Hospitable habitat 2010


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This lecture was given in February, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’. This lecture discusses how to provide habitat for native reptiles and ground dwelling/feeding birds.

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Hospitable habitat 2010

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Hospitable HabitatProviding for Ground-living Creatures C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve February 7th & 10th, 2010 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What makes for good lizard habitat? © Project SOUND
  4. 4. First, you need to know a little bit about the lizards you can hope to attract  Southern Alligator Lizard  Western Fence Lizard  California Legless LizardThe trick is to supply a safe environment that provideswhat they need to thrive – in short a habitat © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Southern Alligator LizardElgaria multicarinata webbii © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Alligator Lizard is well-named  Large, smooth scales  Long alligator-like snout  Longitudinal fold on each side of the body © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Take on color of their surroundings  Size:  Up to seven inch body  May have a tail nearly twice the length of its body, makinghttp://www.wildherps.com/species/E.multicarinata.html the largest individuals 21 inches from end to end.  A regenerated tail is shorter and usually a different color from the rest of its body.  Coloration:  Varies from brown to yellow ochre.  Adults are marked with dark crossbands, while juveniles are not.  Newly molted individuals can be very brightly colored © Project SOUND
  8. 8. © 2004 Pierre Fidenci Alligator Lizards, especially the males, have large, triangular- shaped heads, giving them a formidable appearance. The large head and long, snake-like body make a chance encounter in the woodpile, or under a shrub, startling, to say the least. They can bite – but they don’t really want to © Project SOUND
  9. 9.  The Southern Alligator Lizards range extends from WA to central Baja California. In southern California Alligator lizards are found in almost any natural habitat in California (except most of the deserts and very high elevations.) but most frequently throughout the coastal plains Active during daylight, they are frequently seen moving on the ground, and occasionally up in bushes. They are also often found underneath debris, beach driftwood, and near human settlements. Alligator lizards do not typically bask in the sun out in the open or on top of a rock like many other lizard species. They seem to prefer sunny spots with some cover nearby. © Project SOUND
  10. 10.  The Southern Alligator Lizard is often seen in yards and gardens, sometimes out in the open or in the garage, but usually under piles of wood, rock, or other debris. Dont be surprised to find them on your porch or patio – or garage. Their diet includes various insects, small animals such as young mice and birds, tree frogs, and even other lizards. Eats a variety of small invertebrates. Will also eat small lizards and small mammals. Feed mainly on arthropods, snails, and occasionally eggs After the May mating season, up to 20 eggs can be laid in June or July. The incubation period is about 55 days, after which the hatching yields tiny individuals, rarely more than three inches long from nose to tail. © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Guidelines for creating habitat for ground-dwellers Provide dense shrub/grass cover –perching, cover & nest sites Provide a brush pile/logs for cover © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Atriplex (Saltbush) species provide excellent habitat © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Saltbushes : Habitat plants par excellance!  Foliage  Attract beneficial insects to the garden - lacewings, ladybugs, and hoverflies  Many weird and fun insects – good plants for insect-watching  Attract butterflies (larval food for some sootywing skippers)  Fall/winter/spring browse for deer, elk  Dense cover for birds, rabbits, just about any ground-dweller  Seeds  Very nutritious food source – high in protein  Eaten by many creatures (including humans): don’t fertilize if you plant tohttp://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/atrlen/plant.jpg eat them – takes up & stores many metals © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Coast Quailbush - Atriplex lentiformis (ssp. breweri) © Project SOUND
  15. 15. * Four-wing Saltbush – Atriplex canescens http://www.perennialfavoritesnursery.com/native_a-f.html © Project SOUND
  16. 16. * Four-wing Saltbush – Atriplex canescens  A plant of western U.S.  Dry places from N. Dakota to Mexico  Usually in deserts or dry shrublands/steppe, short-grass prairie  In CA, in dry foothills, deserts http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242100016 (Great Basin, Mojave & Sonoran)  Locally in dry foothills of the San Gabriel’s – interior Coastal Sage Scrub (Antelope Valley; Sunland)  Mojave Desert (Lancaster);  Wide range soils, temperature, etc. – very tough & adaptable  Several varietieshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3084,3089,3095 © Project SOUND
