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Japanese garden 2013-notes


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  • 1. 12/7/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden In a Japanese Garden: Using CA Native Pines, Junipers & Other Gymnosperms C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th December 7 & 10, 2013 year) © Project SOUND 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide © Project SOUND What do you think of when you hear the words ‘Japanese Garden’?             Ponds/lakes Streams Waterfalls Japanese lanterns Bridges Green, green & more green Evergreen shrubs & trees Careful, formal pruning Not a leaf in sight Pink/purple flowers Colorful fall leaves Peaceful/meditation © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  • 2. 12/7/2013 There are actually several Japanese garden types/styles Many local ‘Japanese Gardens’ combine several types/styles Promenade or Stroll Garden Dry Zen/meditation Garden © Project SOUND Earl Burns Miller Japanese Garden © Project SOUND Japanese garden – Descanso Gardens CSULB - 1250 N Bellflower Blvd Long Beach © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  • 3. 12/7/2013 Huntington Library  100 years old – very established Suiho En, the garden of water and fragrance - Tillman Water Reclamation Plant (Woodley Park, 6100 Woodley Avenue, Van Nuys)  6.5 acres  Designed by Dr. Koichi Kawana; constructed 1980-1983.  Also the new Chinese Garden  Well worth the trip in any season  Ranked 10 of300 public Japanese gardens in the United States by the Journal of Japanese Gardening.  Includes: a dry Zen meditation garden (Karesansui); large chisen, or "wet strolling" garden with waterfalls, lakes, greenery; an authentic tea house and adjacent tea garden.© Project SOUND california/ © Project SOUND Japan’s climate is not our climate Can there ever truly be a ‘Japanese Garden’ in S. California (or outside of Japan, for that matter) ?  Much more like the Pacific Northwest or N. CA: © Project SOUND  More rainfall; higher humidity (fog)  Colder in winter  Landforms: more vulcanism than tectonic uplifting  Forests/mountains/sea more accessible (at least where some of the famous gardens are - can ‘borrow’ the outside landscapes better than we can) Bottom line: Japan and Japanese culture are quite different © Project SOUND 3
  • 4. 12/7/2013 But like all gardening traditions, Japanese gardening has lessons to teach us The Japanese gardening tradition reflects Japanese history  Shinto religion:  Reverence for the natural world  The special holiness of certain places, natural objects  Need to keep ‘animals’ (including humans) and other things in or out:  Fences & gates separate world into sacred & profane  The garden is a ‘place apart’ from the outside world  A ‘retreat’ that allows for renewal © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Japanese gardening tradition reflects Japanese history The Japanese gardening tradition reflects Japanese history  Influence of China & Korea (~700800 A.D)  Reverence for tradition – and the many 100’s of years of formal gardening tradition  Gardening traditions go back > 3000 years – include large public gardens and small  Importance of studying/ studying with the masters  Many elements influenced Japanese gardening tradition:  The idea of gardens producing harmony between humans & nature  Enclosure: walled gardens  Specific elements: ponds, rock works, trees and flowers  Winding paths connecting a series of carefully composed scenes © Project SOUND  Demographics  City life: need to bring nature to people who were becoming removed from it – and had leisure to enjoy it  Small islands/limited land/growing population – the need for retreat © Project SOUND 4
