1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                             ...
1/6/2013               If this is your Grandmother’s Garden then                                                          ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                              …and...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013Grape arbors are great because the vines       provide fairly dense shade                                         ...
1/6/2013                                                                               ‘Maintained’ arbors were used      ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                   Island Morning-glory – Calystegia macrostegia                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                                         Love those flowers!                        Pacific Mornin...
1/6/2013                      Can you relate to this photo?                                                               ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                  * Orange Honeysuckle – Lonicera ciliosa                                         ...
1/6/2013                                                                                          Flowers are fantastic   ...
1/6/2013                                                                              ‘Hate it with a Passion’ vine       ...
1/6/2013             California honeysuckles are not                                                                      ...
1/6/2013                A honeysuckle with pink flowers…                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                        Flowers are the most                                                      ...
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
Classic Climbers-notes
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Classic Climbers-notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Vines & Climbers for Classic Gardens C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants January 2 & 5, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND What is it about a grandmother’s garden? Many of our grandmothers (or great-grandmothers) planned their gardens between 1900 & 1930’s http://goldenagegardens.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 If this is your Grandmother’s Garden then Edwardian Gardens were very much a you’ll have to wait… revolt against the Victorian style http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3002/2930975253_e3036b0a45.jpg?v=0 Victorian Style Garden © Project SOUND Edwardian Style Garden © Project SOUNDhttp://imagecache5.art.com/p/LRG/16/1647/9PEGD00Z/t-chiu-victorian-garden.jpg The roots of Edwardian Gardens were in the country This period had many things in common with ours  Natural open spaces (‘The Country’) were becoming rare – and were recalled nostalgically  Gardeners wanted an informal ‘natural look’ for their gardens – many used ‘old-fashioned’ native plants, often exuberantly  Leisure time was treasured – and there wasn’t enough of it  People loved to do as much as possible outdoors  City gardeners had to contend with ‘less than perfect’ views  Irrigation systems often consisted of a hose & spigot http://goldenagegardens.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.html http://goldenagegardens.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 …and their Edwardian Gardens, which can suggestIn short, we can easily relate to the Edwardian Gardener ideas for our own (2010) gardenshttp://goldenagegardens.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.html http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Edwardian_garden_(horizontal).jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND One of the first things we The appropriate use of vertical space was notice is a good use of a key element of Edwardian gardens vertical space  Low height (foreground)  Grass  Groundcover plants  Non-living groundcover  Mid-height (middle ground)  Shrubs & sub-shrubs  Hardscape elements (benches, http://www.bargatepublications.co.uk/talks/5006.jpg pots, etc)  Taller height (background)  Trees & large shrubs  Climbers and the supports for them (arches, trellises, etc.) http://www.stmarysbramber.co.uk/images/rose_garden.JPG © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Grape & rose arbors Edwardian gardens used vines & climbers were popular features in  When planting vines for height, they will need something to climb up. Edwardian gardens  Options are endless. Arbors,  Follow Mother Nature; trellises and obelisks are built in informal, ‘natural’ style for several sizes and from many sorts of restful urban gardens materials.  