Gourmet Greens 2013

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This lecture was given in February, 2013 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Gourmet Greens 2013

  1. 1. 2/3/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 2/3/2013 Gourmet GreensCA native plants for salads,snacks & cooked greens C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh Preserve/El Dorado Nature Center February 2 & 5, 2013 © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 2/3/2013 Growing your own food: on the upswing?  Fun  Educational  Good exercise  Interesting looking plants  Saves money  Tasty, fresh ingredients  Chance to grow & use ‘exotic’ ingredients –http://bloomtown.typepad.com/bloomtown/bloomtown_my_garden/ including CA native plants © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 2/3/2013Not your grandmother’s vegetable garden any more! © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 2/3/2013 Advantages of using native greens plants  Easy to grow  Water-wise (compared to non-native greens)  Add wonderful ‘exotic’ & healthy flavors to your diet  Good nutritional valueGood for pollinators,  Add interest tobutterflies, birds, etc. vegetable garden © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 2/3/2013Miner’s Lettuce – Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata & mexicana © 2001 Steven Thorstedhttp://nativeplantsocietyca.tribe.net/photos/cfd27d18-6ba7-4365-b1d9-c1c7c67b9cbe © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 2/3/2013 Characteristics of Miner’s Lettuce  Herbaceous annual; makes a good annual groundcover  Size: 6-12 in. high; to 12 in. wide  Growth period: fall to spring  Blooms:  Small, white  Feb-May http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/minersl2.htmin English kitchen gardens, Miner’s  Foliage:Lettuce (called ‘Winter Purslane’) is  Attractive & unusualesteemed as a pot-herb and a  Edible: usually raw in salads or assalad plant. mild cooked greens © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 2/3/2013 Miner’s lettuce isgreat for out of the way places In the vegetable garden In pots Under deciduous trees Along a fence Along a seasonal stream or pond © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 2/3/2013Suggestions for growing native greens  Give them a special space in your vegetable garden – or grow them in pots for easy harvest  Locate them away from sources of pollution – streets, etc.  Make sure they get adequate winter rain (or water them) – you want lots of young leaves  Use no pesticides/herbicides  Grow plenty – you want to let some plants go to seed for next year’s crop © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 2/3/2013Claytonia perfoliata on the table  Pick young leaves – best before it flowers  Refreshing raw – as a succulent snack or in a salad  Nice with a vinaigrette dressing – gives it a little spice  Can also be used for cooked greens – but quite bland flavor © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 2/3/2013 Seasoning marinades & vinegars  Artemisia californica  Artemisia dracunculus  Bladderpod  Native onions (Allium)  Peppergrasses  Salvias  Even some of the berries/ fruitsExperiment to find the bestcombinations. In general, strongerflavors are best with red wine or ricevinegars © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 2/3/2013 Use mild native greens in creative ways  In sandwiches  As greens in tacos  On party snacks  In tabouleh – also use your Wild Mint (Mentha arvense)http://abouquetfrommendel.wordpress.com/2012/02/04/getting-nettled/#more-208 http://thecaptivatinglife.blogspot.com/2012/04/tabouleh.html http://hippojoy.wordpress.com/tag/event/ © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 2/3/2013Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 2/3/2013 Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii  Wide distribution:  Western United States , Central America, and northern South America.  