  • 5. 12/7/2013 Roji (Cha-niwa) Teahouse Gardens The Tea Garden  Simple, small rustic gardens, often with teahouses  Evokes the remoteness and tranquility of the mountains, and provides an illusion of depth.  Guests are made to feel as if they were walking along a simple mountain path, so the prevailing colors are greens and browns of various shades and intensities.  Purpose: transition – path/passage between the mundane cares/ stresses of the secular world and the detached spiritual realm of the tea ceremony  Few exotic/flowering plants – would distract  Seasons are subtly reflected through autumn leaves or spring buds; variety in diverse shapes and levels of shininess of the leaves. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Storrier Stearns Japanese Garden, Pasadena But how do we apply the principles of Japanese gardening to our own gardens? © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  • 6. 12/7/2013 The lessons of Japanese Gardens are reflected in the ‘essence’ of the tradition The ‘essence’ of Japanese gardening is to capture the ‘spirit’ of the natural world in which we live - and bring it home 12_F_57_zps7707e7eb.jpg A garden is at its best when it reflects some of the themes found in nature, yet elevates and interprets those themes into an artful expression of human interaction with the land. © Project SOUND The ‘spirit’ of Japanese gardening is rooted in a sense of place © Project SOUND ‘The essence of nature created in a smaller space’  So a Japanese-influenced California garden interprets California landscapes – and will never look like a Japanese garden in Japan © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  • 7. 12/7/2013 Classical plants for Japanese gardens  Trees: Before designing a garden we must first study natural landscapes in detail, to determine the ‘essence’ of the California landscape Japanese maple Flowering cherry Gingko Podocarpus  Shrubs: Bamboo Camellia Azalea Pine Juniper  Groundcovers & perennials: Asiatic jasmine Star jasmine Ginger Ferns Liriope Thyme Mondo grass © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Choices for ‘Japanese influenced’ CA garden  N. CA coastal and mountain forests – most like Japanese forests  S. CA forests – drier, but still forest communities  More local plant communities  Coastal Prairie/shrubland  Coastal Sage Scrub  Coastal Chaparral (Santa Monica Mtns) © Project SOUND  First we need to develop a deep understanding of the natural landscape  Then we must determine the ‘essence’ of what makes our California landscape unique  Only then can we apply traditional principles for ‘bringing nature home’ © Project SOUND 7
  • 8. 12/7/2013 N. California evergreen forests rests_(WWF_ecoregion) Coastal redwood forest Cool, damp, foggy with relatively rich, organic soils © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The ‘essence’ of the coastal northern forest Mixed evergreen forest world.htm Closed-cone pine forest © Project SOUND  Shade: medium to dense  Play of light and shade; may be islands of sun  Straight tree trunks: column/pole-like and often large  Evergreen Gymnosperms  Smaller understory plants: often vine-like  Spots of color in mostly green landscape  Mostly flat – fades out into the mist © Project SOUND 8
  • 9. 12/7/2013 Evolution of plants  The gymnosperms are older than the angiosperms (flowering plants) by quite a bit (~ 400 MYA vs ~ 150 MYA) The Gymnosperms: old and less mighty than in the past  700 living species  Classically divided into four divisions (subclasses):  The gymnosperms:  Have pollen & seeds  Do not have flowers or fruits; are not dependent on living pollinators  Pollen comes into ‘direct’ contact with ovule (seed) for fertilization to occur © Project SOUND A modern representation of the phylogeny of gymnosperms based on chloroplast DNA.  The pine family (Pinaceae) and a sister branch leading to six additional families have a common ancestor within the division Pinophyta.  In other words, the seven major families of cone-bearing trees and shrubs all evolved from the division Pinophyta. © Project SOUND  Conifers: pines, spruce, cypress – worldwide  Cycads (such as the sago palm) - tropics  Ginkgos (the maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba) - Asia  Gnetophytes (such as Mormon tea, Ephedra © Project SOUND Division Pinophyta: California natives  Family Pinaceae: Cedrus, Pinus, Cathaya, Picea, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Pseudolarix, Tsuga, Nothotsuga, Keteleeria, Abies  Family Cupressaceae: Cunninghamia, Taiwania, Athrotaxis, Metasequoia, Sequoia, Sequoiadendron, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Papuacedrus, Austrocedrus, Libocedrus, Pilgerodendron, Widdringtonia, Diselma, Fitzroya, Callitris (incl. Actinostrobus), Neocallitropsis, Thujopsis, Thuja, Fokienia, Chamaecyparis, Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, Calocedrus, Tetraclinis, Platycladus, Microbiota  Family Taxaceae: Austrotaxus, Pseudotaxus, Taxus, Cephalotaxus, Amentotaxus, Torreya © Project SOUND 9