  17. 17. This is a plant you’ve no doubt seen….© 2004 Steven Perkins © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Four-wing Saltbush: manageable sized shrub  Size:  3-6 ft tall; usually 4-5  4-8 ft wide; can be pruned  Growth form: extremely variable  Mounded woody shrub; old wood very tough  Very densely branched  Quite long-lived – 50+ years  Foliage:  Gray-green; silvery with extruded salt; drought deciduous  Branches gray to white  Leaves small, leathery  Roots: long (to 40 ft) taproot + shallow laterals; very drought tol. – resents moving after established © Project SOUNDhttp://www.naturesongs.com/vvplants/saltbush.html
  19. 19. Flowers are understated…  Blooms: usually summer to late fall; may be as early as Apr. or as late as Nov.  Flowers:  Dioecious (separate male & female plants) but sometimes monoecious  Flowers remind of Artemisia; small flowers on stalks  Seeds:  If planting, be sure to keep dry seeds for 1 yr. ‘ripening’ to improve germination  Vegetative reproduction: sprouting from younger wood http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/other-plants/plant06.html Project SOUND ©http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Atriplex&Species=canescens
  20. 20. Seedpods, however, are showy  Dry pods remain on plants until stripped off by wind or eaten by animals – very nutritious  Pods have ‘4 wings’ – http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/other-plants/plant06.html hence the common name  Very unusual & can be showy in good years  1 large hard seed per pod  Role of fungi in germination process © Project SOUNDhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atriplex_canescens_inflor.jpg http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/a_canescens3.jpg
  21. 21. An easy care plant  Soils:  Texture: well-drained; sandy soils are best  pH: any local including alkali (pH 8.0-9.5)  Tolerates salty soils, water  Light:  Full sun to some shade  Water:  Winter: usually rain will suffice – don’t over-water  Summer: best in Zone 2 in gardens (occasional water) – needs to be under some water stress http://sep.csumb.edu/class/ESSP303/2008/plants.htm  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – too rich can killBranches are brittle – no foot traffic © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Pruning Saltbushes - easy  In the wild, are eaten back extensively by deer, elk, rabbits  In the garden, you are the browser – with your pruners http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atriplex_canescens_inflor.jpg  Trim back about 1/3 the length of branches in fall for a neat look  don’t cut back into old wood – prune like a Salvia  will rejuvenate the plant  Can also hedge-shear  For best habitat value, leave some branches at the base – i.e., leave it pruned as a shrub © Project SOUNDhttp://allergy.peds.arizona.edu/southwest/grass_weeds/wingscale.htm
  23. 23. Four-wing Saltbush used extensively in Southwestern  As a shrub in commercial plantings – low maintenance/little water  Excellent water-wise hedge  In plants with a desert planthttp://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Atriplex&Species=canescens palette – used like Salvias or Coyote Bush - silvery color  For erosion control  As a fire-retardant plant – with a little summer water  For re-claiming mine tailings & other environmental problems  Also used as dye plant (yellow & ‘Navajo Black’ & medicine (emetic) http://www.delange.org/FourwingSaltbush/FourwingSaltbush.htm © Project SOUND
  24. 24. KEEPING LIZARDS OUTDOORS To prevent lizards from entering the home, seal all openings 1/4 inch and larger.  Check areas such as corners of doors and windows, around water pipes, electrical service entrances, ventilation screens, water pipes, etc.  Tight-fitting door seals, with no gaps at the edges, are important prevention measures. Unlike rats and mice, lizards cannot gnaw through wood and other common building materials. A number of materials can be used to seal access points, including insulating foam, caulking, flashing, and steel wool. © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Lycium species – the Boxthorns -are also excellent habitat shrubs  Dense, thorny foliage – good for perching, hiding & nesting  Flowers  Fruits – eaten by birds, ground- dwellers – high in vitamin C (in Solanaceae, like tomatoes) © Project SOUND
