Gourmet seasonings 2009

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This lecture was given in April, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

This lecture was given in April, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  • 2. Gourmet Seasonings and Condiments C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve April 4 & 7, 2009 © Project SOUND
  • 3. Growing your own food: on the upswing?  Fun  Educational  Good exercise  Interesting looking plants  Saves money  Tasty, fresh ingredients  Chance to grow & use ‘exotic’ ingredients –http://bloomtown.typepad.com/bloomtown/bloomtown_my_garden/ including CA native plants © Project SOUND
  • 4. Not your grandmother’s vegetable garden any more! © Project SOUND
  • 5. Advantages of including native edible plants in your garden  Often easy to grow  Attract native pollinators as well as honey bees  Attract other beneficial insects (predators)  Many are water-wise; spend you ‘water allowance’ on other vegetables  Add wonderful ‘exotic’ & healthy flavors to your diet © Project SOUND
  • 6. Sand Fringepod – Thysanocarpus curvipeshttp://syrpa.lindberglce.com/flowersBig/B106.htm © Project SOUND
  • 7. Sand Fringepod – Thysanocarpus curvipes  Western N. America: Mexico to British Columbia  Most of CA, including western L.A. County  Common to an elevation of about 5000  Slopes, washes, moist meadows  Valley grasslands, coastal sage scrub, chaparral and foothill woodlandhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2240,2683,2685  Thysanocarpus: from the Greek words thusanos, "fringe," and karpos, "fruit," hence "fringed fruit" © Project SOUND
  • 8. In nature, Sand Fringepod is usually found with other wildflowers, grasses  Lindley’s Silverpuffs  Goldenrods  Bicolor Lupine  CA Poppy  Creamcups  Many others…http://edgehill.net/nature/sierra/pg1pc2 http://tchester.org/srp/plants/pix/fringe_pod.html © Project SOUND
  • 9. Sand Fringepod – a delicate spring annual  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Delicate and upright habit  May be a single stem or branched; more branches with more water  Generally disappears quickly with drought© 2004, Ben Legler  Foliage: larger leaves mostly at base © Project SOUND
  • 10. Flowers are tiny ‘mustard’ flowers  Blooms:  Spring; usually Mar-May in W. L.A. Co  Depends on timing of rains  Flowers:  Really tiny - < ¼ inch across  White tinged with purple  Flowers open sequentially ‘up the stalk’  Typical shape for Mustard family – parts of 4 http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Thysanocarpus_curvipes.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/fringepod.html
  • 11. …but the real show is in the seeds  Flat round pods; each contains a single seed  Each seed fringed with a lacey edging – hence ‘Fringepod’ or ‘Spectaclepod’  Ripe seeds are golden tan; easy to strip from the stalk into a bowl  Remember: annual wildflowers need a drought period to set & mature their seeds – the drying period is key to healthy seeds © Project SOUNDhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/fringepod.html
  • 12. Cleaning seeds  Collect only fully ripe seeds; usually brown, and often easy to strip of shake from plant  Rub seeds over a rough surface (like a screen) or roll between your hands in a cloth bag  Separate seeds from chaff: heavier seeds will fall to bottom – will have to experiment  Then seeds are ready to store or prepare as a condiment!http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3062/2416699089_94dab9fd1e.jpg?v=0 © Project SOUND
  • 13. Sand Fringepod: a welcome addition to the native prairie palette  Mix with other native annuals and bunchgrasses  Great in pots & planters  Treat them like any other native annual wildflower:  Full sun to light shade  Any local soil is fine  Need plenty of winter/spring water; supplement if needed  Withhold water after flowering ceases; can taper off in mid/late spring © Project SOUND
  • 14. Can I plant native wildflowers in my regular vegetable garden?  But of course!  In pots & planters  In out-of-the way corners  Amongst winter/spring vegetables  In their own place of honor (Zone 1 in summer)http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3062/2416699089_94dab9fd1e.jpg?v=0 © Project SOUND
  • 15. * Blue Flax –Linum lewisii var. lewisii © Project SOUND
