1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                            A...
1/7/2013      Anna’s Hummingbird                                                                                          ...
1/7/2013    Flowers that depend on the hummingbird for    pollination do all they can to please and attract    Hummingbird...
1/7/2013                       Tests for clay soil: Feel Tests                                                            ...
1/7/2013                  Are also common in                    Gardening in clay soils is differentLoam Soils         So...
1/7/2013Benefits of CA native plants in clay soils                      Amending clay soils: yes or no?                   ...
1/7/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/7/2013                                                                                              Flowers are fantasti...
1/7/2013                  Other Ribes for clay soils                                                    The keys to succee...
1/7/2013                         Provide adequate drainage before                                                         ...
1/7/2013       Rigid Woodmint is a good example of a shady                                                                ...
1/7/2013                                                                                           Planting in clay soils:...
1/7/2013                 * Rose (Chaparral) Snapdragon – Sairocarpus                                                      ...
1/7/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/7/2013 * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylos densiflora                           * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylo...
1/7/2013                                                    Flowers: small but showy                                      ...
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes
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Hummingbird Gardening in Clay Soil - notes

  1. 1. 1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden A Hummingbird Garden in Clay Soils C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with South Bay Native Plants May 2 & 5, 2009 Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND American bird artist, John James Audubon, called California is a migratory route or year round residence for hummingbirds "glittering garments of the rainbow." at least six members of the hummingbird family, more than any other state in the U.S. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/7/2013 Anna’s Hummingbird Allen’s Hummingbird  Common in brushy woods, gardens & meadows of coastal California  Male highly aggressive and territorial. Hot- tempered despite its diminutive stature, a male Allens Hummingbird will chase other males from its territory, as well as any other hummingbird species  Eats mainly nectar (occasionally eating spiders and insects it finds in flowers). The spiders and insects provide a source of  Feeds on a variety of flowers as well protein. as insects and spiders - eats more arthropods than most hummingbirds.  Need nectar sources with high amounts of sugar to support their incredibly high  Particularly likes Salvia species, metabolisms.Known for its red head. (Sage), particularly HummingbirdThese feathers are only Sage (Salvia spathacea).  Must visit approximately one thousandvisible at a certain angle. flowers per day and needs to consumeThis allows the male Annas  Likes to get a drink on hot days.Hummingbird to hide when more than twice its own weight in nectarhe needs to and show off  They especially like bird baths that each day.when it suits him. drip so they can hover and sip water as it runs over the edge.  Has very general nesting requirements - will http://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds  They will also perch on the edge and nest in trees, shrubs, or herbs. Nests are /Hummingbirds/Annas_Hummingbird/An drink as other birds do but they only very small and tightly woven cups. sit still for a minute nas_Hummingbird.htm http://identify.whatbird.com/obj/167/_/An nas_Hummingbird.aspx http://hummingbirds.arizona.edu/Web%20pictures/Allens%20male_salal_Melton.png © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.shawcreekbirdsupply.com/allens_hummingbird_map.htm Like humans, hummingbirds require water for The hummingbird habitat: not just pretty refreshment, bathing and drinking as part of their red flowers… habitat.  In nature, hummingbirds like to take a bath  A hummingbird-friendly on a cupped leaf or a shallow pool, or take a “rainbath”. garden requires five key elements to provide good  In the garden, the best water for hummingbirds is moving water. hummingbird habitat  Misters emit a fine mist of water when attached to a garden hose. Placing a mister  Nectar-producing flowers so that the mist falls against the foliage of a tree or plant will create a situation where  Insects hummingbirds have multiple opportunities to use the feature http://www.morrocoastaudubon.org/pics/alhumas.jpg  Water  Another good source of hummingbird water is a dripper – simply a hose with a tight valve that allows a very slow, rhythmic drip into a  Perching places reservoir of water. These are often attached to bird baths. Hummingbirds may drink from  Nest sites either the drip or the reservoir and will occasionally bathe in the reservoir © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/7/2013 Flowers that depend on the hummingbird for pollination do all they can to please and attract Hummingbirds.  