  26. 26. California Boxthorn – Lycium californicum http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Lycium_californicum.html © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Right at home on the bluffs…  Fine with salty soils, salt-spray, high winds & blowing sand  Habitat is disappearing – on CNPS ‘rare’ watch list© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Wolfberry – Lycium andersonii© 2005 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Wolfberry – Lycium andersonii  Plant of Southwestern deserts and desert foothills  Locally in Mojave Desert – tho’ a report from PV  Dry, stony hills, mesas in deserthttp://www.graniteseed.com/seeds/seed.php?id=Lycium_andersonii and creosote bush scrub – usually along washeshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7636,7637 © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Charles Lewis Anderson, M.D. – a man with a passion for Nevada plants Name commemorates Charles Lewis Anderson, MD (1827- 1910). Anderson practiced medicine in Carson City NV during the years 1862-1867. Amazingly, in spite of all of his other endeavors, he found the time to pursue his lifelong interest in botany. He was one of the very first botanists to collect extensively in Nevada Many of the plants he collected turned out to be new to science when examined by Asa Gray of Harvard, to whom Anderson sent all his Nevada specimens. Anderson wrote the first flora of Nevada, and in its introduction observed: "the country is as rich in vegetable novelties as it is at all times in mineral wealth." © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Wolfberry is a typical Boxthorn – all quite similar looking  Size:  usually 4-6 ft tall; to 10-12 ft  to 10 ft wide; slow – probably long- lived, even in water-wise gardens  Growth form:  Mounded woody shrub  Very densely branched – good cover; thorns  Foliage:  Small, fleshy leaves – larger with some water  Very different look from other foliage – nice accent plant  Roots: deep; surface roots also – typicalGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences desert shrub; re-sprouts after fire or major damage/pruning © Project SOUND
  32. 32. http://www.schweich.com/imagehtml/IMGP2394sm.html © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Flowers make the desert bloom Blooms: in spring (Mar-May); depends on timing of winter rains Flowers:  Purple to white  Small – but very nice shape & lots of them - showy  Good hummingbird plant © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Fruits – think tomato  Were used extensively as food by native desert peoples: only eat fully ripe fruits  Raw  Dried – raisin fashion  Cooked for a sauce  Dried and used as flavoring for soups, stews  Dried as a ‘leather’  Very high in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio- active compounds. Fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit.  Birds and small animals eathttp://www.nps.gov/plants/sos/bendcollections/images/Lycium%20andersonii_JPG.jpg fruits & seeds – desert packrats store them © Project SOUND
  35. 35.  Soils: Easy to grow with  Texture: must be well-drained – benign neglect sandy or gravelly is best  pH: any local is fine  Fine with salty soils, water, maritime exposures  Light:  Full sun is best  Will take light shade (or some afternoon shade) in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: rains usually suffice; don’t over-water in clay soils  Summer: quite drought tolerant; looks best in Zone1-2http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Lycium_andersonii to 2 in garden setting  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – remember, it’s a desert plant © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Garden uses for Boxthorns  Water-wise hedges  As an accent plant; flowers & foliage, red fruits  As a container plant  As all-round good habitat© 1998 Larry Blakely plants: food, cover, nest sites. © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Western Fence Lizard - Sceloporus occidentalis longipes © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Fence Lizards are sometimes called ‘Bluebellies’  2-4 inch body (snout-vent length); total length of about 8-9 inches  Brown to black in color (the brown may be sandy or greenish)  Most distinguishing character is their bright blue belly; ventral side of the limbs are yellow.  Also have a blue patch on their throat. This bright coloration is faint or absent in both females and juveniles. Gold-speckled one from PV © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Probably our most commonly seen lizard  Found in a wide variety of open, sunny habitats, including woodlands, grasslands, scrub, chaparral, forests, along waterways, next to ponds, and around suburban dwellings.  Diurnal. Often seen basking in the sun on rocks, downed logs, trees, fences, and walls.  Active when temperatures are warm, becomes inactive during periods of extreme heat or cold. Probably active all year when temperatures are favorable and there is sun for basking.http://www.wildherps.com/species/S.occidentalis.html © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Some people are a little afraid of lizards…  The Western fence lizard eats beetles, flies, caterpillars, ants, other insects, and spiders.  If youre bigger than the lizard, it is a friend. - If the lizard is bigger than you....run! © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Interesting fact…lizards are indeed our friends  Western Fence Lizards may reduce the incidence of Lyme Disease in their range! It has recently been discovered that when infected ticks feed on the blood of these lizards, the Lyme disease spirochetes they carry are destroyed. In areas with Western Fence Lizards, about 5 percent of ticks carry the disease, while in other areas 50 percent of ticks harbor the disease. —Reported by the NY Times News Service, April 19, 1998. © Project SOUND