  • 16. Blue Flax –Linum lewisii var. lewisii  Found in most of CA north to OR  Grows on dry open slopes and ridges  The genus Linum contains all the flax plants (including the European one used for commercial fibers)  Species name lewisii for Meriwether Lewis of thehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4965,4980,4983,4985 Lewis and Clark expeditions © Project SOUND
  • 17. http://sagehen.ucnrs.org/Photos/misc.%20credits/al_grigarich/blue-violet/slides/B034.1%20%20Mt.%20Lola%20%20%20Blue%20Flax%20%20Linum%20lewisii.html Blue flax only looks delicate – it’s actually a pretty tough little perennial (but often grown as an annual) © Project SOUND
  • 18. Blue Flax is a nice addition to the spring- summer garden  Size:  1½ to 2 ft tall; flowering stalks to 3 ft  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Short-lived perennial; sometimes more like an annual  Mounded clump with upright, arching branches  Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green  Leaves are ‘feathery’, delicate looking  Looks ‘woodsy’  Roots: longish tap-root; use a taller pot © Project SOUND
  • 19. The flowers are just enchanting….  Blooms:  Usually May-Sept. in S. Bay  Will bloom in second year after starting from seed  Long boom period – about 6 weeks  Flowers:  Electric blue – difficult to photograph  Typical flax flower; parts in 5’s  Dozens of blooms on drooping branches  Flowers open in sunlight, close at night  Pollinated by bees and flies  Nice butterfly plant  Seeds:  Small, in papery capsule  Poisonous eaten raw; cooked seeds add a delicious taste to baked & cooked dishesOur native flax is just as pretty as the  Birds eat the seedsnon-native flaxes that most gardenersplant  Vegetative reproduction:  Plant sends up more branches each year – slightly spreading © Project SOUND
  • 20. Treat Blue Flax like most of our native annuals  Soils:  Texture: light, well-drained soils are best  pH: any local, including alkali  Light:  Usually found in full sun in nature  Does fine with part-shade  Water:  Winter: regular winter water  Summer:  Good cold and drought tolerance  Tolerates anything from no summer water to regular water; best to withhold water in late summer for good seed-set  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Weed control and removal of very competitive species may improve chance of establishmentGood self-seeder in most gardens;  To maintain tidy appearance, cut plants backeasy to remove unwanted plants after bloom © Project SOUND
  • 21. Every garden needs a little Blue Flax  Lovely specimen plant in a pot; will trail over edges  Massed in a mixed bed with other wildflowers & grasses  In rock gardens  For erosion control or in a greenbelt for fire suppression  In a habitat garden – for bees, butterflies & seed-eating birds  Flax provided food, medicines and fiber for native Californians © Project SOUND
  • 22. Parching seeds  Use a heavy skillet (cast iron is great) http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/granado/images/basket.html  Heat a little oil in the skillet over low heat; no oil needed for well-seasoned skillets  Wipe out all but a thin layer of the oil  Pour in a thin layer of fully dry seeds  Keep seeds moving so theyhttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/images/pf021841.jpg don’t burn  Remove from skillet when golden brown – some may pop  You can also parch seeds in the oven © Project SOUND
  • 23. http://deborahsmall.wordpress.com/page/3/ © Project SOUND
  • 24. Using parched seeds: limited only by your imagination  To add flavor to baked or cooked items  Topping for bread  On bland cooked vegetables  On casseroles  As a salad topper  Etc.  Ground (alone or with otherhttp://plants.usda.gov/culturalinfo.html seeds/spices)  Pinole  Mush  Beverages  Biscuits & pancakes  Etc. http://www.allgauhotel.com/wiki/wiki_turkish_cuisine.html © Project SOUND
  • 25. Clustered Tarplant – Hemizonia (Deinandra) fasciculata Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • 26. Clustered Tarplant – Hemizonia (Deinandra) fasciculata  CA and Baja  Dry coastal plains below 1000, coastal grasslands, vernal pools, disturbed areas, sage scrub, southern oak woodland  Often in sandy or clayey soils  Taxonomy –still evolving http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/dudleyl2.htm © Project SOUND