In CA: California Floristic Province, some areas E. of Sierras  Usually in grassy areas, woodland openings or disturbed areas  Name derivation:  Calandrinia: named for Jean Louis Calandrini (1703-1758), a professor of mathematics and philosophy, and a botanicalQuestion to ponder: does the author in Switzerlanddistribution of this plant suggest ahuman role?  ciliata: indicates the slight fringing of the petals like an eyelash © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 2/3/2013In nature, Red Maids often occurs on sandy or rocky soils, after fires Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 2/3/2013 Red Maids are spreading annuals  Size:  < 2 ft tall; tips of stems upcurviing  2-3 ft wide – side stems are spreading; plants will grow together  Growth form: sprawling/spreading herbaceous annual from a basal rosette.  Foliage:  Attractive light green  Slightly succulent leaves; spatula shaped  Roots: taproot; grow in place© 2006 Chris Wagner © Project SOUND 16
  17. 17. 2/3/2013 Flowers are an  Spring-blooming – as early as added bonus Feb. to May  Long bloom period with adequate water – flowers open sequentially along the stems  Flowers are:  Tiny - < ½ inch across  An unusual shade of hot pink/magenta – hard to photographRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Open only during sunniest part of the day – flowers ‘disappear’ into their calyces at other times  Seeds are:  Tiny & shiny – but numerous; wind spread  Very tasty – were prized food for Native Californians (parched & ground to make pinole) © Project SOUNDJo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences 17
  18. 18. 2/3/2013 Red Maids is well suited to the vegetable garden…  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained soil; does super in sandy or rocky soils, but typical vegetable gardens soils would be great  pH: just about any local  Light: full sun; great in regular vegetable garden  Water:  Winter: needs good winter/ spring rains  Summer: regular water (Zone 2-3 or 3) will extend blooms slightly; no water for seed set  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizerPlants re-seed very well – but it’s easyto weed out unwanted plants © Project SOUND 18
  19. 19. 2/3/2013Picking your native greens  Be sure you know what you’re picking – this is certainly easier in the garden than in the wilds  As with any new food, it’s best to just try a little bit at first  Tastiest greens are young leaves and shoots – before flowering  Be sure to wash all greens carefully before eating/preparing them  You may be able to just remove leaves from some plants – and they’ll re-grow new greens © Project SOUND 19
  20. 20. 2/3/2013Redmaids make  Use only young leaves – bestpiquant greens before flowering; Arugala-like  Leaves contain oxalic acid, so should be used in moderation.  Oxalic acid can lock up certain of the nutrients in food - can lead to nutritional deficiencies if eaten in excess.  They are, however, perfectly safe in small amounts and their acid taste adds a nice flavor to salads.  Cooking the plant will reduce the quantity of oxalic acid.  People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones and hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition © Project SOUND 20
  21. 21. 2/3/2013Many uses for Red Maids in the garden  Very nice in pots – very green and attractive; helps control them to an extent  In the vegetable garden – flowers really perk up a vegetable garden  In the fronts of mixed beds  Along walkways  Among native bunchgrasses; needs bare ground to reseed  In the ‘Children’s Garden’ – easy  For bird habitat – many birds & insects relish the seeds © Project SOUND 21
  22. 22. 2/3/2013Preparing native  Some young greens can be eaten greens raw – alone or in salads  Some wild greens have strong flavors – use them with other, milder-flavored greens  Older greens often taste better steamed or boiled  Taste a small bit raw – the more bitter the taste, the more likely it will taste better cooked  For bitter greens, change water several times – but use as few changes as possible to retain nutrients  Treat like you would spinach – often 5-10 min. cooking is all that’s needed © Project SOUND 22