  42. 42. A word about cats.. http://hannahgreenfield.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/bobcat.jpg http://www.pbase.com/griff42/image/48377834  Western Fence Lizards commonly sun themselves on paths, rocks, and fence posts, and other high places. Unfortunately, this behavior makes them an easy target to predation by snakes, birds, and even some mammals, like cats. They protect themselves by employing their fast reflexes, which is common in many other lizards. © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Guidelines for creating habitat Provide sunning spots – with cover close by Leave some areas relatively ‘human-free’ for most of the day © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Chamise – Adenostoma fasciculatum Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Chamise – Adenostoma fasciculatum  Foothills of CA south to Baja – including Channel Islands  Dry slopes & ridges; chaparral & mesas below 5,000 ft.  Most common chaparral species throughout the foothills and coastal mountains of California - present in ~ 70% ofhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Adenostoma+fasciculatum California chaparral.  Also called ‘Greasewood’ © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Typical Chaparral site with Chamise © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-fasciculatum
  47. 47. Chamise blooming in Santa Monica Mtns © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Chamise – a typical Chaparral shrub  Size:  6-10+ ft tall & wide  size really depends in water  Growth form:  Dense, mounded shrub – excellent cover plant for habitat  Many stiff branches; bark is red- brown (young) to peeling-gray (older wood) – wood ‘greasy’Steven Perkins @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Foliage:  Leaves needle-like – in bundles (fascicles) – hence the name ‘fasciculatum’  Aromatic; can be deciduous in drought  Roots: sprouts from a burl after fires – rejuvenation pruning © 2008 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Chamise and other Chaparral shrubs – born to burn  Small, dry, resinous leaves  Shreddy bark  Oily wood  Dead branches  Ability to re-sprout readily from a sprouting stem/root (the burl)© 2008 BonTerra ConsultingIn nature, Chamise burns every 10-40 years; stems older than about 50years are exceedingly rare, but individual plants may be quite old © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Flowers - really showy Blooms: any time from Feb-June; usually April-May in the Madrona Native Plant Garden Flowers:  Small, tubular white/cream flowers  5 petals – looks like member of Rose family  Blooms clustered on long flowering branches – literally 1000’s of blooms  Attracts insect pollinators Seeds:  Hard coats – require acid scarification or brief exposure to heat. © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Chamise is one  Soils:  Texture: any as long as it is tough shrub fairly well-draining  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun  Water:  Winter: don’t over-water  Summer: very drought tolerant, but better with occasional summer water (Zone 1-2 or 2) – keeps it green  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: pinch low-growing forms to keep low – will need severe pruning to rejuvenate – you’re the ‘fire’http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/chamise.html © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Chamise: might be right for your garden  Excellent choice for slopes – good erosion control  Brightens up an area in bloom  Nice background plant – interesting foliage shape, color  Can be hedged or used as a screen  Of course, a great cover plant for all sorts of ground- dwellers – birds, lizards, small mammals (rabbits, etc.).  Teas/salves from foliage/bark used for skin infections; branches for arrow shafts http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-fasciculatum © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-fasciculatum
  53. 53. Low-growing variety & cultivars make nice woody groundcovers  ‘Black Diamond’  Dark green foliage  Low-growing; can be used as a groundcover or bonsai ‘Black Diamond’  ‘San Nicolas’  Truly prostrate form from San Nicolas Islandhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/3358077566/in/set-72157621930969588/Adenostoma fasciculatum var. prostatum © Project SOUND
  54. 54. The California Towhee - Pipilo crissalis © 2007 Tom Greer tbphotos@comcast.net © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Identifying your CA Towhee  Length: 7.25 inches  Conical bill  Dark eye  Brown crown  Buffy throat© 2007 Ron Wolf  Black ring of spots on breast  Pale gray underparts  Brown upperparts  Rusty undertail coverts  Long tail  Juvenile (Spring to Fall)© 2008 Kim Cabrera heavily streaked below © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Habitat for CA Towhee Preferred habitats include shady underbrush, open woods, pinyon- juniper woodlands, and suburban gardens. Likes dense cover and leaf litter. Leaf litter is good for many birds as well as most California native plants. The California Towhee forages in the leaf litter by scratching, with both feet at once, in a fast hopping motion. They feed on seeds and insects within the leaf litter or occasionally on berries or seeds in bushes. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Guidelines for creating habitat Let native plants go to seed or fruit Leave leaf litter if possible. Provides a home for insects – food for ground-dwellers © Project SOUND