Natural materials, such as grapevine,  Create pleasing places for bamboo and willow, work well for the outdoor living informal garden.  Shady and sunny places  Places to sit/dine/etc.  Use native plants creatively – they are pretty, ‘old fashioned’ and don’t require as much water, care http://www.wrcla.org/cedarprojects/planters/coveredseats.asp Structures to support vines are  Use valuable space to the among the easier do-it-yourself max: use fore-, mid- and projects – and plans are available http://historichouses.wordpress.com/2008/08/01/sagtikos-manor-west-bay-shore-ny/ background-space © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Our two California native grapes Desert Wild Grape/S. CA Grape CA Grape – Vitis californica Vitis girdiana ‘Roger’s Red’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://thehumanfootprint.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/dscn0023.jpg 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013Grape arbors are great because the vines provide fairly dense shade http://www.sundancelandscaping.com/images/projects/54ArboronDeck.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/213/513090893_5eb749323d.jpg Structures to support grapes (and other fast- growing, dense woody vines) need to be sturdy – don’t under-build them http://gallinacanyonranch.com/grape-arbor.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.garysumner.com/20718940_08.jpg Climbers require some guidance… ‘Natural’ and ‘Maintained’ arbors were both used by Edwardian gardeners  The natural arbor is permitted to grow randomly, forming a thick mass of canes.  There is very little upkeep and the vines produce a dense shade.  Since the vines are not pruned annually, there would be significantlyhttp://goldenagegardens.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.html fewer grapes produced. Which can be an enjoyable activity if you like the creativity http://www.suelynncotton.com/landscapes.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 ‘Maintained’ arbors were used Once the basic structure is achieved you by Edwardian gardeners, just maintain it  Prune dormant vines particularly for grapes each year  The maintained arbor is  Remove all new growth covered by vines which are except for spurs with pruned to a two-bud spur- 2-3 buds type cordon  This type of pruning  Prune vines in Nov/Dec (or promotes a healthy when vines are dormant) to grape crop a single cordon (trunk).  It also:  Each spur should be pruned  Keeps the weight down to contain two or three  Removes dead/weak buds. growth - rejuvenates http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/homefruit/grapearbors/grape.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/homefruit/grapearbors/grape.html Where to use Other great uses for grapes…. grapes?  Along fences, or over walls  Where ever you’d  As a rustic groundcover; like some shade great on slopes http://www.mosaicartbyla.com/sitebuilder/images/front_grape_arbor2-389x284.jpg  Climbing a chain-link fence http://wardroadgarden.blogspot.com/2008/07/grape-vines.htmlhttp://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/v7WekBeoWLAngMvxp2RHQQ http://harrisonauth.us/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Wood lattice - popularLattice screens were popular in Edwardian gardens from 1880’s to 1930’s  Easy to install  Economical  Good for narrow spaces  Looks neat and tidy http://www.mastergardenproducts.com/woodcare/latticepanelinstallation.htm  Many styles available  Can be used in many ways  Fences  Free-standing screens  Trellises to grow vines  On arbors/garden benches http://jacquettamenzies.blogspot.com/2008/07/arts-and-crafts-garden.html  Etc., etc., etc. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.reliablefenceboston.com/nss-folder/pictures/Image121.jpg http://www.freewoodworkingplan.com/index.php?cat=196 The many faces Vigorous native vines of lattice to provide shade & screen  Grapes – Vitis species  The Virgin’s Bowers -http://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/5087563/227338-main_Full.jpg Clematis species http://tucsonlandscaping.info/trellis  CA Wild Rose - Rosa californica  Morning-glories - Calystegia species http://www.craftsman-style.info/garden/arbor.htm http://cdn-write.demandstudios.com/upload//9000/500/90/7/29597.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://bespokewoodcraft.