Buzzing of Bees    C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake     CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve       Madrona Marsh Preserve           Jul...
Colony Collapse Disorder – our wake-up call                           http://bee-rapture.blogspot.com/2009/04/found-cause-...
Why worry about bee pollinators?              Bees are “keystone organisms” in               most terrestrial ecosystems....
Even before colony collapse disorder,                    some people were concerned…                                      ...
 Pollinators at risk:                                    Non-native pollinators are vulnerable                          ...
What’s all the buzz about down on the farm?                                     © Project SOUND
California: leader in bee research & practice                                                 Active bee research center ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                              1.   Native bee pollinators and pollinator        ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                            1.      Native bee p...
Kingdom Animalia (Animals) Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)   Class Insecta (Insects)      Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees,...
Bees have been around for millions of           years, evolving with the flowering plants                                 ...
Plants and insect pollinators became                                                     intimately linked                ...
The pollination duet                                                                              continues               ...
Is it a bee? The anatomy of a bee              Bees have four wings (two pair;               difficult to see when folded...
Is it a bee?                Most bees are hairy-bodied,                                             with multi-branched h...
What makes a bee a good pollinator?                                                                                       ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                 2. Native bees are important po...
Native bees can be more efficient pollinators (on a      bee-for-bee basis)                                    Example: 2...
Reasons for increased efficiency of somenative bees: specialization         High degree of specialization (some bee speci...
Sex & the single tomato plant                                                       Tomato flowers do not produce nectar ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                                           3. Ag...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                     4. Proximity matters                       ...
Applications to the home gardenAttracting native bees has the potential to increaseyields for home vegetable & fruit crops...
Urban pollinator habitat takes a neighborhood –         radius of about 6-10 houses   The plant choices you make can benef...
What does it take to bee a good neighbor?                                     Bee response to urban                      ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                 5. Some plants are better nectar/                    pollen sou...
Characteristics of good native bee plants                  Long bloom season                  Many flowers (often indivi...
Plant families & genera that provide nectar & pollen        for a wide range of native pollinators                        ...
The Sunflower family                                      (Asteraceae) provides                                       impo...
Sonoran Bumblebee -         Bombus sonorus All black head; thorax yellow,  with broad black band between  the wings; abdo...
Generalist & specialist pollinators Most native bees arent too choosy (native; some non-native  garden plants; alien weed...
Floral timing is also important when             considering native pollinators                               Social bees...
Black-tailed Bumblebee - Bombus melanopygus        edwardsii More yellow on body most of California and  Southern Oregon...
Bombus – the                                                Bumblebees   > 250 known species; 45 in the U.S.   Large and...
Bumblebee life cycle                                   Bumble bees live in a colony                                    wi...
A typical front yard….                         © Project SOUND
What can we use to give the look of theold crepe myrtle, and provide ‘bee food’?                    The following all pro...
Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca                                    © Project SOUND
Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca                                                                           CA ...
Big Berry is a large manzanita                                                                                 Size:     ...
Flowers: Manzanita type     Blooms:                    One of the earliest                    usually Dec-Mar in our ar...
 Soils: Manzanita for sandy soils                      Texture: well-drained, sandy                                     ...
Bigberry Manzanita: shrub or tree                                                                                 Easy-ca...
Converting your yard to bee habitat: one                    step at a time http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sal...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                       6. Size matters:         ...
* White Coast Ceanothus – Ceanothus verrucosus © 2010 Andrew Borcher                                        © Project SOUND
* White Coast Ceanothus – Ceanothus verrucosus                                                                           ...
White Coast Ceanothus: large shrub                                                          Size:                        ...
One of the best white-                                               flowered Ceanothus                                   ...
Chaparral shrub                                Soils:                                                          Texture: ...
Shrub or tree: your choice                                                         Low-care plant for slopes             ...
Yellow-faced Bumble Bee      Bombus vosnesenskii Most common bumblebee of  California ; San Diego throughout  most of Cal...