  • 27. Characteristics of Clustered Tarplant  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual  Shrubby habit; many branched  Foliage:  Sparse, toothed leaves with bristly hairs  Upper leaves narrow, in bundles  Aromatic© 2006 Steven Thorsted  Produces a tarry substance © Project SOUND
  • 28. Flowers are a spot of gold in summer/fall  Blooms:  Summer/early fall  Usually May-Sept. in local lowland areas  Flowers:  Yellow sunflower heads  Few ray & disk flowers – Southern Tarplant (H. parryi ssp. australis) has more  Seem to float above the twiggy foliage  Seeds:  Little ‘sunflower seeds’  Edible; parched or boiled – but very smallhttp://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/plants/dein-fas.html  Re-seed nicely on Project SOUND © bare ground
  • 29. Encouraging native wildflowers: Native California Wisdom  Many native annuals were valued as food plants (seed; greens)  Native annuals usually require light, spring moisture – little competition  Native practices:  Scattering seed duringhttp://www.hazmac.biz/080109/080109DeinandraFasciculata.html harvest (seed-beating)  Burning in fall after harvest  Clearing a ‘garden spot’ near dwellings to raise commonly eaten plants  Weeding © Project SOUND
  • 30. Flavored vinegars are still quite popular…http://i.pbase.com/g6/41/768841/2/83826488.7gqVevyu.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 31. You can make your own with native CA plants © Project SOUND
  • 32. Seasoning marinades & vinegars  Artemisia californica  Artemisia dracunculus  Bladderpod  Native onions (Allium)  Peppergrasses  Salvias  Even some of the berries/ fruits Experiment to find the best combinations. In general, stronger flavors are best with red wine or rice vinegars © Project SOUND
  • 33. California Boxthorn – Lycium californicum http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Lycium_californicum.html © Project SOUND
  • 34. California Boxthorn – Lycium californicum  A local endemic:  S. CA coast, Channel Islands into Baja CA  Western L.A. Co. and south  Washes and hillsides, coastal bluffs, coastal sage scrub, below 1500‘  In the nightshade familyhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7636,7642 (with the Nightshades, tomatoes, etc.) © Project SOUND
  • 35. Right at home on the bluffs…  Fine with salty soils, salt-spray, high winds & blowing sand  Habitat is disappearing – on CNPS ‘rare’ watch list© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  • 36. CA Boxthorn: interesting or homely?  Size:  3-6 ft tall (occasionally to 10 or 12 ft tall) http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Lycium_californicum.html  4-8 ft wide (occasionally wider)  Growth form:  Dense, woody shrub  Drought-deciduous  Ends of branches have thorns (hence ‘boxthorn’)  Foliage:  Small, very succulent leaveshttp://www.newportbay.org/plants/califboxthorn.html © Project SOUND
  • 37. Flowers are slightly tomato-like  Blooms: Spring - usually Mar-June in S. Bay  Flowers:  Small; < ½ inch  Green-white to somewhat purple tinged  Look like members of the nightshade family – yet unique http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiaboxthorn.html© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  • 38. Using the fruit…think ‘tomato’  Fruits are firm and red when ripe – usually in summer  Birds will eat the fruits  Fruits are not sweet – more tart  Fruits can be dried for later use  Can be used to make a sauce that’s somewhat like a tomato sauce – see recipesGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Scienceshttp://www.newportbay.org/plants/califboxthorn.html © Project SOUND
  • 39. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained, sand to clay, rocky  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: needs winter rains  Summer:http://www.newportbay.org/plants/califboxthorn.html  Very drought tolerant – but loses leaves  Best Water Zone 2 CA Boxthorn thrives on seaside conditions; excellent for sea  Fertilizer: none; likes poor bluffs soils © Project SOUND
  • 40. CA Boxthorn has a place in some CA gardens…..  On seaside slopes  As a barrier plant or hedge  As an unusual – and rare – specimen plant  ? as an interesting pot plant? – I’ll let you know© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND
  • 41. Maybe you really wanted a sweet/tart sauce…. © Project SOUND