  23. 23. 2/3/2013 Parching seeds  Use a heavy skillet (cast iron is great) http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/granado/images/basket.html  Heat a little oil in the skillet over low heat; no oil needed for well-seasoned skillets  Wipe out all but a thin layer of the oil  Pour in a thin layer of fully dry seeds  Keep seeds moving so theyhttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/images/pf021841.jpg don’t burn  Remove from skillet when golden brown – some may pop  You can also parch seeds in the oven © Project SOUND 23
  24. 24. 2/3/2013 Using parched seeds: limited only by your imagination  To add flavor to baked or cooked items  Topping for bread  On bland cooked vegetables  On casseroles  As a salad topper  Etc.  Ground (alone or with otherhttp://plants.usda.gov/culturalinfo.html seeds/spices)  Pinole  Mush  Beverages  Biscuits & pancakes  Etc. http://www.allgauhotel.com/wiki/wiki_turkish_cuisine.html © Project SOUND 24
  25. 25. 2/3/2013 Cobwebby Thistle – Cirsium occidentalehttp://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2006/01/cirsium_occidentale_var_occidentale.php © Project SOUND 25
  26. 26. 2/3/2013 Cobwebby Thistle – Cirsium occidentale  Two varients:  var. californicum:  Sierra Nevada and coastal & var. californicum transverse ranges from central CA south into Baja  Disturbed places, woodland, open forest, as well as chaparral, coastal sage scrub  var. occidentale:  Coastal CA, coastal ranges from N. CA south  Stabilized dunes, roadsides  Grasslands, coastal scrub, var. occidentale chaparral, oak woodlands, © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,963,987,991 26
  27. 27. 2/3/2013 Cobwebby Thistles are nice thistles  Size:  1-4 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Biennial or short-lived perennial  Basal rosette of leaves in first year; flowers second year  Fast-growing; not invasive  Foliage:  Foliage gray-green, very wooly  Spiny, coarsely toothed leaves – very showyhttp://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Astera3.html#cirocc © Project SOUND 27
  28. 28. 2/3/2013 Flowers make a bold statement  Blooms:  usually April-July along coast  Bloom period: 3-4 wks  Flowers:  Super-showy thistle flowers  Pollinated by bees, flies, butterflies (American & Painted Ladies)  Seeds:  Will self-sow; rarely weedy  Vegetative Reproduction: no – not invasiveG.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Astera3.html#cirocc © Project SOUND 28
  29. 29. 2/3/2013 Cobwebby Thistle is well suited to garden conditions…  Soils:  Texture: best with well- drained; sandy/rocky soils best  pH: any  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Summer: none to occasional; would do well with native annuals  Fertilizer: none – likes poor soilshttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_main/whatsnew.html © Project SOUND 29
  30. 30. 2/3/2013 Garden uses for Cobwebby Thistle  As an attractive pot plant  In the annual wildflower garden or mixed beds  In the vegetable garden; stem may be eaten raw or cooked  Great addition to the wildlife garden: butterflies, bees, birds, hummingbirds, and more! http://earthhomegarden.blogspot.com/search/label/native %20plant%20gardenRemember: plant where thespiny leaves won’t be a hazard http://www.calfloranursery.com/pag © Project SOUND es_main/whatsnew.html 30
  31. 31. 2/3/2013Preparing Thistle stems for cooking  Pick young stems, after they’ve extended but before the flowering heads are fully developed  Handle plants with protection – rose-pruning gloves  Cut off the stalk (or just the top foot or so)  Rinse in cool water  Remove leaves & top bud (which you can prepare like artichoke)  Peel, scrape or rough-brush to remove fuzzy epidermis  Cut stalk into appropriate sized pieces – eat raw or cook © Project SOUND 31
  32. 32. 2/3/2013 Cooking with Cirsium stems  Rub the raw shoots or roots with lemon juice prior to cooking to keep them from darkening  Steam or boil stems until just tender  Use cooked Cirsium in:http://www.foragingfoodie.net/stinging-nettle-quiche.html  Recipes calling for artichokes – Quiche with Stinging nettles taste is similar  Recipes for dishes using asparagus (quiche, etc.)  Traditional dishes that feature thistles © Project SOUND 32
