*California Nutmeg/Stinking Yew – Torreya californica

(TOR-ee-uh cal-ih-FOR-ni-cuh)

Family: Taxaceae (Yew Family)
Native...
* California Juniper – Juniperus californica

(ju-NIP-er-us Kal-ih-FOR-nih-kuh )

Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family)
Na...
*Common/Mountain juniper – Juniperus communis var. montana (saxatilis)
(ju-NIP-er-us COMM-you nus mon-TAN-uh )

Family: Cu...
* Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii

(hes-per-oh-SIP-ar-is FORBS-ee-eye)

Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family)
Nat...
*Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis

(hes-per-oh-sy-PAR-us ne-vah-DEN-sis )

Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family)
...
*Coast (Beach) Pine – Pinus contorta var. contorta (PI-nus

con-TORR-tuh )

Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family)
Native to: West...
*Bishop Pine – Pinus muricata

(PIE-nus mur-ee-KAY-tuh )

Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family)
Native to: Restricted areas of no...
*California Foothill Pine – Pinus sabiniana

(PIE-nus suh-bin-ee-ANN-uh)

Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family)
Native to: Foothi...
*Singleleaf Pinyon Pine – Pinus monophylla

(PI-nus mono-FI(or FEE)-luh)

Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family)
Native to: Dry mo...
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Gardening sheets december 2013

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Gardening sheets december 2013