  • 42. Make nice, sweet/tart sauces & jellies  *Amelanchier alnifolia – Western Serviceberry  *Berberis/Mahonia species – Oregon Grapes  Opuntia littoralis – Coastal Pricklypear  Prunus ilicifolia – Catalina & Holly-leaf Cherries  *Prunus virginiana – Western Chokecherry  Rosa californica – CA Wild Rose  Sambuccus cerulea - Blue (Mexican) Elderberry  Vitis species – Native Grapes © Project SOUND
  • 43. Oregon Grape – Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium© 2006 Louis-M. Landry © Project SOUND
  • 44. Oregon Grape – Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium  Much of western N. America: Mexico to British Columbia  In CA:  Mostly N. CA  Also mountains & foothills throughout Ca – locally in San Gabriels  Slopes, canyons, coniferous forest, oak woodland, chaparral  In the Barberry familyhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Berberis+aquifolium  State flower of OR © Project SOUND http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500223
  • 45. Oregon Grape: sized for the garden  Size:  3-8 ft tall  3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub; medium-slow growth  Stiff, upright branches; overall irregular or mounded form  Foliage:  Very attractive – leaves ‘holly-like’  Shiny dark green above; may give red color in fall/winter  Overall – coarse texture  Roots: spreads via rhizomes © Project SOUND
  • 46. Oregon Grape: not  Soils: demanding at all  Texture: pretty much any  pH: any local  Light:  Best in part-shade; can take full sun to very shady  Water:  Winter: likes water; can take some flooding  Summer: best with some supplemental water – Zone 2 to 2-3 (even 3)  Fertilizer: likes a good organic mulch; renew yearly © Project SOUND
  • 47. Flowers are a cheerful sight during rainy season  Blooms: winter/spring  Usually Feb-Apr in S. Bay  Blooms for 3-4 weeks  Flowers:  Bell-shaped & buttery yellow  In dense clusters – very showy against the darker leaves  Honey-like fragrance  Seeds:  Relatively large © Project SOUND
  • 48. Berries are tart but delicious  Can be eaten directly for a tasty zing!  Can be fermented with sugar to wine  Make nice, tart jellies – good with meats  Boil berries in soup to add flavor  Use to make sauces and marinades for ham, pork, chicken © Project SOUND
  • 49. Oregon Grape is a popular home shrub foundation plant mass plantings shrub border mixes well with other broadleaf evergreens useful in shady spots desirable for spring bloom, high quality summer foliage and blue fruit in fall Yellow natural dye from roots & bark; also dye from berries Medicinal uses: roots for various infectious conditions © Project SOUND
  • 50. Cultivar ‘Compactum’ (sometimes ‘Compacta’)  Smaller – 3’ by 3’  More mounded- bushy http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/maaqc1.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.intermountainnursery.com/demonstration_garden_list.htm
  • 51. You may know that CA Wild Rose hips make a nice jelly or syrup…….but there are other members of the Rose familythat are even better known for their tasty fruits © Project SOUND
  • 52. * Western Serviceberry – Amelanchier alnifolia © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  • 53. * Western Serviceberry – Amelanchier alnifolia  Mainly a plant of the Pacific Northwest, the midwest and western Canada – up to AK  In CA, mainly in the http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/DENDROL northwest, but… OGY/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=193  Also, in the western San Gabriel mountains  Found on forested slopes, open rocky woods, cliff edges, prairies, or along side streams or lakes; also bogs and wet sites.  ‘Serviceberry’ and ‘Juneberry’ refer to the time of bloom © Project SOUND
  • 54. In the wilds, a shrub or small tree  Size and shape very greatly depending on:  Available water  Available light  Snow pack  Growth seasonhttp://www.malag.aes.oregonstate.edu/wildflowers/species.php/id-103 © Project SOUND
  • 55. In the local mountains, Western Serviceberry is an understory to pines  Often grows in the shade of the shade of larger treeshttp://biology.csusb.edu/PlantGuideFolder/SanGabriels.htm In Western San Gabriels © Project SOUND