Their blossoms project into the open where the birds won’t get caught in the foliage.  Their trumpet shapes accommodate their long bills, and discourage other insects.  Since Hummingbirds have no ability to smell, the flowers do not need to be scented.  Flowers often red or orange to attract hummingbirds visually - their inquisitive male Rufous Hummingbird on Oregon Grape©Donald Jedlovec nature quickly leads them to investigate any possible new source of food  They tend to have very high sugarHumming-bird pollinated plants content to their nectar – higher than forand their pollinators evolved bee- or butterfly-pollinated plantstogether – “co-evolution” © Project SOUND © Project SOUND What is a clay soil? Most gardeners know if they have clay soil  Soil: a combination of sand,  If your soil sticks to silt, clay, minerals and organic matter that also shoes and garden contains some air and water. tools like glue, forms big clods that arent  Clay soils are sometimes referred to as heavy soils easy to separate, and and sandy soils are called crusts over and cracks in dryhttp://www.soilsensor.com/soiltypes.aspx light. weather, you have  To be classified as clay soil, it should be made up of clay. about 50% clay particles, the finest particles found in soil. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.your-healthy-gardens.com/soil.html 3
  4. 4. 1/7/2013 Tests for clay soil: Feel Tests Tests for clay soil: sedimentation test  Fill a quart jar 2/3 full with  Rub a sample of soil between your water fingers.  Sandy soil is rough and gritty and  Add dry soil (break up clods) breaks up easily. until water is within 1” of top  Clay soil is sticky and feels like of jar. plastic.  Put the lid on the jar and  Silt is in between - much smaller shake it energetically until particles than sand and it feels slippery when wet. everything is swirling around. Then set it aside and let it  Squeeze a sample of moist soil settle, and mark layers until  A heavy clay soil will form a solid the water clears. lump that is difficult to crumble when its squeezed together. You  The layers indicate just how http://home.howstuffworks.com/soil-texture-and-structure.htm http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/la/la_001.cfm can form a ‘rope’ or ‘ribbon’ much sand, silt and clay make First, take a handful of  Its hard to get sandy soil to form a up your soil. lump and it crumbles easily. moist soil and feel it. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDThe sedimentation  Sand Layer: settles in 1-2 minutes  Very common in certain areas of S.process  Allow suspended soil to settle for about a Clay soils CA, particularly around urban areas minute. where fill soils have been used to  Mark the side of the jar at the top of establish grade in subdivisions and the layer that has settled out. developments.  Silt Layer: settles in 1 hour  Clay soils are typically comprised of  Set jar aside, being careful not to mix approximately 0 - 45% sand, 0 - the sand layer; wait ~ an hour. 45% silt and 50 - 100% clay by  Mark the top of the Silt Layer on the volume. side of the jar.  Clay soils are not typically free  Clay layer: settles in ~24 hours draining, and water tends to take a  Set jar aside, being careful not to shake long time to infiltrate. or mix the layers that have settled out.  After 24 hours, or when the water is  When wet, such soils tend to allow clear (more or less), mark the jar at the virtually all water to run-off. The percentage of top of the clay layer. each layer tells you  Clay soils tend to be heavy and what kind of soil you  Most of the organic matter will be difficult to work when dry. have. floating on the top of the water 50% clay particles © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/7/2013  Are also common in Gardening in clay soils is differentLoam Soils Southern California, particularly in the valleys and flat areas (flood plains) surrounding rivers and streams.  Loam soils are typically comprised of approximately 25 - 50% sand, 30 - 50% silt and 10 - 30% clay by volume.  Loam soils are somewhat heavier than sandy soils  Tend to be fairly free draining, again, due to typically low organic  The old CA garden philosophy: amend the heck out of it1:1:1 soils content.  The new CA Garden philosophy: what plants will do well in my clay soil? How do I manage my asset (clay soil)? © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The keys to succeeding with clay soils (in The benefits of clay soils are real… my experience) are:  They retain soil moisture well – you won’t have to  Leaving the soil alone as water as often much as possible  They usually retain  Timing: nutrients better than  When to plant sandy soils  When to water  Many trees & shrubs  Plant Choice: (particularly CA natives)  Plants adapted to clay soils grow well in clay soils  Exact choice depends on drainage qualities of your  Trees often develop soil better root system – less likely to topple over  Mulch/ground-covers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/7/2013Benefits of CA native plants in clay soils Amending clay soils: yes or no?  