  • 10. 12/7/2013 * California Nutmeg – Torreya californica * California Nutmeg – Torreya californica  N. Calif. Endemic  Its range has two distinct parts:  Coast Ranges - from southwest Trinity County south to Monterey County  Cascade-Sierra Nevada foothills - from Shasta County south to Tulare County.  Cool, humid, wooded slopes, shady canyons in forest or woodland, sometimes chaparral ©2011 George Jackson © Project SOUND The genus Torreya : an old taxon © Project SOUND CA Nutmeg: a woodland evergreen tree  Size:    40-60+ ft tall  20-40 ft wide ~ 170 million years Once widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere - fossil records from Europe, Greenland, AK, British Columbia, OR, CO, VA, NC    Growth form:   Now extremely spatially disjunction distribution.  ? Out-competed  ? Climate change    Five species now: three in eastern Asia, one in California (T. californica) and a small range in northern Florida (T. taxifolia) . Upright tree from central leader: conical then rounded Evergreen; branches appear to droop Looks like yew or redwood Slow growing Bark: thin, gray-brown  Foliage:   Small, sharp ‘needles’ Very aromatic – like sandalwood © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  • 11. 12/7/2013 Female ‘cones’ : unusual Forest conditions  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained, including clays  pH: any local – takes acidic  Blooms: in spring  Flowers:   Dioecious: separate male and female trees (usually) Pollen cones: small, wind pollinated (typical of gymnosperms)  Light:   Water:  Winter: plenty  Summer: Water Zone 2-3 to 3; young trees may benefit from occasional misting on cool days  Seeds:  Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences.    Female cones have fleshy covering – green then purple-brown Shape/size reminiscent of the true nutmeg 2 years to mature Decorative/interesting: food for birds, animals  Fertilizer: fine with ½ strength fertilizer; best with organic forest mulch  Other: dislikes wind © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The ‘essence’ of the coastal northern forest Gardening with Torreya  Specimen tree in shady spots  Large screen/barrier hedge (sharp)  Good for large containers/bonsai – slow growing world.htm ct/Nutmeg.html Be sure you smell before you buy rnica/images/tree.jpg ©2012 Belinda Lo © Project SOUND In our are, best in part-shade to even full shade  Shade: medium to dense  Play of light and shade; may be islands of sun  Straight tree trunks: column/pole-like and often large  Smaller understory plants: often vine-like  Spots of color in mostly green landscape  Mostly flat – fades out into the mist When choosing gymnosperms consider their size © Project SOUND 11
  • 12. 12/7/2013 Essence of N. CA mountain evergreen forests N/central CA Mixed Evergreen Forest       Vistas Slopes & valleys Sun and shade Drier than Coastal forests ‘specimen’ evergreen trees Rocks/boulders © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The essence of N. CA forests in a garden * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens Gymnosperms Large trees Light and shade Illusion of distance & slope Cool, green appearance Specimen tree or not Smaller understory plants: often vine-like  Spots of color in mostly green landscape        Take home message: capture the essential features © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 12
  • 13. 12/7/2013 * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens Incense Cedar: magnificent  Montane forests from Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, Mexico and east to western Nevada  Evergreen tree in large yards, parks, business parks, schools, other large areas  Used as a large screen  Good for large Asian-themed gardens  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns.,158,159 © 2005 Steven Perkins  On mesic sites including riparian habitats in mixedevergreen, yellow-pine forests, 2000-7000 feet © Project SOUND * California Juniper – Juniperus californica © Project SOUND * California Juniper – Juniperus californica  Mountain slopes of W. CA into Baja; desert mountains of S. CA, NV & AZ – locally in Antelope Valley & desert side of San Gabriels  In S. CA commonly occurs in pinyon-juniper woodlands that border and integrate with chaparral along desert margins © Project SOUND © 2003 Monty Rickard © Project SOUND 13