  • 56. Western Serviceberry: very adaptable  Size:  6-15+ ft tall  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Erect shrub/single or multi- trunk small tree  Branches smooth with gray or red bark  Dense, but winter-deciduous  Medium/slow growing  Foliage:  Medium to dark green  Leaves oval, toothed  Roots: spreads via rhizomes; alsohttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=amal2 deep taproots © Project SOUND
  • 57. Serviceberry is showy in bloom  Blooms:  Spring: usually Apr-May in Western L.A. Co.  Bloom period up to 1 mo.  Flowers:  White; rose-like  In dense clusters; very showy  Fragrant (sweet)  Seeds:  Like rose; propagate similar to roses© 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND
  • 58. But most folks like the berries best  Ripen in summer  Dark blue-purple when ripe with white bloom – look like blueberries  Loved by berry-eating birds – you’ll probably have to outwit them!  Use just like a blueberry:  Eat fresh or dry  Used in baked goods  Use for sauces, syrups, jellies, beverages, etc. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=amal2 http://www.malag.aes.oregonstate.edu/wildflowers/species.php/id-103
  • 59. Serviceberry does well in the home garden  Soils:  Texture: just about any moderately or well-drained soil  pH: likes pH between 5.0-7.5  Light:  Adaptable: part-sun best, but can take full sun to quite shady  Water:  Winter: like good soil moisture  Summer: best in Zone 2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: likes a good organic mulch like leaf litter© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  • 60. Serviceberry: a garden favorite  Makes a great small tree for front yard or patio  Fine as a large shrub; dormant Dec.-Feb/Marhttp://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/White%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/amelanchier.htm  Good choice for hedge, hedgerow or screen  Espalier along a wall  Can even trim to a medium groundcover http://www.denverwater.org/cons_x eriscape/xeriscape/garden2002.htm l Leave some of previous year’s growth as fruiting wood http://www.colostate.edu/Dept/CoopExt/4dmg/Trees/Shrubs/junebrry.htm © Project SOUND
  • 61. Serviceberry makes great habitat  Cover & nesting  Nectar:  Bess & other pollinators  Butterflies: orange tip, CA Hairstreak, western tiger swallowtail, spring Azure and elfin butterflies  Foliage: (note: poisonous if eaten in large quantities)  Swallowtail, Elfin and other butterfly larvae.  Deer will browse  Fruit:  Just about everyone loves it!http://loriaull.wordpress.com/2008/07/12/western-serviceberry-amelanchier-alnifolia/Lazuli Bunting in Serviceberry Bush © Project SOUND
  • 62. Uses for sweet/tart jellies, syrups, sauces  On toast or muffins  On pancakes & waffleshttp://cache0.bigcartel.com/product_images/1630485/300.jpg  On ice cream or cake  As a flavoring for hot & cold beverages  As a glaze or marinade for meats  As a condiment with ethnic dishes: Thai, Middle Eastern, Asian Indian © Project SOUND
  • 63. * Western Chokecherry – Prunus virginiana var. demissa http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23962 © Project SOUND
  • 64. * Western Chokecherry – Prunus virginiana var. demissa  Western N. America from Mexico & TX to British Columbia  In CA, generally a plant of higher elevation foothills & mountains  Locally: San Gabriel Mtns – generally > 5000 ft.  Rocky slopes, canyons, scrub,http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Prunus+virginiana+var.+demissa oak/pine woodland, coniferous forest – generally as an occasional plant on N-facing slopes © Project SOUND
  • 65. Chokecherry in nature  Widely varied habitats that share:  Often soils are a little© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College richer in terms of nutrients  A little extra moisture in winter  Some shade in summer:  N-facing slopes  Under trees© 2005 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  • 66. Chokecherry: another shrub in the Rose family  Size:  6-18 ft tall; variable – depends on local conditions  15-20 ft wide; spreads via rhizomes  Growth form:  Upright, multi-trunk large shrub to small tree  Branches somewhat horizontal  Smooth red-gray bark  Often fairly open growth  Foliage:  Leaves simple, medium green  Typical for Rose family; winter-deciduous © Project SOUND