No need to ‘turn the soil’ each year – associated with problems  The best way to amend is with of compaction composted organic material  If you plant soils native to your  Good/necessary choice for: area, they are adapted to your  Vegetable gardens local soil – whatever the soil may  Non-native plants be  Problems (for native plants)  No need for expensive (and  May change soil pH backbreaking) adding of amendments & fertilizers  Increases nutrient levels – may be too high for many natives  Most native plants (esp. trees and shrubs) have strong roots;  Not needed – many natives are fine with many clay soils penetrate most clays just fine © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDA better choice: add a little topography Contouring for water management and conservation  Small elevation changes (1-3 ft.) in a landscape can work wonders:  Provide a greater range of Water Zones: high areas will be drier – low areas wetter  Allow local native plants to be grown in clay soils – provide better drainage  Allow good use of seasonal rainfall – channel rainwater into depressions (water gardens) or swales © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/7/2013 *Hillside Gooseberry – Ribes californicum var. hesperium Shady, slightly wetter areas http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ribescalifornicum.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND *Hillside Gooseberry – Ribes californicum var. hesperium Moderate sized shrub  Hills of the Transverse Ranges – that can be trained Ventura to Orange Co.  Size:  Locally: Santa Monica Mtns  3-6+ ft tall  San Gabriels  4-6+ ft wide  Mostly in canyons, shaded areas that  Growth form: get a little extra moisture  Woody shrub  Drought-deciduous; also often http://picasaweb.google.com/Julia.Green.67/SmithRiverFloraFauna#5071202037998081666 winter deciduous  Arched/mounded form  Foliage:  Leaves typical for currants/gooseberries  Bright to dark green; shinyhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4450,4451,4458,4460  Bark: red-brown  Dense enough to provide cover for birds  Note prickles – be sure you locate in the right place!  Roots: bind soils well http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2009/02/some-pictures-from-3-mile-hike-on.html © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/ericinsf/3406541076/ © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/7/2013 Flowers are fantastic The real treats (for humans & others) are the berries  Blooms:  Humans, birds &  Early spring - usually Jan- Mar. in our area others will vie for  All Ribes provide good early them! flowers: pretty color & nectar source  Consider the possibilities:  Flowers:  Jellies  Almost fuschia-like  Pink/purple & white  Juices  Small, but in clusters – &  Sorbets lots of them  Wine  Great hummingbird magnet  Etc. – they guard them! http://www.flickr.com/photos/ken-ichi/2336897514/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/repetti/175661922/http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_r/ribcal.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/hummingbird.html Hillside Gooseberry does well in many clay Garden uses for native Gooseberries and Currantssoils…  Soils:  As an attractive pot plant – large  Texture: just about any; sandy pot or planter to well-drained clays  pH: any local  As a background shrub,  Light: particularly in a habitat garden  Does best with afternoon shade or dappled shade  For a hedge or screen  Water:  In a woodland garden  Young plants: regular water  Under trees – be sure they have  Winter: takes some flooding the same water requirements  Summer:  likes moist soil (Zone 2-3 or 3);  As an accent plant – can be will lose leaves otherwise pruned for a formal look  No overhead water in warm periods – fungal disease  Espaliered along a wall or fence http://www.calflora.net/favoritephotos/images/hillsidegooseberry7.jpg  Fertilizer: organic mulch; keep away  In an edible garden from trunk © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/randomtruth/3254808068/ © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/7/2013 Other Ribes for clay soils The keys to succeeding with clay soils (in my experience) are:  Leaving the soil alone as much as possible  Timing:  When to plant Golden Currant – R. aureum Chaparral Currant - R. malvaceum  When to water  Plant Choice:  Plants adapted to clay soils  Exact choice depends on drainage qualities of your soil  Mulch/ground-covers White-flowered Currant – R. indecorum Fuschia-flowered Gooseberry - R. speciosum © Project SOUND © Project SOUND How good is the drainage in your clay Loam soil that doesn’t drain? soil? – conduct a ‘perc test’ ‘Claypans’ & ‘Plowpans’  What are they?  