*Desert-willow – Chilopsis linearis                                 © Project SOUND
Toyon/California Christmas Berry –       Heteromeles arbutifolia
Not all situations are suitable for native pollinator       plants: good, productive alternatives                         ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                               7. Lack of suitab...
Most native bees are not hive-builders                                                              ~ 70 percent of nativ...
Providing homes for native pollinators                                http://beechronicle.posterous.com/?tag=beehouses Le...
Large Carpenter Bees - Genus Xylocopa                                                               ~ 500 species worldwi...
Valley carpenter bee (Xylocopa varipuncta): fun to watch                                                                 ...
Sex life of the Valley Carpenter Bee: it just gets better the more we know!                         Green-eyed golden mal...
Landscape established: shrubs, lacklusterhttp://www.estately.com/listings/info/1728-fraser-circle--1   http://yuba_city.ca...
Lupines provide early/mid-season nectar             for large bees                                 © Project SOUND
Silver Bush Lupine – Lupinus albifrons                                 © Project SOUND
Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifoliushttp://www.solardarkroom.com/blog/2011/06/04/grizzly-flat-after-the-station-fire...
Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius                                                                         Former...
Ah… a bush lupine                                                             for your CSS garden                         ...
Lupines are good for sunny, dry places                                                              Soils:               ...
Salvias: good bee   plants, but large size Remember: consider mature  size when choosing any plant to  include in a matur...
Sunflowers are good summer bee plants But many of them are also rather large So what choices do I have if I want attract...
Family Halictidae,                                                                                    Sweat Bees          ...
Halictid bees are summer foragers                                                                     Generalists – will ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                 9. ‘Out of the way’ places can ...
What’s all the buzz in farm land?         Providing habitat for native pollinators                                       ...
Applications to the home garden Many Ag growers may already  have an abundance of potential  habitat for native pollinato...
Coastal (Dune) Buckwheat - Eriogonum parvifolium
Ashy-leaf Buckwheat – Eriogonum cinereum                                   © Project SOUND
California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum                                       © Project SOUND
Characteristics of California Buckwheat                                                              Size: similar       ...
http://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.htmlDune Buckwheat – E. parvifolium   CA Buckwheat – E. fasciculatum               ...
Garden requirements are similar for mostlocal Buckwheats  Soils:                        Texture:                        ...
CA Buckwheat:      Great for summer color: May-showy for months     Nov. possible                    As an alternative t...
CA Buckwheat cultivars make goodgroundcovers                 ‘Dana Point’ - brighter green leaf,                  more mo...
Even small spaces can be bee heaven                              © Project SOUND
Phacelias are among our                                                 best general nectar sources                       ...
* Coast (California) Phacelia – Phacelia californica                                             © Project SOUND
* Coast Phacelia – Phacelia californica                                                         Coastal bluffs and canyon...
Coast Phacelia: a delightful perennial                                    Size:                                          ...
Showiest of Phacelias                      Blooms:                            Long bloom season: spring to              ...
Coast Phacelia: from seed or plugs                                     Phacelias tend to be easy to grow from            ...
Versatile Phacelia                                 Soils:                                                       Texture:...
Coast Phacelia: a filler plant                                                               In pots & planters; along wa...
Bees can be happy in   small spaces                       © Project SOUND
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                     9. Creating native ‘bee habitat’           ...
Advantages of ‘Pollinator Plants’ for the           home garden                  They are often showy & pretty;          ...
There are many attractive choices…                              © Project SOUND
Indian Milkweed - Asclepias eriocarpahttp://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asclepias_eriocarpa
Milkweeds                        Milkweeds are found in                         many areas of CA                         ...
Characteristics of Indian Milkweed                                                        Hairy, gray-green              ...
Indian Milkweed is a food source for                             butterflies and other insects                            ...
Narrow-leaf Milkweed - Asclepias fascicularis
Showy Milkweed – Asclepias speciosa© 2004 George W. Hartwell                               © Project SOUND
Tricks to gardening with Milkweeds                  Easy to grow                  Plant (seeds) in place if             ...