  • 67. Flowers are fantastic!  Blooms:  Spring: usually Apr-May in S. CA  Flowers:  Small, buff to white rose-like flowers  In dense, drooping flowering stalks – very showy & distinctive  Sweet scent – reminiscent of almonds  Attract many pollinators, http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23962 including butterflieshttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/prunus-virginiana-demissa © Project SOUND
  • 68. Fruits are prized…  Wonderful sweet-tart flavor for:  Jelly  Syrups & sauces  Fruit leather  Juice  Note: pits (seeds) are toxic if eaten raw; poison neutralized by cooking or dryinghttp://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=23962 © Project SOUND
  • 69. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: all but very heavy clays  pH: not highly alkali (> 8.0)  Light:  Full sun to fairly shady  Probably best with some shade  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains; supplement if necessary  Summer: best with supplemental water (Zone 2 to 2-3; will sucker in Zone 3)  Fertilizer: likes an organic mulch (leaf mulch best)  Other: prune as needed; often best with little pruning© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  • 70. Managing fruiting shrubs in the Rose family  Pest management:  Susceptible to Fire Blight & fungal diseases  Practice good preventive measures (see last lecture handouts)  Pruning: http://www.stevenspoint.com/forestry/right_tree/11.html  Flowers/fruits on last year’s wood – leave some if you want fruits  In general, best with minimum of pruning once general shape is established  Suckering:  Will happen with watering  Plant accordingly; good candidates for mowed lawn area or someplace where they can just fill inhttp://www.kansasforests.org/conservation/shrubs/chokecherry.shtml © Project SOUND
  • 71. Garden uses for Chokecherry  Trimmed as a small tree  For hedgerows & screens  As a large accent shrub – pretty most of the year  For erosion control – good on slopes  Note: recommended only for colder gardenshttp://www.landscapedia.info/images/plant_images/Prunus_virginiana_Canada_Red_.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 72. Make nice, sweet/tart sauces & jellies  *Amelanchier alnifolia – Western Serviceberry  *Berberis/Mahonia species – Oregon Grapes  Opuntia littoralis – Coastal Pricklypear  Prunus ilicifolia – Catalina & Holly-leaf Cherries  *Prunus virginiana – Western Chokecherry  Rosa californica – CA Wild Rose  Sambuccus cerulea - Blue (Mexican) Elderberry  Vitis species – Native Grapes © Project SOUND
  • 73. Picking and cleaning the fruits can be messy  Pick only ripe fruits  Either strip fruits off branches or:  Cut off individual clumps (grapes; elderberries)  Use a pair of tongs (Pricklypear cactus)  Remove stems, flowers, other ‘non-fruit’ material  Wash fruit thoroughly – several changes of water is best  Remember: many of these fruits can stainhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3255/2875487011_70d4797e99.jpg?v=0 © Project SOUND
  • 74. Simmer the fruits on low heat until they split  Use a deep, heavy pot  Barely cover fruit with clean water  Bring fruits to boil, then turn down heat  Simmer about ½ hour (varies with type/size of fruit)  Stir occasionally; fruit will split  Be sure to enjoy the wonderful aroma!!! © Project SOUND
  • 75. Strain the juice…then use it for jelly/syrup  Strain hot juice through a jelly bag or layers of cheesecloth  Best it you don’t squeeze bag (or only do so lightly); some jellies will become cloudy it squeeze small particles through  Use juice right away, or can refrigerate for several days before making jelly/syrup © Project SOUND
  • 76. Making jellies & sauces: really very easy  Use a good basic recipe – in handout.  If you’ve never canned, be sure you have all the needed equipment – and read in general about canning  Add sugar & lemon juice (to help it jell better)  Suggest use purchased pectin – may need to experiment with amount needed  Have fun: you can mix flavors, add to conserves, etc.  Enter your creation in the County Fair or other contest – you might just have a winner! © Project SOUND
  • 77. We hope you’ll consider including some native food plants in your yard Blue Elderberry - Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea © Project SOUND
  • 78. ‘Roger’s Red’ Grape – Vitis californica ‘Roger’s Red’ © Project SOUND
  • 79. Chia Sage - Salvia columbariae © Project SOUND
  • 80. Let’s go see what’s out there © Project SOUND