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/Rustic_lattice_screens_1.36583311_large.jpg 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Island Morning-glory – Calystegia macrostegia * Pacific Morning-glory – Calystegia purpurata ssp. purpurata © 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Pacific Morning-glory – Calystegia purpurata ssp. purpurata Pacific Morning-glory – like Island species  Coastal and foothill regions of CA  Size: slightly smaller and – more widely distributed than C. daintier than C. macrostegia macrostegia (coastal & Channel  6-8 ft long Isl.)  6-8 ft wide  Locally: Hollywood Hills, Griffith  Growth form: Park  Half-woody vine; base is  Grows in coastal sage scrub of woody, new growth is more the coastline and the chaparral of herbaceous (at least to beginhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Calystegia%20purpurata the coastal and inland valleys. with)  Upright but sprawling habit – in nature grows through other shrubs or on ground  Foliage:  Typical, arrow-shaped leaves  Color: medium to blue-green © 2009 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.homegardenguides.com/plant-database/calystegia-purpurata-ssp-purpurata-103165.html 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Love those flowers! Pacific Morning-glory does well in western L.A. County  Soils:  Blooms: late spring through  Texture: just about any, including summer – just when you need a clays little summer color!  pH: any local  Flowers:  Light:  Typical morning-glory shape  Full sun to part-shade (in hot, inland gardens)  Small – ½ to ¾ inch across  White or pink; sometimes  Water: purple  Young plants: Zone 2-3  Great for native pollinators  Winter: only during dry spells  Seeds: (when rains should normally occur)  Dark, round seeds in capsule  Summer: occasional water (Zone 2  Soak for 2 hr in warm water will keep it blooming) prior to planting in fall  Other: clean and prune to shape in fall/winter (dormant) © 2009 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2007 Neal Kramer I can see a Morning-glory in your garden ‘Bolinas’ cultivar rivals non-native  Along fence-lines; sprawling over walls or fences species  Over a pergola or arch – wouldn’t it be nice to sit and enjoy!  Larger, pastel  As an unusual flowering pink flowers groundcover – great on N and E- facing slopes  Delicate stems  Climbing through a large native shrub  Does well in  Climbing up a trellis – this species gardens won’t take over!  As an attractive & unique pothttp://queerbychoice.livejournal.com/627113.html plant © Project SOUND http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_c/calpurpurbol.html © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Can you relate to this photo? Many native vines like part-shade http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3625/3417180078_53e343bc10_o.jpg http://thebirdguide.com/washington/site_guides/tualatin_hills/tualatin_hills.htm http://www.sanfranciscodays.com/photos/large/california-redwoods.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Plants have developed many strategies to What makes a vine a vine? get light when competing with other plants.  Some grow enormously tall  Some latch onto branches in the canopy  Some grow in openings.  One group, the vines, http://science.howstuffworks.com/cabbage-info.htm http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/Gardeners/f0132.jpg http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Magnoliophyta/Magnolio psida/Fabales/Fabaceae/Pueraria_thunbergiana/Vine_MC_.html scramble or twine their  Often grow in shady/part-shade areas – like forests or way to the light using dense shrublands larger and sturdier plants  Developed a growth pattern that allows them to reach the for support. light under crowded conditions:  Fast growth – allows it to reach the sun quickly in life  Long inter-nodes – long elongation allows it to grow uphttp://wildgardeners.blogspot.com/2007/12/forest-or-woodland-garden.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Native vines for shady areas  Regular water (Zone 2-3 to 3)  Orange Honeysuckle  Other vines from the Pacific http://farm1.static.flickr.com/201/483149920_2302dd7aac.jpg?v=0 Northwest  Occasional water (Zone 2) Twining habit: plant senses the supporting structure – differential  Other native honeysuckles growth explains the twining  Climbing Penstemon Specialized structures:  Native Peas (Lathyrus)  Tendrils – typical of Pea family, grapes  Hold-fasts – typical of Ivy, Virginia Creeper, other wall-climbing vines © Project SOUND http://kinsellandscape.com/Project_Samples/Gardens/GardenArbor1p.jpg © Project SOUND The Honeysuckles (Lonicera species) Honeysuckles (Lonicera species)  Arching shrubs or twining vines  Lonicera: named for Adam Lonitzer  Family Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle (1528-1586), a German herbalist, physician and botanist who wrote a family) standard herbal text that was  Native to the Northern Hemisphere. reprinted many times between 1557  ~ 180 species, mostly from China (~ and 1783 100 species); ~ 20 native to N.  