  • 14. 12/7/2013 Use where ever you want a juniper     Bonsai in Japanese gardens As an unusual bonsai On hot, dry slopes As a specimen or hedge plant For it’s great habitat value  The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation (for the viewer) and the pleasant exercise of effort and ingenuity (for the grower).,_GSBF-CN_120,_September_12,_2008.jpg  Not usually included in Japanese gardens per se  Take home message for small gardens: large plants that can be trained for bonsai are good candidates for container plants (junipers, pines, oaks, some flowering shrubs) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Common Juniper – Juniperus communis var. montana (saxatilis) Juniperus communis, the common juniper  Has the largest range of any woody plant, throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  • 15. 12/7/2013 * Common Juniper – Juniperus communis var. montana Common juniper: woody groundcover  In CA: Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains  Dry rocky soil and rock crevices on slopes and summits  Yellow Pine Forest, Douglas-Fir Forest, North Coastal Coniferous Forest, Lodgepole Forest, Subalpine Forest, slopes  Size:  1-5 ft tall  4-10+ ft wide  Growth form:   /cgibin/ ©2009 Barry Breckling   Evergreen Mounded to mat-like; spreading w/ age Live 150+ years Moderate growth rate  Foliage:     ©2012 Jean Pawek ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND Female fruits are showy  Flowers: male and female; usually on separate plants  Female fruits/cones:    Look like berries – typical of junipers Take 2 years to ripen Begin green, then red; blue with white bloom when ripe © Project SOUND Juniper berries spice up foods  Blooms: spring ©2012 Jean Pawek Blue-green or medium green Sharp needles in bundles of 3 Bark – red-brown, thin peeling Foliage makes nice orange dye  The cones from a handful of species are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine and native SW U.S. - also give gin its distinguishing flavor  In addition to J. communis, other edible species include Juniperus californica which is said to have ‘sweet’ berries  The mature, dark berries are usually but not exclusively used in cuisine, while gin is flavored with fully grown but immature green berries ©2010 Louis-M. Landry © Project SOUND © 2005 James M. Andre © Project SOUND 15
  • 16. 12/7/2013 Plant Requirements Common juniper in the garden  Soils:  Texture: just about any  pH: any local       Light: full sun to light shade; fine under high canopy  Water:  Winter: adequate; no standing water  Summer: best with occasional – Water Zone 1-2 or 2 ©2008 Louis-M. Landry As an attractive pot plant, bonsai Evergreen groundcover, under tall trees Rock gardens Woodland/habitat gardens In Asian-themed gardens  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils but fine with leaf mulch  Other: nice natural shape, but can be pruned; watch for Juniper Blight © Project SOUND Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND In the wilds, junipers often grow with other native evergreens Junipers as medicine  Tea from foliage:     Tonic Diuretic/kidney cleanser Colds/flu Arthritis, muscle aches  Tea/infusion of ‘berries’  stomach ailments  Colds/lung ailments  Kidney ailments  Smoke:  Ritual purification Care must be taken to limit consumption ©2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
  • 17. 12/7/2013 * Sitka spruce – Picea sitchensis * Sitka spruce – Picea sitchensis  Tree of northern temperate rainforests – truly not our climate  Very large – not for most gardens  Sold in nurseries throughout the U.S. distribution_map.png SOUND © Project © Project SOUND Dwarf cultivars: very different look Picea sitchensis ‘Papoose’ Picea sitchensis ‘Tenas’ * Douglas fir – Pseudotsuga menziesii  Shrub-size: 4-8+ ft.  Round ball – not statuesque tree  Useful, but not the real feel © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 17
