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Gardening sheets hummingbird heaven - 8-2014
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Gardening sheets hummingbird heaven - 8-2014
1. * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylos densiflora (ark-toh-STAF-ih-los den-see-FLOR-uh) Family: Ericaceae (Heath Family) Native to: Outer Coastal Ranges of N. CA near Sonoma; grows locally on shale outcrops. Growth characteristics: woody shrub mature height: 3-6+ ft. mature width: 4-6+ ft. Evergreen woody shrub with a low mounding growth habit. Leaves are erect, elliptic, smooth and a shiny bright green. Branches become twisted with age – attractive and interesting. Trunks are red- brown with shedding bark. Moderate to rapid growth rate. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in early spring (Feb-Apr.). Flowers are typical for Manzanita, urn-shaped, 1/4 inch long, pinkish-white, in tight hanging clusters at the ends of twigs. Very showy. Fruit is small (1/4 inch) round, brick red, berry-like (resembles a tiny apple), maturing in summer and persistent. Uses in the garden: Most often used as a woody groundcover or small hedge (can even be sheared for formal hedge). Excellent addition to chaparral community garden. Does well on N and E-facing slopes. Great choice for under native oaks. Berries can be used to make a cider-like drink or for making jellies & syrups. Cultivars include: ‘Austin Griffiths’ (good in clay); ‘Harmony’ (easy even in clay); ‘Howard McMinn’ (good in gardens; long-lived); ‘Sentinel’ (taller; can be trained to tree-form). Sensible substitute for: Non-native shrubs like Buxus (boxwood), Escallonia, Ligustrum (privet), Cotoneaster and Rhaphiolepis. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant. Nectar attracts native bees and hummingbirds. Berry-eating birds like Cedar Waxwings and Mockingbirds eat the fruit. Dense foliage provides cover, nest sites. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Part-shade (afternoon shade) best except right on the coast. Soil Any, even clays (especially for cultivars); pH 5.5 to 8.0 Water Drought tolerant (Zone 1-2 to 2); occ. summer water. Takes some winter flooding. Fertilizer Use an organic mulch (bark or chipped wood). Other Management: Easy once established. Thrives on neglect – just don’t overwater. Can shear for hedge or when young to encourage dense foliage. Propagation: from seed: yes by cuttings: probably Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 24 1/28/11 * Native to CA but not to Western L.A. Co. © Project SOUND
*Baker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos bakeri (ark-toe-STAFF-ee-loss BAKE-er-eye ) Family: Ericaceae (Heath Family) Native to: Local endemic along N. CA coast (Sonoma County); open sites in chaparral and woodlands, often in serpentine soils from 1500-2000 ft elevation. Growth characteristics: woody shrub/tree mature height: 6-10 ft. mature width: 6-8+ ft. Large evergreen shrub or small tree with rather open, upright habit. Peeling bark is dark purple- brown. Leaves simple, oval, gray-green to darker green, often hairy. Plants have a nice, architectural shape and are often grown for this feature alone. Slow growing like most manzanitas. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in late winter/early spring – usually Feb-Mar but can be earlier. Dense clusters of small, urn-like flowers typical of manzanita. Flowers often medium pink but may be paler. Fruit is a drupe (single seed) and can be used to make manzanita ‘cider’, jelly, syrup. Uses in the garden: Most often used as a specimen plant, for its flowers, bark and interesting natural shape. Sometimes used for hedgerows or natural hedges. Good small tree for habitat garden or under oaks. Cultivar ‘Louis Edmunds’ is the only form available in most nurseries. A natural variant, it has all the characteristics of the species and is well-adapted to a wide range of garden conditions including clay soils, hot summer temperatures and occasional summer water. Sensible substitute for: Non-native shrubs. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant: nectar attracts hummingbirds and large bees. Fruit-eating birds like fruits. Hummingbirds will sometimes nest in mature plants. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to part-shade. Soil Adaptable (particularly ‘Louis Edmunds’; will grow in clays; no pH > 8.0 Water Best treated as Water Zone 2 (occasional water) in S. CA. ‘Louis Edmunds’ is among most tolerant of the manzanitas. Fertilizer Not required. Other Light organic mulch. Management: Prune up into tree form starting the first few years (if desired). Other than that, just prune out dead branches. The key is letting soils dry out before watering. Propagation: from seed: likely needs cold/moist treatment by cuttings: likely, summer Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 8, 11-14, 24, 28, 32 7/29/14 * not native to western Los Angeles County, but a CA native © Project SOUND