Soil texture/Drainage  Impermeable layers within the soil – usually high in clays Soil type Approximate time to drain  Cause water to drain very slowly – ‘vernal pools’ Hard-pan or days sodic soils  What causes them? Clay 3-12 hours  Natural causes: due to dig hole 1 ft x 1 ft Loam 20-60 minutes natural sedimentation in Sandy Loam 10-30 minutes areas once covered by water fill with water and let drain Sand cant fill the  Compaction/plowing: leaves an fill hole again, measure hole, drains area that is permenantly time for water to drain too fast http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/lectsupl/Soil/soil.html compacted © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/7/2013 Provide adequate drainage before Bugle (Rigid) Hedgenettle (Wood Mint) – planting in soils with claypan. Stachys rigida (ajugoides)  Create a sump by augering one or more holes, each 1 to 4 inches in diameter, through impermeable soil or hardpan. Auger down at least 3 feet or deeper if necessary to penetrate to more permeable soil. Fill the holes with pea gravel or sandy loam soil before planting.  Dig planting hole down through the claypan or compacted layer  Or just plant natives that can take the extra moisture http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/GARDEN/ENVIRON/sitepreparation.html © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College http://home.howstuffworks.com/how-to-plant-trees-shrubs-and-vines.htm/printable © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Bugle (Rigid) Hedgenettle (Wood Mint) – The Mint family (Lamiaceae) Stachys rigida (ajugoides)  Includes many herbs used in cooking & perfumery; Rosemary, French Lavender,  West coast from WA to Thyme, Majoram, Sage, and the garden mints Baja – local var. (rigida)  Are usually aromatic, but not necessarily more coastal minty  Loved by hummingbirds!  Grows in moist places:  The stems are square with opposite leaves, with each pair of leaves at right angles to the  Damp bottomlands ones above and below it.  Along creeks and streams  The flowers are in whorls – riparian areas  Near marshes  The corolla of the individual flower is usually 2-lipped, with 2 lobes forming the upper lip var. rigida  Other moist low ground, and 3 lobes the lower lip. including roadside ditches Many members of Lamiaceae  The hedgenettle genus Stachys is a mint – make attractive garden only superficially resembles “nettles” - so additions, particularly the “Wood Mint” is really a better name showy sages and mints.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Stachys+ajugoides+var.+rigida © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/7/2013 Rigid Woodmint is a good example of a shady Specimens from further north are more wetland perennial plant colorful  Modest size: 1-3 ft high and wide  Colors range from magenta  Does well in part shade; full shade in to pale pink hot areas – would do well under trees  Unclear what proper taxonomy is – much  Requires moist soil most/all of the year to succeed – regular water in current debate the garden  Blooms in summer – nectar source for bees, butterflies and hummingbirds; also seed-eaters http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/Faculty/Carr/ofp/sta_rig.htm  Spreads by rhizomes (underground stems) – good groundcover in damp areas of the garden – cut back yearly to keep in checkhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/rigidhedgenettle.html George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Other local Woodmints also make great Rigid Woodmint can be a useful addition groundcovers in clay soils to the shade garden  Small irrigated perennial borders – size is modest, so good scale for small area  Bog or seep gardens with Just trim back, Rushes, Spikerush, Mimulus even drastically, guttatus, Ranunculus in Fall to keep californicus, Verbena plants in check lasiostachys  Groundcover for damp, shady areas  Near ponds  Great in well-watered planters, pots © Project SOUND Stachys albens Stachys bullata © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/7/2013 Planting in clay soils: follow a few simple And don’t forget Hummingbird Sage…. rules & you’ll succeed  Never work clay soils when they are soggy wet or bone dry; ditto for walking on wet clays  Plant after the first fall rains (best) or wet the ground thoroughly  Let ground dry out (1-2 weeks depending on drainage)  Dig a hole that’s not too big (or deep)  1 ft wider than tree/shrub (6” on each side)  Same depth as plant – rough up soil in bottom of hole  Consider digging hole with a spading fork rather than a shovel – or rough up the sides of the hole Salvia spathecea © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Planting in clay soils: follow a few simple rules & you’ll succeed Native plants with wide water tolerances often do well in clay soil gardens http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/la/la_001.cfm Don’t amend (or put gravel in) planting hole – encourages root rot Backfill with soil from the hole; break up any clods/clumps Firm down the soil around the roots If you create a moat around the plant, remove it in wet weather © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/7/2013 * Rose (Chaparral) Snapdragon – Sairocarpus * Rose Snapdragon – Sairocarpus multiflorus multiflorus (Antirrhinum multiflorum) (Antirrhinum multiflorum)  Foothills below 4000 ft. elevation  