  • 18. 12/7/2013 * Bigcone spruce – Pseudotsuga macrocarpa Ideas for including the ‘essence’ of big trees in a smaller garden  If a neighbor has a large pine, cypress or juniper, make use of ‘borrowed landscape Incorporate large uprights in architecture to suggest tree trunks On Mt. Wilson – San Gabriel Mountains © Project SOUND© Project SOUND garden.html Ideas for including the ‘essence’ of big trees in a smaller garden Cypresses are common components of CA evergreen forests Use smaller trees (or container plants) to suggest larger trees © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
  • 19. 12/7/2013 Junipers and Cypresses are similar, but their cones are quite different A Cypress is a Cypress: whatever happened to the genus Cupressus?  Cypress (Hesperocyparis) are distinguished by woody cones, often persistent on older branches and opening (scales separating) upon fire  Molecular studies have led to splitting of the genus and transfer of species among four genera:  Cupressus - Old World  Callitropsis - nw N Amer.  Chamaecyparis - 2 spp in N. Amer. and 3 in e Asia)  Hesperocyparis - 16 spp. w N Amer. to Columbia  Juniperus has succulent cones with fused scales, developing at the ends of leafy green branches (or in axils of leaves). © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Cypress ‘Islands’ are unique and endangered   Tecate Cypress Some of these populations became isolated; gradual changes over millions of years resulted in the present-day species and subspecies.   Millions of years ago, cypress woodlands containing one or more ancestral species of the cone-bearing Hesperocyparis dominated vast areas of California. During the past 20 million years, as mountains were uplifted and the climate became increasingly more arid, most of these extensive cypress woodlands vanished. SOUND © Project Today 10 species (or 8 species and 2 subspecies) are confined to isolated groves scattered throughout coastal and inland mountains, from the Mexican border to Oregon. Cypress of arid inland mountains and valleys (such as Piute cypress, Macnab cypress, Cuyamaca cypress, and Arizona cypress) have developed glandular (resinous) foliage and are more drought resistant. © Project SOUND 19
  • 20. 12/7/2013 Monterey Cypress - Hesperocyparis macrocarpa © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii   gy/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=784 Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND Very rare – 15 U.S. populations; formerly more widespread – in La Brea tar from Pleistocene Santa Ana Mountains (Orange County); Guatay Mountain, Otay Mountain (San Diego County); Mount Tecate on the U.S.-Mexican boundary; N. Baja.  Dry slopes, exposed hillsides, ridgetops; also along stream banks/arroyos, 1,500 to 5,000 feet © Project SOUND 20
  • 21. 12/7/2013 Tecate Cypress is a well-mannered evergreen Cones are distinctive  Size:  Flowers: to 20+ ft tall; grows quickly to 12 ft. then slows  6-8 ft wide   Separate male & female flowers  You probably won’t notice it blooming  Growth form:  Woody evergreen tree; may be shrubby, manybranched with age  Bark lovely; peeling and nice colors  Long-lived (100’s of years)  Cones:  Male cones numerous; unusual looking – on small branches  Female cones are larger and attached to larger branches  Start out green – gradually become dry & hard  Take 2 years to mature; remain on tree for several years  Need hot temperatures (fire) to open & release seeds  Foliage:  Pretty typical Cypress  Nice looking; neater than Italian Cypress Plant Requirements  Roots: taproot and laterals © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Uses in the garden  Soils:  Texture: best in coarse, welldrained soils  pH: any local   Light: full sun    Water:   Winter: rain usually adequate  Summer: none or very little after established; over watering can make susceptible to blow-down Anywhere you might consider a nonnative Cypress Great on dry hillsides – is fire-prone Excellent as an evergreen hedge or screen Impressive specimen plant  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: Easy under proper conditions;70998 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 21