Foliage of many species used America. medicinally  Common garden vines:  Hummingbirds love the flowers !!!!.  Lonicera periclymenum (European Honeysuckle)  The fruit is a red, blue or black  Lonicera japonica (Japanese berry containing several seeds; in Honeysuckle, White Honeysuckle) most species the berries are mildly  Lonicera sempervirens (Coral poisonous, but a few have edible Honeysuckle, Trumpet Honeysuckle) berries, and birds will eat most honeysuckle species’ berries.  Many species have sweetly-scented, bell-shaped flowers that produce a  The foliage is eaten by the larvae sweet, edible nectar. of some butterfly & moth species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 * Orange Honeysuckle – Lonicera ciliosa * Orange Honeysuckle – Lonicera ciliosa © 2008 Matt Below http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Lonicera&Species=ciliosa © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Orange Honeysuckle – Lonicera ciliosa Orange Honeysuckle - a twining vine  A plant of the Pacific Northwest – British Columbia to Northern CA and  Size: east to Montana  to 15+ ft long  North slopes and creek and river  Growth form: banks, mostly in moist forested areas  Semi-woody vine/climbing shrub  Creeping, trailing, climbing or twining habit – usually grows http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/Lonicera_ciliosa.html through other plantshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2874,2877,2879  Old vines can kill trees – kind of like a boa constrictor  Foliage:  Medium to dark green, paired simple leaves  Winter deciduous  Roots: trailing stems will root http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Lonicera&Species=ciliosa © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database where they touch the©ground Project SOUND http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Lonicera&Species=ciliosa 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Flowers are fantastic Orange Honeysuckle is for shady gardens…  Blooms: in spring - usually May-  Soils: June in our area  Texture: just about any  pH: any including slightly acidic  Flowers: (under pines, firs)  Usually red-orange; may be more yellow-orange  Light: light shade to quite shady;  Trumpet-shape – typical of this is a forest plant the Honeysuckles  Water:  In very showy clusters – this plant is a show-stopper in  Winter: can take some flooding bloom  Summer: likes moist soil – Zone  Hummingbirds love them!! 2-3 or even 3  Berries:  Fertilizer: likes organic amendments/ richer soils © 1997 John Game  Other: cannot take heat http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Lonicera&Species=ciliosa © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/Lonicera_ciliosa.html Orange Honeysuckle lights up dark corners of the garden For garden vines, use  As an attractive pot plant a native alternative…  In a woodsy garden – like many of our ‘mature’ gardens  Sprawling over a wall or fence  As a groundcover under trees that need regular water  Any other place that is http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Lonicera&Sp shady and gets a little ecies=ciliosa Cape Honeysuckle - Tecomaria capensis regular water Native to Australia Orange Honeysuckle – Lonicera ciliosahttp://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/ofp/lon_cil.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 ‘Hate it with a Passion’ vine  Throughout the United States and Canada, many other invasive species of vines are choking out native vegetation and harming wildlife.  Some nurseries still sell several of these villains—such as oriental bittersweet, porcelain berry, English ivy and Chinese wisteria—to unsuspecting gardeners.  Most botanists believe that you can help keep this ecological nightmare from getting any worse by planting only native vines.  