  58. 58. * Parajo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis© 1995 Dan Post © Project SOUND
  59. 59. * Parajo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis  Endemic to Santa Cruz and Monterey counties in the Monterey Bay region  Maritime chaparral on deep to shallow, sandy soils or sandstone outcroppings - sometimes on edges of Oak Woodlands  Used as one parent in several horticultural hybridhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Arctostaphylos+pajaroensis cultivars – very attractive foliage © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Parajo Manzanita – exceptionally attractive  Size:  4-8+ ft tall  6-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub/small tree  Mounded/sprawling to erect  Typical red bark  evergreen  Foliage:  Leaves dense, somewhat erect  Color: blue-green – with red- orange tips to new growth  Very attractive-looking © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Flowers are fantastic – of course!  Blooms: winter - usually Dec-Feb in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  Typical small flowers of manzanita – urn-shaped  Light to darker pink  Thousands at one time – this is among the showier flowerers  Hummingbird magnet  Fragrant!  Fruits:  Edible  Loved-by fruit-eaters of all sorts© 2004 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  62. 62.  Soils: Plant Requirements  Texture: likes a sandy soil – comes form N. CA coast  pH: very slightly acid best – 6.0- 7.0  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: don’t over-waterhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2994359348/  Summer: best with occasional water (Zone 1-2 or 2), but quite drought tolerant near coast  Fertilizer: none; use an organic mulch  Other: looks best with little pruning, but can be shaped – even kept below 3 ft. © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Parajo Manzanita is great for coastal gardens  Prune up for a small, dense tree – good nesting sites  Use as a specimen/accent shrub – very attractive year-round,http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pajaroensis-paradise-manzanita with sculptural shape  As an all-round habitat plant – winter nectar, fruits and cover- nest sites  Has an ‘old-fashioned look’ – perfect for Edwardian or Victorian garden  Nice addition to a scent garden © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2994359348/
  64. 64. ‘Sunset’  Hybrid - A. pajaroensis x A. hookeri ssp. hookeri  Very colorful new foliagehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/  Low-growing – to about 3-4 ft  Chosen for garden hardiness http://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2009_01_01_archive.html © Project SOUND
  65. 65. ‘Myrtle Wolf’  Naturally occurring cultivar  Particularly attractive http://botanicalgarden.berkeley.edu/waterwise/images/05_Arctostaphylos-cv-MWolf5.jpg  Bright/dark pink flowers  Light blue-green foliage  4-5 ft tall & wide  Takes a little more heat – good for hot bankshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/ © Project SOUND
  66. 66. ‘Paradise’  Naturally occurring cultivar from Regional Parks Botanic Garden  5-6 ft tall; 6-10 ft wide  Exceptional new foliage color  Needs very good drainagehttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_a/arcpajpar.html http://drystonegarden.com/ © Project SOUND
  67. 67. ‘Warren Roberts’  Very dense, blue-green foliage  Upright habit – good for small tree – 6 ft tall, 10 ft wide  Slate-blue/green foliage – really nice colorhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/ © Project SOUND
  68. 68. ‘Lester Rountree’  Hybrid: A. parajoensis X ? A. obispoensishttp://www.cactusjungle.com/blog/category/california-native-plants/page/2/  8-10 ft tall & wide  Open, sculptural growth habit  Light blue-green foliage – almost a gray-blue cast – nice as accent color © Project SOUNDhttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/84/268090756_f6a54c9577.jpg
  69. 69. California Legless Lizard - Anniella pulchra © Project SOUND
  70. 70. CA Legless Lizard is  A small (pencil-sized) slender lizard with no legs, a shovel- unique shaped snout, smooth shiny scales, and a blunt tail.  Sometimes confused for a snake, (which has no eyelids) but on close observation the presence of eyelids is apparent when this lizard blinks.  Dorsal coloration varies from metallic silver, beige, dark brown, to black. Ventral coloration varies from whitish to bright yellow.  Typically there is a dark line along the back and several thin stripes between scale rows along the sides where the dorsal and ventral colors meet, but variants Project SOUND © occur.