Island Alumroot – Heuchera maxima (HOY (HEW)-ker-uh MAKS-ih-muh ) Family: Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage Family) Native to: Northern Channel Islands; primarily on moist, shady, north-facing canyon bottoms, walls, and seacliffs in chaparral, coastal sage scrub. Growth characteristics: clumping perennial rush mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. The lobed, heart-shaped green leaves form a basal clump and are often mottled with gray or pale green markings. Leaves have long stalks (petioles) and are hairy. Leaf edges coarsely toothed. Blooms/fruits: Blooms late winter to mid-spring. Numerous small white/pink bell-shaped flowers on stalk held above the foliage. Hybrids between H maxima and H sanguinea range in color from light to blight pink, magenta – very showy. Hybrids include 'Genevieve' (rose-magenta), 'Opal' (white), 'Santa Ana Cardinal' (large red), 'Susanna' (red), and 'Wendy' (pink) all developed at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Hybrids are readily available (see sources). Uses in the garden: Often used as a groundcover, but also nice in woodland and shade gardens or borders, along paths or in containers , and for cut flowers. Excellent under trees, including oaks. Sensible substitute for: Non-native periwinkle (Vinca major) and ivy (English & Algerian; Hedera) Attracts: Excellent habitat plant for bees and hummingbirds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun on the coast, part to full shade anywhere Soil Well-drained soils; any pH except very acidic Water regular water to establish, then water 2-4 times per month to keep nice looking in summer. Very drought tolerant in shade, but won’t look as nice without water. Fertilizer Light application of organic fertilizers or mulch Other Management: Mulch, remove spend flower stalks for prolonged bloom and looks. Usually need dividing every four or five years (when blooming decreases). Divisions best done in early Spring. Plant self-seeds. Propagation: from seed: in spring by divisions: easy in early spring before growth spurt. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 20, 24 2/16/11 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. Co. © Project SOUND
*Pink Meadowsweet – Spiraea splendens (spy-REE-uh SPLEN-dens ) Family: Rosaceae (Rose Family) Native to: Pacific Northwest from N. CA and Sierras to WA. ID; wet, open meadows, wooded or open, rocky slopes, stream banks in Yellow Pine Forest, Red Fir Forest, Lodgepole Forest, Subalpine Forest from 2000 to 11,000 ft. elevation. Growth characteristics: shrub/sub-shrub mature height: 2-4+ ft. mature width: 3-5 ft. Erect to mounding low shrub or sub-shrub. Winter-deciduous. Leaves simple, ovate and medium green. Plant spreads; may form dense thickets in favorable conditions. Bark red-brown, attractive. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in summer – June-August. Flowers medium to bright pink, small in dense mounded clusters at the ends of branches. Very showy – looks like a garden plant. Similar to other Spiraeas used in gardens world-wide. Flowers have light, sweet fragrance. Uses in the garden: Often used in woodland gardens or as a butterfly plant. Makes an attractive specimen plant or tall groundcover. Pretty in a large container or planter. Good filler around trees and shrubs requiring moderate to regular water. Lovely addition to pink-red themed garden. Sensible substitute for: Non-native sub-shrubs and flowering perennials. Attracts: Excellent butterfly plant: good nectar source for range of butterflies. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun (regular water) to part-shade; afternoon shade in hot gardens. Soil Most local soils; wide pH range. Water Regular water (Water Zones 2-3) to occasional water (Zone 2) in part-shade. Fertilizer Light doses OK; will spread with more. Other Organic mulch (leaf or bark) recommended. Management: Fairly garden tolerant. May need to contain or remove unwanted stems. Propagation: from seed: 1 mo. cold-moist treatment by cuttings: easy from cutting, off-shoots Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 8, 13 8/1/13 © Project SOUND