  33. 33. 2/3/2013 Thistles are a delicacy in Mediterranean countries, particularly in Spain  Variety of traditional Spanish dishes made from thistles, which grow well in Spain.  The Rioja region in the north of Spain is famous for a number of dishes, including cardo con almendras ‘thistle with almonds’ (traditionally eaten during Christmas fiestas).http://dietamediterraneasana.blogspot.com/2012/02/berenjenas-rellenas-de-nueces-y-reto.html  Other regions of Spain have their own traditional dishes:  Basque Country: conejo con cardo ‘rabbit with thistle’  Aragón: cardo con nueces ‘thistle with walnuts’ and cardo a la bechamel con piñones ‘thistle in bechamel sauce with pine nuts’.  Galician coast with its great variety of seafood http://andosillagastronomica.blogspot.com/2012/11/fotof provides cardo con almejas ‘thistle with clams’ rafias-del-curso-de-cocina.html © Project SOUND 33
  34. 34. 2/3/2013 Thistles in Almond Sauce - cardo con almendras  Boil thistle pieces until tender; drain and keep some of the cooking water.  In a frying pan heat olive oil, add garlic and cook until golden. Add the ground almonds and toast lightly, stirring continuously. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/6391/thistles-in-almond-sauce Thistles  Add ¾ cup of the cooking water and let 2 garlic cloves simmer for a couple of minutes. Stir in the boiled thistles and bubble to Olive oil thicken a bit. Almond, finely ground Almond flakes  Place in a baking dish. Finish with chopped parsley, grated parmesan parsley, chopped cheese, almond flakes and freshly parmesan cheese, grated ground black pepper. black peppercorns, freshly ground  Bake for 15-20 minutes at 350º © Project SOUND 34
  35. 35. 2/3/2013 Prickly-pear cuisine  Young pads: raw or cooked (nopales)  Seeds: parched and eaten or ground into flour  Fruits: sweet & distinctive  Raw  Driedhttp://www.ecnca.org/Plants/Photo_Pages/Opuntia_littoralis.htm  Stewed/steamed  Made into jellies, juices & sauces Care in handling Prickly-pear http://www.newportbay.org/plants/pricklypearleaf.html#Leaf3 © Project SOUND 35
  36. 36. 2/3/2013Using Opuntia pads for cooked greens  Gather the young pads when about half grown and before the spines have hardened.  Remove any spines with heavy knife, wash pad  Cut into narrow strips, boil until tender  Serve with a tasty dressing or just salt and pepper - or use as you would a side of green beans  Cactus greens have always been much appreciated by desert dwellers whose craving for green food it is not always easy to satisfy. © Project SOUND 36
  37. 37. 2/3/2013http://www.brittanypowell.com/food-i-make/preparing-nopales/ http://queermaculture.blogspot.com/2009/06/tacos-de-nopales-y-verdolagas.html http://www.rivenrock.com/nopalessalad.htm http://chanfles.com/comida/nopalitos/index.html © Project SOUND 37
  38. 38. 2/3/2013 Nopalitos – yum!  Many traditional dishes: Spanish, Native Southwestern and Central/South America  Consider swapping Cirsium forhttp://www.girlichef.com/2011/05/nopalitos-salad-cactus-paddle-salad.html Nopalitos for a Mediterranean tasteNopalitos salade with cilantro dressing http://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/cactus_and_corn_salsa/ Nopalitos tacos Nopalitos and corn salsa © Project SOUNDhttp://www.gourmetsleuth.com/Recipes/Mexican-Taco-Recipes-670/Nopalitos-Tacos-Tacos-de-Nopalitos-1149.aspx 38
  39. 39. 2/3/2013Hillside/Pacific Pea - Lathyrus vestitushttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/peasd.htm © Project SOUND 39
  40. 40. 2/3/2013Canyon Pea - Lathyrus vestitus  Coasts & coastal ranges of CA, from OR to Baja  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral, oak woodland, coniferous or mixed forest  Common and widespread inhabitant of dry to shaded places below 5000‘  Lathyrus: from the Greek lathyros, an old name for "pea", vestitus: covered, clothed, usually with hairs © Project SOUND 40
  41. 41. 2/3/2013 Yes, you can have sweet peas in your CSS garden!  Size:  2-8 ft long (usually 1-3); spreading  Growth form:  Perennial vine with woody base  Climbing, sprawling with twining green stems, with tendrils  Quick-growing (each year)  Foliage:  Gray-green leaves; slightly hairy  Leaves compound; 10-12 large, elongated opposite leaflets  Drought-deciduous  Larval food for Marine Blue butterflyhttp://www.coepark.org/wildflowers/white/lathyrus-vestitus.html © Project SOUND 41