In the process, you will add eye- catching, flowering plants to your Don’t plant it – the Gulf Fritillaries will yard that will help you attract birds, butterflies, bees, moths and even get by just fineEnglish Ivy – Gardena some small mammals.Willows Wetland Preserve © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Invasive alien vines –DO NOT PLANT Alien Honeysuckles – the “bad boys” of  Japanese Honeysuckle - Lonicera invasive vines japonica  Cape ivy - Delairea odorata (Senecio mikanioides)  Japanese Honeysuckle - Lonicera japonica  English ivy, Algerian ivy - Hedera helix & H. canariensis  Amur Honeysuckle - Lonicera maackii Cape Ivy  Bridal creeper - Asparagus asparagoides  Blue Morning-glory - Ipomoea indica  Very invasive- remove by cutting, flaming, or burning  Chinese Creeper; ‘Mile-a-minute’ the plant to root level and vine -Mikania micrantha repeating on two-week increments until nutrient  Passion Vines - Passiflora species reserves in the roots are depleted  Nasturtium - Tropaeolum majus Bridal Creeper © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 California honeysuckles are not Arches can add mystery – aggressive vigorous vines… and increase the ‘size’ - of small gardens  It’s the non-native species that completely engulfing chain link fences – and give our native species a bad reputation.  CA native species tend to be more like open shrubs that couldnt quite stand up on their own and needed to hold onto a few of their neighbors. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lovedaylemon/3710741760/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDOur two locally native Honeysuckles Pink Honeysuckle – Lonicera hispidula var. vacillans Purple (Pink) Honeysuckle Lonicera hispidula var. vacillans Santa Barbara & Southern Honeysuckles Lonicera subspicata vars. denudata & subspicata © 2001 Steven Thorsted © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 A honeysuckle with pink flowers… * Chaparral Honeysuckle – Lonicera interrupta  Blooms Apr-July  Pink-lavender and white flowers – typical Honeysuckle  Flowers in showy clusters at ends of flowering stalks  Flowers are scented  Provide a good nectar source for hummingbirds, bees & butterflies http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/hairyhoneysuckle.html © 2008 Chris Winchell © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Native Honeysuckles are all similar-looking * Chaparral Honeysuckle – Lonicera interrupta  Size:  Native to foothills from S. OR to  6-10+ ft tall & wide AZ and into N. Mexico  Growth form:  Dry slopes, ridges, mixed forest  Sprawling deciduous to 6000’ shrub/vine  Plants stout & woody at base  Chaparral, yellow pine forest, – become many-branched often in shade of trees/shrubs above  Long, flexible stems used in basketry  Foliage:  Leaves typical for Honeysuckle – paired, simple,http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Lonicera+interrupta rounded, medium-green  Roots: roots easily where stems touch soil © Project SOUND © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/honeysi5.htm © Project SOUND 16
  17. 17. 1/6/2013 Flowers are the most Honeysuckles are yellow of the natives relatively easy to propagate from seed  Blooms:  Mid-spring to mid-summer  Remove seeds from fruits  Usually May-June in our area  Flowers:  Use fresh seed for best germination – often will need  Typical Honey-suckle shape no cold treatment, but test  Color is a bright, clear yellow germination with a few seeds  Many clusters of flowers – showy in bloom  Soak seeds 24 hr before  Kids of all ages love to suck planting the ‘honey’ (nectar) from the flowers  Stored seed then needs cold-  Hummingbird pollinated moist treatment for 1-2 mo.  Birds love the fruits (use coffee filter; place in open plastic bag in refrigerator – check for germination) © Project SOUND Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND© 2008 Chris WinchellRooting honeysuckle  The best time is when new growth cuttings is easy! starts to appear in the spring (if there is green growth, you can do itmost Chaparral Honeysuckle takes drier conditions… anytime of the year)  Soils:  Cut a length of green, “semi-soft wood" growth from the end of the vine  Texture: very adaptable – one of - be sure to get several sets of leaves. the better for gardens  pH: any local pH  Strip off the leaves nearest the cut end. Leave one or two leaf nodes bare  Light: full sun (on coast) to part- and one or two sets of leaves left on shade; excellent in dappled shade the vine.  Water:  At this point you have a couple of  Winter: takes quite wet, including a options. little floodingYou will soon (1-2 weeks) see  Dip the cutting in rooting hormone and  Summer: drought tolerant (Zone 1-the new roots forming, and place it in damp potting soil or other 2) but better as Zone 2; can evenwhen you have several good rooting medium. take Zone 2-3 in well-drained soilsroots (an inch or so long) youare ready to plant your new  Place the cutting in a vase of water and  Fertilizer – best with an organicHoneysuckle vine! allow the roots to develop - change the mulch – it’s a Chaparral plant water regularly to prevent rot. http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/chaparralhoneysuckle.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 17