* Nettleleaf Giant Hyssop (Horse Mint) – Agastache urticifolia (ag-us-TAH-kee ur-tik-ih-FOH-lee-uh ) Family: Lamiaceae (Mint Family) Native to: Foothills of western N. America from British Columbia to Mexico. Locally in San Bernardino Mtns; on dry, generally open slopes in woodlands, but common in many habitats. Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 2-5 ft. mature width: 2-5 ft. Herbaceous perennial wildflower that spreads via creeping rhizomes. Foliage slightly coarse, mint- like in appearance. Bright green leaves opposite along square stem, slightly minty scented. Overall has the appearance of a small bush that dies back in fall/winter. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in summer – generally June-August, may have long blooming period (4+ weeks). Flowers are small, rose/violet along flowering stems held above the foliage. Flowers are typical for Mint family and have light, sweet fragrance that’s irresistible to pollinators. Showy! Uses in the garden: Most often used for its habitat value, but a nice addition to the perennial garden in its own right. Fine under trees (needs some sun) or sunny spots. Excellent choice near the vegetable garden, near fruit trees, near bird bath. Flowers & leaves make a refreshing tea. Sensible substitute for: Non-native Mints. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant: attracts butterflies, bees and other pollinators like a magnet. Birds eat the seeds. Deer and other animals will occasionally browse the foliage. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to part-shade (morning sun is excellent) Soil Well-drained soils – sandy soils are excellent. Any local pH including slightly acid. Water Occasional to regular water – Zone 2-3 is optimal; takes winter flooding. Fertilizer Light fertilizer fine. Other Management: Pretty easy to grow, hardy. Cut back old stalks to just above woody stems in fall. Propagation: from seed: 1-2 mo cold-moist treatment by cuttings: tip cuttings in summer; also by divisions in winter/early spring. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 6, 13, 19 6/21/10 * Native to CA but not to Western L.A. Co. © Project SOUND
*Desert mock verbena – Glandularia gooddingii (glan-doo-LAIR-ee-uh good-ding-ee-eye ) Family: Verbenaceae (Verbena Family) Native to: Eastern Mojave Desert, ne Sonoran Desert from CA to UT, NV, NM, AZ & n. Mexico; along sandy washes, canyon floors, ravines or road banks in sandy soils, 2000-6000 ft. Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. Shrubby perennial/sub-shrub with low, slightly mounded habit. Branches are open, mostly decumbent; often used a perennial groundcover. Foliage is medium green and softly hairy. Leaves are highly variable and may be 3-lobed or merely toothed, somewhat like chrysanthemum. Moderate growth rate, short-lived (3-5 years). Evergreen with a little summer water. Blooms/fruits: Blooms April-June, but may be earlier of later. Flowers are violet or pink-purple, in parts of five. Flowers grouped in dense clusters at the ends of branches (typical for the family). Very showy – looks like a flower garden plant. Gorgeous when massed! Uses in the garden: Commonly used as perennial groundcover or purple accent plant. Good choice with native and non-native flowers with the same requirements. Showy in containers. Good choice for bordering walkways, patios, courtyards, pools. Good choice for hummingbird/butterfly gardens. Sensible substitute for: Non-native verbenas, lantanas. Attracts: Excellent hummingbird and butterfly habitat plant. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to part-shade. Soil Well-drained soil a must; any local pH. Water Infrequent to moderate summer water ; Water Zone 2 or 2-3 in well-drained soils. Fertilizer None needed, except light dose if grown in containers. Other None/inorganic mulch. Management: Trim off spent flowers to improve appearance and lengthen bloom season. Remove dead plants. Plants will usually re-seed on bare ground and replace themselves. Propagation: from seed: easy; requires light to germinate by cuttings: probably Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 3, 8, 13, 16 7/30/14 * not native to western Los Angeles County, but a CA native © Project SOUND