  • 22. 12/7/2013 * Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis * Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis http://ucjeps.berkel 89300 ©2008 Matt Teel  Narrow endemic: Kern County: the drainage of Bodfish Creek, and, at 4000 feet, on Red Hill in the Paiute Mountains where it grows at elevations of 50006000 feet with Juniperus californica, Pinus sabiniana, P. monophylla and Ephedra viridis ©2012 Joey Malone © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Paiute Cypress: majestic tree Cones are cypress-type  Size:    Blooms: winter-early spring; separate pollen, seed cones on same plant 30-50+ ft tall 20-30 ft wide  Growth form:     Tree with straight central leader Pyramidal in youth; top is rounded with age Fast growing to 20 ft. Wonderful rustic bark  Female cones:  ©2002 Dr. Louis Emmet Mahoney     Foliage: ©2008 Matt Teel    Round; brown becoming gray with age Ripen in 1 year On short lateral shoots near branch tips; nice appearance Only open when exposed to high temperatures Medium to gray-green Scale-like leaves Strongly aromatic ©2002 Dr. Louis Emmet Mahoney © Project SOUND ©2008 Matt Teel © Project SOUND 22
  • 23. 12/7/2013 Uses for Piute Cypress  Soils: Plant Requirements  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Planted as an ornamental tree, particularly for gray foliage  Nice large background plants – or drought-tolerant large hedges/screens  Hardy – planted along roads in Santa Monica mtns  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: looks best with occasional to somewhat regular water – Zone 2 or 23, though quite drought tolerant  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: can be pruned to shape, even hedged - but has a nice natural shape; watch for fungal diseases, bark borers ©2012 Joey Malone © Project SOUND Essence of a drier CA forest     Moderate size trees – some with straight, vertical trunks Open vistas with distant hills Evergreens often mixed with other plant communities (patches in chaparral/ oak woodland) Dry shade (more open); light/shade Ideas for small gardens  ‘borrow’ a nice landscape – if there’s one to borrow  Suggest distance ©2010 Rebecca Wenk © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Medium gray-brown to graygreen fences  Living ‘screens; © Project SOUND 23
  • 24. 12/7/2013 You may have noticed that cypress’ and pines go together – in nature and gardens © Project SOUND * Coast Pine – Pinus contorta var. contorta © Project SOUND *Coast Pine – Pinus contorta var. contorta Coast pine  Size:  Pinus contorta subsp. contorta — Shore pine; Pacific Coast, S. AK to N. California  Pinus contorta subsp. murrayana — Tamarack pine, or Sierra lodgepole pine (large tree) – in San Bernardino Mtns   20-50 ft tall 10-25 ft wide  Growth form:   Variable with age, environmental conditions Usually multi-branched, irregular; may be wind-swept  Foliage:  ©2012 Vernon Smith Needles short, medium/dark green – may be sparse or dense © Project SOUND © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 24
  • 25. 12/7/2013 Cones are irregular Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: most, including sandy or poorly drained  pH: any but high pH (> 8.0)  Blooms: in spring - pollen  Flowers:     Light: Separate male, female cones Female cones: two years to mature; may remain on tree for long time Cones relatively small, irregular shape   Winter: adequate – remember where plant originates  Summer: semi-regular best; Zone 2 to 2-3 depending on soil drainage  Seeds:   ©2012 Aaron Arthur ©2012 Vernon Smith Ripen in fall Edible – good for jays and other birds that eat pine nuts © Project SOUND Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Fertilizer: none; fine with poor soils  Other: organic mulch as must © Project SOUND Gardening with Shore pine  As an attractive container plant  Pair with Bishop pine (Pinus muricata), Common juniper (Juniperus communis) and naked sedge (Calamagrostis nutkatensis) for ‘N. coast garden’  Fine for immediate coast Project SOUND © © Project SOUND 25
  • 26. 12/7/2013 *Ponderosa Pine S. CA mountains have lovely pines Pinus ponderosa © Project SOUND *Coulter Pine – Pinus coulteri © Project SOUND * Jeffrey Pine – Pinus jeffreyi _id=2497 On Mt. Pinos Grows in San Bernardino Mtns © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 26