  1. 1. *California Nutmeg/Stinking Yew – Torreya californica (TOR-ee-uh cal-ih-FOR-ni-cuh) Family: Taxaceae (Yew Family) Native to: Endemic to N. CA, growing in Pacific Coast Ranges and foothills of the Sierra Nevada; occurs in many diverse plant communities, including chaparral and various coastal forests such as redwood, ponderosa forests, usually in cool deeply shaded slopes and canyon bottoms. Growth characteristics: woody evergreen tree mature height: 40-60 ft. mature width: 30-40 ft. Evergreen tree that’s conical in youth, more rounded with age. Needles shiny dark green, sharp, arranged stiffly on slender branches. Resembles a miniature yew or glossy-leaved redwood in form. Plants are very aromatic – scent similar to Sandalwood, but some find it disagreeable. Mature bark is thin, gray-brown. Plants are slow-growing and live hundreds of years in the wild. Separate male, female ‘cones’, usually on separate trees. Not related to true nutmeg; so named for the appearance of the female fruits/cones which are covered like a fleshy fruit before maturity. Seeds ripen in fall; take two years to mature. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Mostly used as large specimen tree for its striking appearance, aroma. Several sometimes planted in ‘groves’ in parks and other large landscapes. Can be pruned as a hedge; used as barrier plant. Does well in large containers. Gives the feel of N. CA coastal forests. Seeds eaten by Native Californians; plant also used medicinally and for other uses. Nice wood. Sensible substitute for: Non-native yews and similar evergreens. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nest sites and seeds for jays and other birds. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun only on immediate coast; part-shade best in most gardens. Any texture – sandy to clay; prefers slightly acidic soil – pH 5.5-7.0. Moist, well-drained soils – Water Zone 2-3 to 3; likes to be misted. ½ strength fertilizer fine. Organic mulch; can allow to self- mulch. Easy to grow in the right conditions, but needs moisture (like a redwood). Does poorly in windy sites. Management: Propagation: from seed: fresh seed or cold-moist pre-treat; slow germination Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 5, 8, 11 by cuttings: yes 12/3/12 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. * California Juniper – Juniperus californica (ju-NIP-er-us Kal-ih-FOR-nih-kuh ) Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) Native to: Western and southern desert mountains of CA to Baja and east to AZ & NV. Locally in San Gabriels and in antelope Valley; on dry, alkaline slopes & flats below 5000 ft. in desert chaparral and pinyon/juniper woodlands. woody tree/shrub mature height: 10-15+ ft. mature width: 10-20 ft. Evergreen tree-like shrub or small tree – usually multi-trunk. Foliage is typical for junipers with scale-like leaves and is aromatic and can be used for making juniper tea. Bark is light gray, thin and shreddy. Form is upright with widely spreading branches. An attractive juniper. Older specimens have interesting shapes. Slow-growing and long-lived (to 150 years in wild). Growth characteristics: Blooms are insignificant in spring. plants). Female plants produce juniper ‘berries’ immature; red-brown when mature in fall. Fruits seeds. Fruits are used to flavor beverages (gin; tea) Blooms/fruits: Species is dioecious (separate male & female (actually cones). ‘Berries’ are green when are dry, sweet-tasting and contain 1-2 large or cooked meats. Uses in the garden: A hardy, water-wise juniper that can be used as a small tree. Also used for informal hedges. Excellent wildlife habitat plant. anywhere that you want a large juniper/cedar look. Fine on dry slopes, for erosion control. Use it Sensible substitute for: Non-native Junipers. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nest sites and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun to light shade. Most local soil types and pH; prefers well-drained soils, but others OK. Low needs once established; Zone 1-2 best in garden setting. None Prune for plant health and to shape (if desired). like any other juniper. Management: Propagation: from seed: requires cold-moist treatment Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 6, 14 Plant will drop leaves and fruits – by cuttings: probably 11/29/11 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. *Common/Mountain juniper – Juniperus communis var. montana (saxatilis) (ju-NIP-er-us COMM-you nus mon-TAN-uh ) Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) Native to: Much of Western North America from AK to CO, NM and CA. In CA. Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains ; Dry rocky soil and rock crevices on slopes and summits in Yellow Pine, Douglas-Fir, North Coastal Coniferous, Lodgepole and Subalpine Forests > 3500 ft. woody shrub mature height: 1-4 ft. mature width: 4-10+ ft. Low-growing, woody shrub with many branches. Form may be mat-like or rounded and shrubby. Blue-gray needles are short-pointed, sharp (wear gloves), in whorls of three, emerging at a right angle to the stem. Mature bark is red-brown, shreddy. Fragrance of Juniper. Long-lived (> 150 yr). Growth characteristics: Blooms in spring. Separate male & female plants (usually). Female cones are berry-like, starting green-red and ripening to bright blue with a white bloom. Showy – many per plant. ‘Berries’ are among the best flavored of all junipers. Used as seasoning, flavoring. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Most often used as a woody groundcover plant. Does well on slopes. Nice addition to rock garden or Asian-themed garden. Very adaptable in garden setting. Hardy – tolerant of air pollution. Nice color; interesting texture. Plants used medicinally and ceremonially. Note: all junipers are flammable. Sensible substitute for: Non-native Junipers. Attracts: Birds make frequent use of juniper berries and help disseminate the indigestible seeds’; he shrubs provide cover for small mammals and birds. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun to light shade. Just about any local soil texture, pH. Very adaptable; takes moist to fairly dry conditions. NO STANDING WATER. ½ strength OK. Thin layer organic mulch fine – or let self-mulch. Management: Relatively low maintenance. Best pruned in winter. Susceptible to juniper blight. Propagation: from seed: warm, then cold-moist pre-treatment Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): by cuttings: yes 13, 14, Monrovia Nursery 12/3/13 © Project SOUND