* Desert Willow – Chilopsis linearis ssp. arcuata (kye-LOP-sis lin-ee-AIR-iss) Family: Bignoniaceae (Trumpet-Creeper Family) Native to: Foothills of the Mojave and Colorado Deserts from CA & AZ into Mexico; in rocky washes, depressions and desert grasslands. Common in some areas. Growth characteristics: deciduous tree mature height: 15-30 ft. mature width: 15-30 ft. Small tree or large woody shrub – tree-like in garden setting. Winter deciduous for several months – will look quite bare. Growth form is open, with a spreading crown and graceful drooping branches. Often multi-trunked, but can be trained to a single-trunk tree. Leaves light green, willow-like. Bark becomes fissured with age. Long, distinctive seedpods remain on tree through winter. Blooms/fruits: Long bloom period – April to Aug/Sept. Flowers are reminiscent of Catalpa or orchids; dark pink or purple, often with white or yellow and purple lines within the throat. Flowers are large (1 ½ inch) & showy, slightly fragrant, in clusters at the tips of branches. Distinctive slender tan seedpods remain on tree through winter. Uses in the garden: Very adaptable tree in the water-wise landscape. Can be used as a street, lawn or patio tree, even in areas with some summer water. Provides filtered to dense shade – can plant under it. Fine in large raised planters. Great for stabilizing slopes and banks. Useful as a screen, windbreak, summer shade tree for S-facing walls. Provides a lush-looking accent in dry gardens. Sensible substitute for: Non-native (invasive) large shrubs such as Albizia julibrissin (silktree), Buddleja davidii (orange eye butterflybush), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Acacia species. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover and seeds for food and nectar for hummingbirds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun best; fine in hot, sunny spots. Soil Any well-drained soil, even clays – cannot take standing water in winter; any local pH including alkali (up to pH 9.0). Water Zone 2 once established; water deeply when soil gets dry. Fertilizer None Other Inorganic mulch if desired. Management: Prune to shape young trees. Branches droop – requires yearly pruning. Can remove seedpods in winter to improve appearance. Fairly pest-free with appropriate watering. Propagation: from seed: fresh seed in spring by cuttings: hard & semi-softwood, easy Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 24,25, 27, 28 2/13/11 * Native to CA but not to Western L.A. Co. © Project SOUND
* Coyote Mint – Monardella villosa (ssp. subserrata) (mo-nar-DEL-uh vil-OH-suh) Family: Lamiaceae (Mint Family) Native to: Northern CA coast & coastal ranges and Sierra Nevada foothills; dry rocky slopes, ephemeral drainages, oak woodland, chaparral, mountain forests. Growth characteristics: perennial (sub-shrub) mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: 2-4 ft. Evergreen perennial with many erect square stems, Leaves small, either dark green or furry gray- green, with a pungent fragrance. Slowly spreading. Blooms/fruits: Blooms May to August. Many small long-lasting flowers in dense heads. Flower colors range from lavender, rose-purple, to white. Showy for a native mint. Uses in the garden: Good in herb gardens, mixed borders and in narrow spaces. Does well on hot dry slopes and sand dunes. Excellent cascading down slopes or over rock walls. Would look nice in a container. Plant close to enjoy fragrance and the pollinators it attracts. Has a sweet spicy aroma and a slightly bitter mint-like flavor (can be used for tea). Cultivars: 'Russian River' – slightly hairy. Sensible substitute for: Non-native mints. Attracts: Excellent pollinator habitat. Nectar attracts hummingbirds and a wide range of butterflies including Blue butterflies, Western Tiger Swallowtail & CA Dogface. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to part-shade Soil Light to medium texture – sandy is probably best. Well-drained. Water Prefers a moist but well-drained sandy soil. Don’t over-water, which will cause it to become leggy and decrease it’s lifespan. Fertilizer None needed Other Organic mulch fine Management: Shear about 1/3 of volume in fall/winter to keep it compact. Reseeds. Easy. Propagation: from seed: in pots or ground by cuttings: semi-softwood in summer; divisions in winter. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 28 2/14/11 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county © Project SOUND