  42. 42. 2/3/2013 Canyon Pea flowers are a joy to behold  Flowers:  Spring: usually April-June  Color:  usually light pink to white;  may be lavender;  San Diego variant (var. alefeldii ) is magenta  Flowers look like wild sweetpeas (or even slightly small horticultural varieties)  Sweetly scented  Good for native pollinators: bees, hummingbirds & butterflies  Seed pod:  pink-green & fuzzy, drying to brownhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canyonsweetpea.html  Seeds of Pea family may be toxic if http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canyonsweetpea.html eaten © Project SOUND 42
  43. 43. 2/3/2013 Garden conditions  Soils:  Texture: any from sand to clay  pH: 5-8  Light:  Usually occurs in part shade near oaks and other shrubs  Best in filtered sun or morning sun  Water:  Winter: moist soils; rapid growth in winter/spring  Summer:  Fairly dry soils; fine with no summer water  can be aggressive with regular water; its growth should be monitored so it doesnt escape intohttp://www.calflora.net/favoritephotos/images/sandiegopea7.jpg natural habitats.  Fertilizer: none needed; organic San Diego Pea mulch is fine Lathyrus vestitus var. alefeldii © Project SOUND 43
  44. 44. 2/3/2013 Use Canyon Pea like any Sweetpea  In a fragrance garden  Climbing up fences, trellises or other supports  On ‘natural’ hillsides  Great under oaks, Toyon, other chaparral tree & shrubshttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canyonsweetpea.html  Probably even in large containers Locate Canyon Pea where you can enjoy its flowers & fragrance http://www.redshift.com/~bigcreek/fire/fire5/index.html © Project SOUND 44
  45. 45. 2/3/2013 Recipes calling for Nettles can be adapted for Canyon Pea Greens  Soups  Sauces  Pesto  Etc.http://abouquetfrommendel.wordpress.com/2012/02/04/getting-nettled/#more-208 http://honest-food.net/veggie-recipes/greens-and-herbs/nettle-pesto/ © Project SOUND 45
  46. 46. 2/3/2013 1. Preheat the oven to 375° FCreamed Greens Casserole 2. Melt the butter in the pot over medium heat. Saute the onions and garlic until they are soft and translucent. Add the mushrooms and saute until they soften and glisten, about 3 minutes. Sprinkle the paprika over the vegetables and stir. 3. Add greens a few handfuls at a time, stirring as you go. Once they have cooked 3 tablespoons unsalted butter down a bit, season with a little salt and 1 medium onion, minced pepper. Cover and continue cooking until 6 cloves garlic, minced the greens are tender, 20 to 30 minutes. 8 ounces (227 g) sliced mushrooms 4. Stir in the cream or half & half, and 1 teaspoon paprika, chili powder, or bring to a boil. Reduce to a simmer, cook Cajun seasoning 1 pound (454 g) fresh early greens, until thickened, about 5 minutes or so. washed, trimmed, and chopped 5. Pour into baking dish and sprinkle with sea salt, to taste grated cheese. fresh ground black pepper, to taste 6. Bake 5 to 10 minutes, until the cheese 16 ounces (473 mil) heavy cream or half & half is bubbly. Remove from the oven and allow 4 ounces (113 g) sharp cheddar to cool for a few minutes serving. Serves cheese, grated 6 to 8. © Project SOUND http://andreasrecipes.com/creamed-turnip-greens/ 46
  47. 47. 2/3/2013 You can save native greens for later  Wash, cut as usual  Blanch (cook partially) for 2-3 minutes  Boiling water  Steam  Microwave (shorter time)http://www.theworldinmykitchen.com/2011/06/how-to-freeze-greens-spinach-kale-chard.html  Chill quickly in ice water/cold water  Freeze in freezer bags  Best used within 3-6 months http://foodwhirl.com/techniques/how-to-freeze-greens © Project SOUND 47
  48. 48. 2/3/2013Fringed Willow Herb – Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum http://minnesotaseasons.com/Plants/American_willowherb.html © Project SOUND 48