  • 27. 12/7/2013 * Bishop Pine – Pinus muricata * Bishop Pine – Pinus muricata  Narrow endemic: several places on N/Central coast and in Baja (incl. Cedros Isl.)  Dry ridges to coastal, windshorn forests, often in or around bogs in Redwood forest, n coastal conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral < ~1500 ft © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences Bishop pine reflects its environment  Blooms: in spring 40-70 ft tall 20-30+ ft wide  Cones:    Growth form:   ©2013 Jason Matthias Mills  May be rounded and windswept on coast; taller and more pyramidal away from coast (and in youth) High canopy; dark, furrowed bark with age Relatively fast growth to 20 ft; 50-150+ years  ©2004 Charles E. Jones  Foliage:  © Project SOUND Cones stick around…  Size: moderate for pine   © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College Dark green; medium length needles Separate pollen/seed cones Seed cones long and pointed’ usually hang down from branches Remain unopened until exposed to high heat (usually fire; may open with hot weather); many on mature tree at one time and old ones are ultimately enclosed by bark (‘eaten’)  Seeds:  Mature in 3 years ©2012 Aaron E. Sims © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 27
  • 28. 12/7/2013 Bishop pine: N. CA coastal tree  Soils: Bishop pine takes to local gardens  Texture: any well-drained, including sandy or rocky  pH: any local   Light:    Full sun (foggier coastal areas); part-shade elsewhere  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: occasional to moderate (Water Zones 2 or 23; 2 or less with age)   Wherever a moderate-size pine is needed, including coastal gardens, semi-dry slopes, windbreaks/tall hedges Asian-themed gardens Large plantings, including public/ commercial (schools; parks; etc.) Prune up and can garden beneath (grasses; ferns; other natural understory Introduced into CA gardens by Theodore Payne  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; organic mulch  Other: susceptible to Aphids and Beetle Borers, Phytophthora, Root Rot, Rust and Pitch Canker © Project SOUND * Knobcone pine – Pinus attenuata © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND _a469cd8fbf.jpg * CA Foothill Pine – Pinus sabiniana ©2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND 28
  • 29. 12/7/2013 * CA Foothill Pine – Pinus sabiniana   Size: Foothills in coastal ranges, Sierras south to Ventura Co.  CA Foothill Pine: moderate size but looks big Dry slopes & ridges below 4500 ft. in foothill woodlands, n oak woodland, chaparral   Humans likely contributed to the current distribution pattern, including the large gap in distribution in Tulare County.  Fossils suggest only recently adapted to the Mediterranean climate - closest relatives are at higher elevations in the southwest US and Mexico. 40-80 ft tall (40-50 in garden) 25-35 ft wide  Growth form: AKA: Bull pine; Gray pine       Pyramidal in youth; high, rounded canopy with age Single leader Fast to 40-45 ft in 15 years Lives 200+ years in wild  Foliage:  ©2013 Susan McDougall ©2011 Jean Pawek    Color: most often gray-green; open airy – can garden beneath Longish needles Graceful appearance Roots & twigs used for basketry © Project SOUND Seeds: among the best  Blooms: spring  Female cones: Produced after 10-25 yrs Large (6-10 inches; 1-2 lb) with long, sharp ‘beaks’  Mature in 2 years; persist 5-7 years  Open slowly, releasing seeds   ©2011 Jean Pawek  Seeds:    ©2011 Neal Kramer Large; predictable crop Hard-shelled; need to process Eaten fresh, roasted, boiled or pounded and mixed with cold water and other seeds for small cakes, thin mush © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Foothill Pine: Dry  Soils:  Texture: well-drained a must  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: adequate; supplement if needed  Summer: drought tolerant; best with occasional water (Water Zones 1-2 to 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: susceptible to western gall rust and bark beetles; don’t over-water, and watch for signs © Project SOUND 29