  4. 4. * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii (hes-per-oh-SIP-ar-is FORBS-ee-eye) Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) Native to: Foothills from Orange County to Baja (there are only four natural groves left in CA); most commonly on dry, chaparral & canyon slopes; 1500-5000 ft. woody tree mature height: 10-30 ft. mature width: 6-8 ft. Woody tree that grows quickly to 10-15 ft, then more slowly. Shrubby looking with rounded crown and usually multiple trunks. Bark peels to reveal red under bark. Leaves typical for cypress, medium green, attractive. Trees can live to several hundred years old in wild. Growth characteristics: Blooms are particularly showy. Separate male and female flowers (on same plant); female develops into a tough, rounded seed cone. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Any situation where a non-native Cypress or upright Juniper might be used. Excellent for erosion control on hillsides. A good choice for smaller gardens. Makes a good hedge, screen or windbreak. Plant is fire prone. Sensible substitute for: Non-native cypress & junipers. Attracts: Excellent bird & lizard habitat: provides cover and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun. Quite adaptable, but prefers well-drained. Can take mildly acid (to 5.0 pH) soils. Low water needs once established – best with Zone 1 or 1-2 (inland) None Management: Prune to shape – can be sheared. Propagation: from seed: difficult; cold-stratify Don’t over-water. Other than that, easy. by cuttings: likely yes Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14, 20, 24 12/2/13 * Native to CA but not to Western L.A. Co. © Project SOUND
  5. 5. *Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis (hes-per-oh-sy-PAR-us ne-vah-DEN-sis ) Family: Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) Native to: Endemic to Kern Co/Sierra Nevadas; On dry hills, ridges and in ravines in mixed conifer/ broadleaved woodland with Pinus sabiniana, Quercus spp., Juniperus californica, Fremontia californica, Yucca whipplei, and in valley scrub-grassland. woody tree mature height: 30-50+ ft. mature width: 20-35 ft. Woody evergreen tree, multi-trunked and similar to taller junipers. Shape pyramidal in youth; usually more spreading-mounded with age. Leaves scale-like, blue-green to medium green and aromatic when crushed. Attractive shape is enhanced by shreddy bark, exposing red-brown new bark. Fast growth to 20 ft., then slower. Growth characteristics: Blooms in spring. Male & female cones on same tree. Female cones rounded, pale red-brown in clusters at the ends of branches; may remain unopened for several years. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Most often used as a water-wise specimen tree in S. CA gardens. Nice size and really tough. Fine on slopes and probably in large containers. Sometimes used as large hedge, wildlife habitat. Good for background in Asian-themed or Mediterranean-themed gardens. Drought-tolerant shade tree. Sensible substitute for: Non-native cypress, junipers. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nest sites and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun. Any well-drained; any local pH. Best with some supplemental water, but drought-tolerant: Water Zone 1-2 to 2-3. Not needed; ½ strength probably fine. Organic mulch recommended Management: Prune as needed or desired. Fairly care free. Watch for fungal diseases Propagation: from seed: cold-moist pre-treat Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): by cuttings: yes 6,13 12/3/13 © Project SOUND
  6. 6. *Coast (Beach) Pine – Pinus contorta var. contorta (PI-nus con-TORR-tuh ) Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family) Native to: Western coastal N. America from AK to N. CA (Mendocino Co.); coastal dunes, seaside bluffs, and exposed rocky headlands < 2000 ft. in closed-cone pine and cypress communities. woody tree mature height: 20-50 ft. mature width: 10-25 ft. Woody tree with dramatic and wind-swept look, particularly in nature. Trunk is often twisted and trees have many irregular branches. Short, dark green needles – may be dense in garden setting. Bark dark and furrowed. Fast growing and relative short-lived for a pine (50+ years). Growth characteristics: Blooms in spring; cones mature in fall. Female cones are dark, irregularly shaped and often persistent. Cones take two years to develop. Trees begin producing between 5 and 10 years of age. Seeds are edible. Good seed crops in alternate years. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Mostly used in gardens along the immediate coast for its tolerance to wind and salt spray. Good garden tolerance elsewhere with some water and organic mulch. Fast growth and relatively small size make it good for home gardens. Excellent choice for large containers, bonsai and training. Would work well in Asian or N. Coastal themed gardens. Rustic appearance. Sensible substitute for: Non-native pines. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nest sites and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun to part-shade. Most, including poorly drained soils; not for pH > 8.0. Occasional to near-regular water; Water Zone 2-3 is optimal. Don’t overwater in poorly-drained soils. Not needed; probably OK. Organic mulch. Management: Easy to grow. Prune if desired to shape. Propagation: from seed: fresh seed or cold-moist pre-treat Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 14 by cuttings: yes 12/4/13 © Project SOUND