Generally on dry slopes, disturbed areas or burns  Usually in chaparral  Soil may be rocky  Other names: Multiflowered Snapdragon; Sticky Snapdragon; http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7177,7178,7187 Withered Snapdragon © 2002 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Rose Snapdragon Rose Snapdragon: is a fire-follower a sub-shrub  Size:  Common reasons why a plant is a fire-follower:  2-4 ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Seeds need either heat and/or smoke exposure  Growth form: to germinate  Perennial/sub-shrub  Plants need full sun  Bushy or mounded form  Plant need decreased  Foliage: competition for water/nutrients  Lance-shaped, blue-green leaves; larger below  Soil nutrient levels are  Semi-drought deciduous; increased; plants that need a little extra retained with a little summer nutrients may be fire- water followers http://www.santabarbarahikes.com/flowers/index.php?action=show_item&id=175&search=© 2006 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND Ó by Dave Hildebrand © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/7/2013  Soils: Flowers: delightful! Plant Requirements  Texture: tolerates wide range  Blooms: from sandy to clay  Spring into summer; usually  pH: any local Apr-June in our area  Light:  Blooms over several weeks  Full sun to part shade  Flowers:  Full sun fine in most gardens,  Snapdragon-type but flower color may be better with a little shade  Color: ranges form hot pink/magenta to pale pink,  Water: even lavender  Winter: needs good water  Flowers arrange snapdragon-  Summer: wide range of like along upright stems – tolerance – Zone 1-2 to 2-3; very showy good for transitional zones  Fragrant; loved by hummingbirds  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=60  Seeds: small; surface sow – let  Management: cut back to 12” in dry out a bit between watering http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antirrhinummultiflorum.jpg fall/winterhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/rosesnapdragon.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Pink Snapdragon – made for the garden Habitat : not just for nature preserves any more  In mixed perennial beds; good water tolerance  Our yards are  In native grasslands; or mixed with wildflowers a critical source of  Good choice on sunny hills and habitat for slopes birds, insects,  Wonderful habitat plant; other wildlife hummingbirds and others  As an attractive pot plant  Good showy choice to use as ‘cover’ while slower-growing http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Drummond_2009/index.html© 2006 Aaron Schusteff http://www.flickr.com/photos/deinandra/316812126/ shrubs are maturing © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/7/2013 * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylos densiflora * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylos densiflora  Endemic to Outer North Coast Ranges (Vine Hill, near Forestville, Sonoma Co.)  A common garden Manzanita – many cultivars of varying sizes http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Arctostaphylos+densiflora © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Vine Hill Manzanita is a winner..  Size:  4-8 ft tall (cultivars somewhat outside this range)  4-6+ ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub; actual form depends on local conditions  Cultivars range from tree-form to low groundcover  Moderate growth rate  Bark an attractive red-brown  Foliage:© 2001 David Graber  Evergreen  Leaves leathery, elliptic, Grows on unique shale outcrops http://www.elnativogrowers.com/images/Photos/arcdenhm_trunk.JPG upright, medium green http://farm1.static.flickr.com/171/419662011_8048513537.jpg?v=0 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/7/2013 Flowers: small but showy The berries are edible  Blooms:  Late winter/early spring;  Loved by fruit-eating birds usually Feb.-Apr in W. L.A. like Cedar Waxwings, Co. Mockingbirds, etc.http://www.flickr.com/photos/ericinsf/3356240703/  Flowers: http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantprofiles/Arcto_HowardMcMinn.htm  Can be used to make a drink  Small urn-shaped flowers or juice reminiscent of typical of Manzanitas apple cider (manzanita is,  Shell-pink or white after all, ‘little apple’)  Many flowers in dense, showy clusters – a real  Also makes a nice jelly or show-stopper syrup  Hummingbirds love them © Project SOUND © Project SOUND© 2006 Steve Matson An adaptable Manzanita  Soils: Vine Hill manzanita  Texture: quite adaptable – more so than other Manzanitas  Train as an attractive tree – takes clay soils  Use as a large accent shrub  pH: any local; slightly acidic is  Shear as a formal hedge – or leave it best more informal  Light:  Some cultivars even make nice  Full sun to part-shade evergreen groundcovers http://www.nativeson.com/images/plants/arctostaphylossunset.jpg  Water:  Winter: tolerates seasonal flooding  Summer: likes to be fairly dry – Zone 1-2 to 2 once established  Fertilizer: likes poor soils; fine with organic mulch http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/arcdenhm.htm © Project SOUND ‘Howard McMinn’ cultivar © Project SOUND 16