  • 30. 12/7/2013 Foothill Pine How else might you use CA foothill pine? From California Native Plants, Theodore Payne's 1941 catalog: "A rapid growing tree and the best pine for hot dry locations. Beautiful long drooping silvery green foliage. Quite distinct in appearance from other pines. In typical specimens the trunk has a habit of parking into several erect branches forming a broom-like top.” ©2012 Jean Pawek as/pinedigg.htm © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND * Pinyon Pine – Pinus edulis (SW U.S.) Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 30
  • 31. 12/7/2013 Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla  Single-leaf Pinyon occurred as early as the Late Wisconsin glacial period (20,000 to 11,000 years ago).  Tree of the Southwest: CA, AZ, NM and northern Baja California; in the dry mountain ranges of NV, UT, and southeastern ID  Large area of distribution and, therefore, probably a large degree of genetic variation  Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Foothill Woodland between ~3000 & 7500 ft. green - Pinus monophylla subsp. monophylla blue - Pinus monophylla subsp. californiarum red - Pinus monophylla subsp. fallax  Widespread and often abundant in this region, forming extensive open woodlands, often mixed with junipers, Jeffrey pine, sagebrush & montane white fir © Project SOUND  Conservation implications – esp. in CA green - Pinus monophylla subsp. monophylla blue - Pinus monophylla subsp. californiarum red - Pinus monophylla subsp. fallax  Blooms: in spring; separate pollen & seed cones on same plant  Size: 10-35+ ft tall 5-20 or 25 ft wide  Female cones:   Growth form:    Shrubby-appearing tree Many branches – often irregular shape with age Slow-growing; long-lived (100’s of years)  Seeds:   Short, gray-green needles in bundles of one  Small: ~ 2”; round ; 35 years old when start to bear  Crops every 3-7 years; 2 years to mature  Open widely when mature – typical pinyon trait  Foliage:  © Project SOUND Seeds are fantastic Singleleaf pine: typical pinyon   Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND Absolutely delicious! Consumed by humans, birds and animals Primarily spread by Jays, Clark’s Nutcracker © Project SOUND 31
  • 32. 12/7/2013 Singleleaf pinyon  Soils: Gardening with pinyons  Texture: most any  pH: any local  Container or bonsai plant  Screen/hedge; good for mild, coastal conditions  Neat, bold appearance; gray color blends well with dry high-desert and mountain landscapes as well as modern and mediterranean gardens  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water: Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Winter: good soil moisture  Summer:  Most xeric pine in the U. S.  Mean annual precipitation range is 8 to 18 inches; most precipitation falling DecemberApril  Once established, needs only occasional watering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Management: Native Californians pruned out dead branches; removed underbrush – fire can kill this species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Many good resources on Japanese Gardening   Books: Japanese Gardening  Ortho’s All About Creating Japanese Gardens  Joe Earl (ed): Infinite Spaces: the Art and Wisdom of Japanese Gardening ©2012 Steven Perry  many others – see your local library Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND  Books: CA Landscape Gardening  M. Francis & A. Reiman: The California Landscape Garden  G. Keator & A. Middlebrook: Designing California Native Gardens: the Plant Community Approach to Artful, Ecological Gardens © Project SOUND 32
  • 33. 12/7/2013 Get out and visit a local garden Look at our local landscapes with new eyes © Project SOUND My Gardening Philosophy – circa 2013 1. 2. Knowledge is power It’s better to understand how something works rather than to just follow rules 3. It’s easier to work with the physical conditions in a garden (soil characteristics, light, etc.) than to try to change them dramatically 4. California native plants from the local area are often the best suited for local gardens 5. Look to Mother Nature and Native Californians for gardening advice 6. Make a garden plan – even tho’ it may change over time 7. Choose plants based on their suitability for your needs and garden conditions 8. Save ‘Heritage’ trees and large shrubs – unless there’s a good reason to remove them 9. Choose plants for their habitat value 10. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide © Project SOUND 33