* Baja Fairyduster – Calliandra californica (kal-ee-AN-druh kal-ih-FOR-nik-uh) Family: Fabaceae (Pea Family) Native to: Cape region of Baja CA; on gravelly flats, hillsides and in sandy desert washes. Growth characteristics: evergreen perennial shrub mature height:3-6 ft. mature width:2-5 ft. Vase-shaped shrub with branches forming a loose meshwork. Foliage is blue-green. Leaves have multiple leaflets (typical for Pea family). Over impression is lacey or fern-like foliage. Plants may lose leaves in severe drought or very cold winter. Blooms/fruits: Blooms are quite spectacular. Red ‘Fairy Duster’ puff of showy stamens. Long- blooming primarily in late spring, but off and on with rains/watering. Unique & spectacular accent. Seeds are house in typical ‘pea’ pods that explore when ripe, releasing the seeds. Uses in the garden: Best used as a showy accent plant in hot sunny parts of the garden. Can also be grown as an informal hedge, or in pots or planters. Lends a ‘tropical’ look to the dry garden. Flower & foliage blend well with many CA native plants including those from deserts and our local area (Coastal Sage Scrub; Coastal Shrubland; Chaparral). Sensible substitute for: Non-native tropical shrubs. Attracts: Excellent hummingbird and butterfly habitat plant. Larval food for Marine Blue butterfly. Birds also eat the seeds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to light shade; fine in hot reflect sun areas. Soil Any well-drained soil including clays; any local pH. Water Best in Zone 2 once established (deep watering when soil is dry); can also water less deeply once a week in heat of summer. Fertilizer None Other Management: Easy to maintain. Prune lightly to shape of remove dead branches in spring after bloom. Never cut back to more than 18 inches from ground. Pest & disease resistant. Propagation: from seed: spring, deep pot by cuttings: hardwood, semi-soft wood, layering. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 13, 14, 22 1/31/11 * Native to Baja California © Project SOUND
*Blue/Rose sage – Salvia pachyphylla (SAL-vee-uh pak-ee-FILL-uh ) Family: Lamiaceae (Mint Family) Native to: Desert mountains of California Nevada, Arizona, n Baja California. Locally in San Bernardino. San Jacinto, Santa Rosa & Mojave Desert mountains ; on dry slopes, pinyon-juniper woodland, yellow pine forest, often in decomposed granite, at elevations from 5000-10,000 ft. Growth characteristics: woody sub-shrub mature height: 2-3 ft. mature width: 2-3+ ft. Half-woody sub-shrub with mounded to sprawling growth habit. Foliage pale green to gray-green. Leaves large for local native salvias, spoon-shaped, very aromatic. Relatively fast growth; may be short-lived (3-5 years) at lower elevations. Blooms/fruits: Blooms from early summer into fall – June to Sept./Oct. Flowers are exceptionally showy, blue with purple bracts on stems above the foliage. Plants are covered in blooms which attract hummingbirds and butterflies. Long-bloomer. Really spectacular plant! Uses in the garden: Used primarily as an accent plant for its flowers & foliage. Works well in dry beds or rock gardens with native Penstemons, Salvias and mediterranean herbs like rosemary & lavender. Good choice for large container. Grows in high shade under pines and other summer dry trees. Medicinal/seasoning uses. Cultivars: Salvia pachyphylla ‘Blue Flame’ from S. CA has lush, blue flowers; ‘Mulberry Flambe’ has dark mulberry-colored bracts. Sensible substitute for: Non-native shrubs; mediterranean shrubs/herbs. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant: provides cover, nectar/pollen and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Best in part-shade or morning sun. Soil Well-drained a must; most local pH except very alkali (> 8.0). Water No summer water to occasional (Water Zone 1 to 1-2). Fertilizer None Other Light organic mulch. Management: Prune back, leaving 3 sets of leaves/branch, after blooming in fall. Propagation: from seed: fresh seed by cuttings: semi-soft wood in summer. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 6, 8, 11, 24, 46 7/30/14 * not native to western Los Angeles County, but a CA native © Project SOUND