  7. 7. *Bishop Pine – Pinus muricata (PIE-nus mur-ee-KAY-tuh ) Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family) Native to: Restricted areas of north and central coast, N. Channel Isl. and N. Baja (Cedros Isl.); dry ridges to coastal, windshorn forests, often in or around bogs redwood forest, n coastal conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral at elevations < 1000 ft. woody tree mature height: 40-75 ft. mature width: 20-30 ft. Evergreen pine with dark green needles. Shape is pyramidal in youth; mature trees often have a broad, heavy crown. Mature bark dark brown. Fast-growing. Lives 50-150+ years. Growth characteristics: Separate male and female cones. Cones remain closed until high temperatures (fire) release the seeds. Female cones 2-3 inches, dark brown. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: good choice when a fast-growing pine is needed, particularly in coastal areas. Often used as a large hedge or ornamental tree in large plantings. Very attractive – pair with other plants from the N. and Central coast. Seeds are edible. Note: all pines are flammable. Sensible substitute for: Non-native pines like Italian Stone Pine. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nesting sites and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun (coast); part-shade inland Sandy, loam or rocky; any local pH. Occasional to moderate summer water; Zone 2 to 2-3; perhaps less with age. Light fertilizer OK. Pretty care-free. Watch for Beetle Borers, Phytophthora, Root Rot, Rust and Pitch Prune out dead branches as needed. Management: Canker. Propagation: from seed: fresh or 6 wk cold-moist pre-treat Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 11, 13, 32 by cuttings: yes 12/1/13 © Project SOUND
  8. 8. *California Foothill Pine – Pinus sabiniana (PIE-nus suh-bin-ee-ANN-uh) Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family) Native to: Foothills surrounding CA Central Valley and interior coastal ranges to Ventura Co, Liebre Mtns.; dry slopes & ridges below 4500 ft. in foothill woodland, n oak woodland, chaparral, mixedconifer and hardwood forests. Usually in areas with poor soils. woody tree mature height: 40-80 ft. mature width: 25-35 ft. Evergreen pine with drooping gray-green needles and airy foliage, often high above the understory. Usually with crooked, divided stems – often looks quite weathered, picturesque. Mature bark dark brown, thick and fissured. Grows fast to 45 ft. in 15 years. Lives 50-200 years. Long taproot. Root and shoot fibers can be used for basketry. Growth characteristics: Blooms in spring. Separate male, female cones. Female cones are egg-shaped, very large (6-12 inch) and heavy (1-2 lb), with long, sharp keels. Female cones remain on tree for years. Seeds are very tasty (eaten extensively by Native Californians) but difficult to process. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Often used when a native pine species is desired. Open habit allows other plants to be grown beneath it. Gray-green color and rustic growth habit make it an interesting specimen tree. Very drought tolerant. Note: like all pines, this species is flammable. Sensible substitute for: Non-native pines. Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nest sites and seeds for food. Scrub jay, acorn woodpecker and mourning dove relish the seeds. Also eaten by squirrels and other small animals. Attracts: Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun to light shade. Best in well-drained soils – sandy, rocky or loam; most local pH. Drought tolerant; probably best at Water Zone 1-2 to 2 (occasional water). None. Requires little maintenance. Watch for bark beetles. Can prune off lower limbs. Roots are shallow in clay soils – may blow over in wet windy weather in these soils. Management: Propagation: from seed: cold-moist treat 45 days Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): by cuttings: yes 5, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14, 24, 32 12/1/13 © Project SOUND
  9. 9. *Singleleaf Pinyon Pine – Pinus monophylla (PI-nus mono-FI(or FEE)-luh) Family: Pinaceae (Pine Family) Native to: Dry mountain ranges of the western U.S. from ID to NM and n. Baja. In CA in Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountains, Peninsular and Transverse Ranges, desert mtns – locally in San Gabriel mtns; Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Foothill Woodland between 4000-7500 ft. elevation. woody tree mature height: 10-35+ ft. mature width: 5-15 ft. Woody evergreen pine. Pyramidal shape when young, becoming more mounded/irregular with age. Foliage blue-green to gray-green; needles in bundles of one (unusual, and hence its name). Plant grows rapidly when young, then slowly. Live hundreds of years in wild. Very tough plant. Growth characteristics: Blooms in spring; separate male, female cones. Bearing begins about 35 years of age. Rounded female cones ~ 2 inches, brown. Seeds (pine nuts) are very delicious – prized food where ever this plant grows. Good crops every 3-7 years on mature trees. Blooms/fruits: Uses in the garden: Most often used as a specimen plant in regional gardens. Makes a good waterwise screen/large hedge. Suitable choice for regional Asian-style gardens. Nice shape and waterwise. Can be trained as bonsai. Sometimes grown as edible crop tree. Gives a rustic, western look to any garden. Mature plants (15+ years) make a garden look well-established. Good choice for shade tree – prune out the lower branches. Note: all pines are flammable. Sensible substitute for: Non-native pines. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover, nest sites and seeds for food. Many kinds of birds and small mammals feed on the seeds including jays. Requirements: Element Sun Soil Water Fertilizer Other Requirement Full sun to part-shade Any soil from sandy to clay; acidic to alkali – very adaptable Only occasional water once established; Water Zone 1-2 best. Not needed Organic mulch OK; best if needles left to self-mulch Pretty carefree if not over-watered. Watch for bark borers, Oak Root Rot and other stem and root rot fungal infections. Prune out dead limbs if needed. Management: Propagation: from seed: needs cold-moist pre-treatment Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): by cuttings: yes Monrovia Nursery, 11, 13, 14 12/2/13 © Project SOUND

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