  49. 49. 2/3/2013Fringed Willow-herb: A plant of manynames…  Epilobium adenocaulon, including var. ecomosum, holosericeum, occidentale, parishii, perplexans;  Epilobium americanum;  Epilobium brevistylum, including var. ursinum;  Epilobium californicum including var. holosericeum;  Epilobium ciliatum var. ecomosum;  Epilobium delicatum;  Epilobium ecomosum;  Epilobium glandulosum var. adenocaulon, ecomosum, macounii;  Epilobium leptocarpum var. macounii;  Epilobium ursinum;  Epilobium watsonii var. parishii © Project SOUND 49
  50. 50. 2/3/2013 Fringed Willow Herb – Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum  Ssp ciliatum widespread, both as native and as an adventive weed throughout North America (including the Arctic), southern South America, and eastern Asia  An introduced weed throughout Europe and Australasia.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5410,5417,5418  Fairly common member of many CA plant communities  moist areas below 10,000‘  most of cismontane and montane California © Project SOUND 50
  51. 51. 2/3/2013 Fringed Willow-herb: Epilobium characteristics  Size:  2-5 ft tall (moisture dependent)  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  May be winter and/or drought deciduous  Upright; many-branched  Foliage:  Medium green (red-tinged with drought/age) ; largely smooth and basal leaves  Leaves lance-shaped; deep veins  Young foliage edible as cooked greens; older shoots dried for teahttp://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Epilobium&Species=ciliat http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Epilobium_ciliatum_0374.JPG © Project SOUNDum 51
  52. 52. 2/3/2013 Flowers are tiny  Blooms:  During warm weather  Anytime from June to Oct. in our area  Flowers:  White or pink  Very small; usually alone or in small clusters  Most conspicuous feature: inferior ovary (becomes the seed pod)  Seeds:  Tiny; adundanthttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/willowherb.html  Have fluffy tuft – wind distributed © Project SOUND 52
  53. 53. 2/3/2013 One man’s weed – another man’s feed  Harvest fresh, young leaves in spring (before flowering) – early leaves best-tasting and are nothttp://oregonstate.edu/dept/nursery-weeds/feature_articles/willowherb/willowherb_control_page.htm tough  Wash in cool water  The young shoots can be eaten cooked or raw in salads  The pith can be used to thicken soups and stews. © Project SOUND 53
  54. 54. 2/3/2013 Using cooked greens Cooked greens are a part of many ethnic traditions – try them in your favorite greens recipes Use native cooked greens in any recipe for cooked spinach or greens:  Soups  Stews  Frittata  Dips  Etc, etc. etc. © Project SOUND 54
  55. 55. 2/3/2013  Ingredients  Tuna (or other fish) steak, slicedTuna with creamed  ½ lb willow-herb leaves and young shoots, lightly steamed Willow-herb  1 onion, finely-chopped  generous pinch of ground cumin  butter or oil for frying  2 oz light cream  1 green chili, finely shredded  salt and black pepper, to taste  Blanch willow-herb by plunging in lightly-http://www.jeffeatschicago.com/2011_09_01_archive.html salted boiling water for 6 minutes. Drain and immediately chill in coldwater.  Add a little oil/butter to a pan; heat and add the onion and chili. Fry until soft and translucent then add the tuna and cumin and fry for about two minutes.  Add the willow-herb and saute for 2 minutes until cooked through. Add the cream, season and stir to mix through. Serve with rice. © Project SOUND 55
  56. 56. 2/3/2013 Curried Willow-  Ingredients  1/2 lb young willow-herb shoots herb Shoots 3 tbsp butter 2 tbsp plain flour 1 garlic clove, minced 1/4 tsp sea salt 1/2 tsp paprika 1 tbsp curry powder 1 tsp freshly-grated ginger 12 oz. coconut milk 2 hard-boiled eggs, slicedBring 300ml of lightly-salted water to a boil, add the fireweed shoots and simmerfor 10 minutes, or until tender. Drain and set aside.In the meantime, melt the butter in a pan, scatter the flour over the top and stir into form a roux. Add the garlic, salt, paprika, curry powder and ginger then fry for 2minutes, stirring constantly. Now whisk in the coconut milk, until smooth.Bring to a boil and cook until well thickened. Arrange the boiled fireweed on aserving plate, pour over the curry sauce, garnish with the sliced eggs and serve. © Project SOUND 56