Scarlet Bugler – Penstemon centranthifolius (PEN-ste-mon sen-tran-thi-FO-lee-us ) Family: Veronicaceae/Plantaginaceae (Snapdragon Family) Native to: Western CA to Baja. Locally in Santa Monica and San Gabriel mountains; in many types of dry habitat from coast to desert, such as chaparral and oak woodland below 6500 feet elevation. Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 2-5 ft. mature width: 2-3 ft. Herbaceous perennial wildflower with thick, succulent upright stems. Leaves are gray-green to blue- green, broadly spoon-shaped, sometimes clasped around stem. Nice-looking foliage. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring – April-June. Flowers are bright red to orange-red, narrowly tubular, arranged along wand-like flowering stalks. Long-blooming and extremely showy – a real traffic-stopper. Amazing when massed – like a sea of red. Uses in the garden: Excellent for mid- or back-bed position in water-wise mixed flower beds. Showy addition to the hummingbird garden. Stunning paired with Salvias. Good for any dry, hard- to-water situation. Does well as showy specimen in a large container. Will hybridize with other local penstemons. Poultice of foliage was applied to skin wounds by native Californians. Sensible substitute for: Non-native perennials like snapdragons. Attracts: Excellent hummingbird habitat; also provides seeds for seed-eating birds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to part-shade. Soil Just about any local soil texture, pH. Water Treat as Zone 2 first year; then no/little summer water (Zone 1 or 1-2) Fertilizer None needed. Other Management: Prune back dead stalks in late summer/fall after seeds are collects/scattered. You may be able to extend bloom season by dead-heading and judicious water. That’s about it! Propagation: from seed: stored seed likes cold-moist treatment by cuttings: semi-soft wood. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 8, 10-14, 20, 21 5/2/11 © Project SOUND
California Fuschia – Epilobium canum (Zauschneria californica) (Ep-i-LOBE-ee-um CAN (or KANE)-um) Family: Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family) Native to: Western U.S. from Wyoming to Baja CA. In S. CA, away from immediate coast in dryer parts of Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral. Dry areas, rocky slopes & cliffs. Growth characteristics: perennial herb/sub-shrub mature height: 1-3 ft mature width: to 4 ft. Mounding sub-shrub with many semi-woody stems. Drought-deciduous. Rapid growing, spreading by underground stems. Extremely variable growth patterns; more bush-like and silvery in full sun & more ‘ground-cover-like’ in partial shade. Blooms/fruits: Bright red-orange fuschia-type flowers from fall into winter. Pollinated by hummingbirds. Extremely showy as there are many flowers – and at a time when few other plants are blooming! May bloom for several months. Uses in the garden: as a ground cover on sunny dry slopes or semi-shaded areas. For the mid- to back-bed area in mixed beds and borders. Provides welcome fall color. Tolerates some foot traffic once established. ‘Catalina’ cultivar is robust, with white-green leaves, very large, showy flowers. Sensible substitute for: non-native fuschias; other shrubby ground-covers. Attracts: hummingbirds; plants provide some cover for birds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to partial shade Soil Any, from sand to clay; any pH Water Little to moderate when established; drought tolerant (loses leaves); can tolerate flooding Fertilizer None needed Other Quite pest-free Management: Can be invasive – spreading by both seedlings and rhizomes. Cut back to ground in late winter for fuller growth. You can pinch terminal buds to promote branching (like any fuschia). Propagation: from seed: yes from cuttings: fairly easy from hardwood cuttings in fall. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1-3, 8, 9, 12-14, 19, 20, 24 11/28/10 © Project SOUND
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