamagazine.com/2012/01/17/point-reyes-national-seashore- hiking-tamales-point-trail/
  103. 103. * Point Reyes Ceanothus – Ceanothus gloriosus © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  104. 104. * Point Reyes Ceanothus – Ceanothus gloriosus  North Coast (Marin, Sonoma Counties), San Francisco Bay, north Central Coast  var. porrectus (Mt. Vision ceanothus) - rare variety endemic to Marin County in the vicinity of Point Reyes http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6586,6589,6608  var. gloriosus (glory mat) - smaller mat-forming variety known mainly from Marin County  Seaside bluffs and the slopes of the coastal mountains  Coastal Bluff scrub, closed cone conifer forest, coastal dunes, coastal scrub below 1700 © Project SOUNDhttp://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/8u9p--NTHGj834b-n31gzg
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