  57. 57. 2/3/2013 Curried Couscous n Greens  Follow the directions for making couscous on the box.  While boiling the water, add your green peas, diced onion, curry powder, cumin, salt and pepper along with a little bit of olive oil.  After the peas and onions are tender, add the couscous. Remove from heat and let Ingredients stand for 5-7 minutes.  Instant boxed couscous  In a frying pan, add enough sesame oil to  1/2 Onion (diced) coat the pan, heat and add the garlic.  Green peas  Once the garlic is slightly browned, add the  Fresh Greens greens (chopped into smaller pieces) to the  Curry powder mix and cook until bright green and slightly  Salt & pepper limp.  Cumin  Now, add the cooked greens/garlic mix to  Fresh garlic (finely your couscous. Fluff the mix lightly, serve minced) warm.  Sesame oil © Project SOUND 57
  58. 58. 2/3/2013Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part shade  Water:  Winter: likes plenty – tolerates some flooding  Summer: best with occasional water – Zone 2 or 2-3  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: really re-seeds in moist places – pull up unwanted plants when younghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Epilobium_ciliatum_0374.JPG © Project SOUND 58
  59. 59. 2/3/2013 Fine in the right places  Wet places like rain gardens, bog gardens, etc.  In pots for edible uses  You may have it alreadyhttp://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Epilobium&Species=ciliatum © Project SOUND 59
  60. 60. 2/3/2013Perhaps you’d like to try some more robust native greens http://blog.breakawaytrainingonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/kale.jpg © Project SOUND 60
  61. 61. 2/3/2013California Marshlavender – Limonium californicum http://www.newportbay.org/plants/marshrosemary.html © Project SOUND 61
  62. 62. 2/3/2013 California Marshlavender – Limonium californicum  Occurs in CA, NV, AZ and N. Mexico  In CA along the immediate coast  Commonly occurs near the edge of salt marshes, rocky shorelines, and in the spray zone along the California Coasthttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5645,5648,5650 http://jaysullivan.org/limonc5.htm © Project SOUND 62
  63. 63. 2/3/2013The genus Limonium  About 120-150 species world-wide; N. America has only 3 natives  Many are local endemics with very restricted range  In Plumbago/leadwort family, (Plumbaginaceae)  Common names: Sea-lavender Statice, Marsh-rosemary.  Normally herbaceous perennials from a rhizome  Many species flourish in saline soils, and are therefore common near coasts and in saltmarshes, and also on saline, gypsum and alkaline soils in continental interiors  Several species are popular garden flowers; they are generally known to gardeners as statices. © Project SOUND 63
  64. 64. 2/3/2013 Characteristics of Marsh Lavender  Size:  1-2 ft tall & wide; flowering stalks somewhat taller  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Drought-deciduous; ?evergreen with water  Slow-growing (at least in my yard)  Foliage:  Leaves fleshy, oblong  Mostly in basal rosette  Roots: ??http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/sealavender.html © Project SOUND 64
  65. 65. 2/3/2013 Flowers are showy – but not as showy as Statice  Blooms: Aug-Dec. along S. Ca coast  Flowers:  Like a refined Statice  Sprays of tiny blue and white flowers  Good cut flowers  Good nectar source for Fall-flyinghttp://www.newportbay.org/plants/marshrosemary.html butterflies  Seeds:  Birds eat them  Vegetative reproduction: slowly spreading – makes ‘pups’http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Plants%20of%20Upper%20Newport%20Bay%20(Robert%20De%20Ruff)/Plumbaginaceae/Limonium_californicum_ © Project SOUNDJuly2.jpg 65
  66. 66. 2/3/2013 Marsh Lavender  Small size and scale in the garden  Flowers would be a nice addition in fall  Soils: sandy  Sun: full sun to light shade  Water:  Likes water; Zone 2-3, possibly 3  Tolerates even brackish water  High salt tolerance  Edible leaves, and attractsSaid to be good as a ground pollinators - ?? Aroundcover & soil stabilizer vegetable garden © Project SOUND 66