  71. 71. Legless Lizard Habitat – loose sandy soils Though common in some areas, this species is considered a species of special concern, and legal collecting is limited to one specimen per collector. This is a wide-ranging species common in drier, loose sandy soils, from inland foothills to coastal dunes. This species prefers cooler temperatures (60-65° F) and is rarely encountered above ground or near the surface in higher temperatures. © Project SOUND
  72. 72. If you have sandy soil, you may see the Legless Lizard in your garden http://www.wildherps.com/species/A.pulchra.html Forages in loose soil, sand, and leaf litter during the day. Sometimes found on the surface at dusk and at night. Apparently active mostly during the morning and evening when they rest beneath the surface of loose soil or leaf litter which has been warmed by the sun. Eats primarily larval insects, beetles, termites, and spiders. Conceals itself beneath leaf litter or substrate then ambushes its prey. Good Habitat: Leaf litter under trees and bushes in sunny areas. Often can be found under surface objects such as rocks, boards, driftwood, and logs. Can also be found by gently raking leaf litter under bushes and trees. Sometimes found in suburban gardens in Southern California. © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Three-lobe Sumac – Rhus trilobataUSDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E. et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSUExtension and Western Area Power Admin., Bismarck, ND. © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Three-lobe Sumac – Rhus trilobata  Naturally occurring:  Many areas of western N. America – Canada to Baja  Coastal and mountain areas of CA  In S. CA: coastal sage scrub, chaparral and southern oak woodland  Moist areas including stream-sides, seasonal drainages, and canyon bottoms  sand dunes and sand hills  dry rocky slopes  In same genus as Lemonade Berry, Sugar Bush & Poison Oak (which ithttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Rhus+trilobata resembles)  Also known as Basket-brush, Sumac, Sourberry, Skunkbrush © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Pretty in nature & at home….  Size:  3-4 ft tall, sometimes more  4-6 ft+ wide  Foliage:  Deciduous  Interesting leaf shape  Good fall color  Growth Form/Shape:  Many-branched  Rounded; mound-like; some variants are more low-lying  Spreads by rhizomes – but not aggressive  Can be pruned to very formal shape or left more open © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Three-lobed Sumac is loved by gardeners because it’s so easy to grow…  Soils: not too particular  Any texture; well-drained  Any pH  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Very drought tolerant when established  Can take some summer water – but may become leggy  Nutrients: fine with no fertilizer, but can tolerate light doses/organic mulches  Very hardy; takes a frost  Rapid growth first 3-5 years; then moderate  Lives 20-30 yearshttp://weather.nmsu.edu/nmcrops/ornamentals/SUMAC.htm © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Three-lobe Sumac pleases the palette…  Yellow flowers in spring  Butterflies & beeshttp://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Rhus_trilobata  Red berries in summer.html  Birds love them (many species  Make a tangy drink  Excellent for jelly  Can even eat them raw (tart)  Even the foliage is eaten occasionally by large & small animals Many parts of the plant are used for natural dyes © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Garden uses for Three-lobe Sumac  As an accent/specimen plant:  showy red berries in summer  Fall foliage (several months)  As a barrier plant For bank stabilization & alonghttp://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~plants-c/bio414/species%20pages/rhus%20trilobata.htm  streambeds  In a bird/animal habitat garden  As a windscreen or hedge  As a foundation plant  Along sunny walls  Just about any situation requiring a nice, medium-sized shrub http://www.nazflora.org/rhus_trilobata.htm © Project SOUND
  79. 79. White-crowned Sparrow - Zonotrichia leucophryshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-crowned_Sparrow © Project SOUND