  67. 67. 2/3/2013 Eating leaves/shoots of native wetland plants  Use only plants from your own garden – you know what they are and how they’ve been treated  Pick leaves and shoots when they are young – usually early spring in our area  Know whether the plant contains oxalic acid or tannins – you’ll need to http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0212/0963.jpeg cook (best in several changes of water; until not bitter tasting)  Use recipes that specify robust/pungent greens - escarole, curly endive, mustard greens, spinach, kale, wild greens, dandelion greens or broccoli rabe © Project SOUNDhttp://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/ingredient/greens/ 67
  68. 68. 2/3/2013 Willow Dock – Rumex salicifolia var. salicifolia© 2002 Margo Bors © Project SOUND 68
  69. 69. 2/3/2013 Docks/Sorrels – Genus Rumex  ~ 200 herbaceous species in the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae).  Very common in acidic soils mainly in the northern hemisphere - but introduced almost everywhere.  Many are nuisance weeds (like Curley Dock)  Some (including the non-native Common Sorrel, Rumex acetosa) as well as native species have edible leaves and are used in soups and salads.  Most of them contain oxalic acid and tannin. They should therefore© 2008 Keir Morse be cooked in several changes of water and eaten in smallWillow Dock – Rumex salicifolius quantities. © Project SOUND 69
  70. 70. 2/3/2013Canaigre Dock – Rumex hymenosepalus http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=6407 © Project SOUND 70
  71. 71. 2/3/2013 Canaigre Dock – Rumex hymenosepalus  AKA: Tanner’s Dock  Native to Western U.S. from Wyoming to Texas, Baja http://www.bonap.org/BONAPmaps2010/Rumex.html  In S. CA from our area to the Mojave Desert – locally in Palos Verdes, San Gabriels, Coastal Prairie  Generally in dry sandy places below 5000  coastal sage scrub, valley grassland, chaparral,  joshua tree woodland, creosote bush scrubhttp://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/newmex/sanandres/Photoshop_gallery/plants/pages/Wild%20Rhubarb%20-%20Rumex%20hymenosepalus.htm © Project SOUND 71
  72. 72. 2/3/2013 A robust perennial  Size:  1-3 ft tall; flowering stalks 2-3 ft  3-5+ ft wide, spreading  Growth form:  Cold/drought deciduous perennial – dies back to ground in fall or summer Basal rosette of large, succulenthttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Rumex_hymenosepalus  leaves – like rhubarb  Foliage:  Robust  Blue-green to pale green  Leaves have straight edges – not curly like Curley Dock  Roots: rhizomes; tuber-like (like dahlia) © Project SOUND 72
  73. 73. 2/3/2013 Flowers & pods brighten the landscape  Blooms:  Spring - usually April-June in S. CA  Flowers: Flowing stalks above the http://tcf.bh.cornell.edu/imgs/lkelly/r/Polygon aceae_Rumex_hymenosepalus_14879.html  leaves  Tiny greenish/yellow flowers; replaced by showy pink/red/brown seed pods  Probably the showiest of the native Docks  Seeds:  Eaten by birds and humans  Vegetative reproduction: from rhizomes © Project SOUNDhttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/2283/rumex-hymenosepalus-canaigre-dock/ 73
  74. 74. 2/3/2013  Soils: Plant Requirements  Texture: often heavy soils in nature; probably any  pH: any local including alkali  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: tolerates flooding; likes plenty of winter water  Summer: likes moderately dry – Water Zone 2 – give one watering in late summer  Fertilizer: likes some organics; use a leaf mulch  Other: does spread – just dig out unwanted plantshttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/2283/rumex-hymenosepalus-canaigre-dock/ © Project SOUND 74
  75. 75. 2/3/2013 Canaigre in the garden  Interesting container plant  In seasonally wet areas  Rain garden  Bog garden  Along seasonal ‘streams’http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/2283/rumex-hymenosepalus-canaigre-dock/  In dye garden or vegetable garden – has been extensively cultivatedhttp://www.rshantz.com/Plants/Wild/General/20050402Wild08.htm http://www.swsbm.com/Images/New2005/New2005.html SOUND © Project 75

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