  80. 80. White-crowned Sparrow - Zonotrichia leucophrys  Size & Shape  The White-crowned Sparrow is a large sparrow with a small bill and a long tail. The head can look distinctly peaked or smooth and flat, depending on the bird’s attitude.  Color Pattern  First impressions of White-crowned Sparrows tend to be of a plain, pale-gray bird; next your eye is drawn to the very bold black-and-white stripes on the head and the pale pink or yellow bill. Learn this birds size and shape so youre ready to identify young birds that have brown, not black, markings on the head. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/White-crowned_Sparrow/id
  81. 81. You likely have some White-crowns in your garden  They forage on the ground or in low vegetation, but sometimes make short flights to catch flying insects.  They forage on the ground in open areas, with sheltered thickets nearby for cover. They use a two-footed scratching maneuver to locate food in the leaf litter.  They mainly eat seeds, other plant parts (grass leaves, fruits, seeds, buds) and insects. In winter, they often forage in flocks.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-crowned_Sparrow © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Guidelines for creating habitat Provide water at ground level (or close) Provide cover near the water source – lower branches © Project SOUND
  83. 83. CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana © Project SOUND
  84. 84. CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana  Much of non-desert CA: WA to Baja  Many Plant Communities including Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral, Freshwater Marsh, Mountain Meadow, Mixed-evergreen Forest, Southern Oak Woodland  A plant of moist/riparian places  Named for David Douglas (1798-1834), Scottish botanist who made several journeys to America. Douglas provided the material from which some 300 species of California plants were to be described  ‘Mugwort’ from use of this species inhttp://www.swsbm.com/Maps/Artemisia_douglasiana.gif mugs to flavor beer prior to hops © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Mugwort characteristics  Size:  1-5 ft tall  Increases; spreading via underground stems (rhizomes)  Growth form:  Perennial shrub arising from a rhizome  Stems are stout, upright  Foliage:  Bright green fading to gray- green; white below  Most of the leaves low on the stems  Flowers:  Summer: June to Oct, depending on year  Yellow-green; small and not very noticeable  Once again, typical for sunflower family © Project SOUNDhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/mugwort.html
  86. 86. Garden conditions  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any  Light:  full sun to partial shade;  brighter green in shadier areas  Water:  Winter: moist soils; tolerates flooding  Summer:  Low summer needs once established; once a month fine  Will spread with summer water – can become invasive  Fertilizer: none needed; organic mulch would work well  Other: prune back heavily in fall to keep it looking goodhttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Artemisia-douglasiana/ © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Uses for CA Mugwort Ground cover on naturally landscaped slopes, hillsides Under trees/shrubs like Mule Fat In planters & pots – contained situations For erosion control For habitat: seeds, foliage, insects and cover for ground dwellers This is an important medicine plant for Native Californians. Used as a purifying plant in ceremonies. Also good for treating stomach & other gastrointestinal illnesses © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Guidelines for creating habitat in your own garden  Provide dense shrub/grass cover – perching, cover & nest sites  Provide a brush pile/logs for cover  Provide sunning spots – with cover close by  Leave some areas relatively ‘human-free’ for most of the day  Let native plants go to seed/fruit  Provide water at ground level (or close)  Provide cover near the waterTry to minimize effect of source – lower branchescats © Project SOUND
  89. 89. © Project SOUND