Consider Using Milkweeds           For butterfly/pollinator gardens           For showy white-pink flowers in           ...
Lessons about pollination from ag research                                                                         10. Far...
Blue Toadflax – Nuttallanthus (Linaria) canadensishttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1721/nuttallanthus-texanus-texas-to...
Blue Toadflax – Nuttallanthus (Linaria) canadensis                                                                        ...
Blue Toadflax: an annual for small places                                                                       Size:    ...
Flowers are dainty                                                                                      Blooms: late spri...
Let Toadflax weave                                                                            through the garden          ...
Gardening for Bee Pollinators   2011
Gardening for Bee Pollinators   2011
Gardening for Bee Pollinators   2011
Gardening for Bee Pollinators   2011
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Gardening for Bee Pollinators 2011

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This lecture was given in July, 2011 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Gardening for Bee Pollinators 2011

  1. 1. Buzzing of Bees C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve July 2 & 5, 2011 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Colony Collapse Disorder – our wake-up call http://bee-rapture.blogspot.com/2009/04/found-cause-of-colony- collapse-disorder.html © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Why worry about bee pollinators?  Bees are “keystone organisms” in most terrestrial ecosystems.  Bees are essential for maintaining the integrity, productivity and sustainability of many types of ecosystems: natural areas, pastures, fields, meadows, roadsides, many agricultural crops, fruit orchards, and backyard vegetable and flower gardens.  Without bees, many flowering plants would eventually become extinct.  Without the work of bees, many fruit- and seed-eating birds and some mammals, including people, would have a less varied and less healthy diet. © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Even before colony collapse disorder, some people were concerned…  Depending on a single source – for anything – should make us all nervous  Better to ‘diversify the portfolio’http://therealnewsjournal.com/?tag=colony-collapse-disorder http://urbangardencasual.com/2009/04/28/possible-cure- for-honey-bee-colony-collapse-disorder-discovered/ European Honey Bee Apis mellifera © Project SOUND
  5. 5.  Pollinators at risk:  Non-native pollinators are vulnerable to environmental factors - limited genetic variability  Native pollinators are at risk due to habitat loss, climate change and use of pesticides & herbicides  Decline in native bee species world-Honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder wide since 1980  Crop production world-wide is decreasing (since at least 1990) due to decreasing numbers of pollinators  So we all should be worried – and taking action  The third week of June is designated National Pollinators Week (The fifth annual National Pollinator Week was June 20-26, 2011 ! © Project SOUND
  6. 6. What’s all the buzz about down on the farm? © Project SOUND
  7. 7. California: leader in bee research & practice  Active bee research center at UC Davis – over 75 years of practical research  Laidlaw Honey Bee Research Facility  Initial research focused on the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/dept/beebio.cfm  Increasing research intoIncreasing interest in the role the biology, ecology andof urban & suburban gardens in use of a variety of nativemaintaining & using native bee beespopulations – ‘NeighborhoodPollinator Preserves’ © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Lessons about pollination from ag research 1. Native bee pollinators and pollinator relationships are complex: a. ~ 1500 native bee species in CA b. Honey Bees are actually quite unique compared to most native bees c. Bees differ greatly in food & nesting requirements; we need to understand & plan for these differences  Food sources: generalists & specialists  Time of year food is needed  Nesting requirements: ground; wood; etc. d. We need to better understand species- specific requirements in order to designWe don’t notice native bees conservation plans that maintain pollinationunless we’re looking for function in natural and man-made habitats.them © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Lessons about pollination from ag research 1. Native bee pollinator relationships are complex: c. Wild bee populations fluctuate widely from year-to-year (4-fold variation for some species). To ensure reliable pollination from non-domesticated species, maintaining ahttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1648/2283.full community of bees, rather than just one species, is necessaryNumber of seeds inpumpkins vs. number of d. Despite year-to-year composition variability,bee species pollination rates fairly constant in farms near natural areas – diversity acts as a buffer e. More species = greater pollination success f. Honey bees play a key role in pollinating native plants – and probably don’t influence the numbers & composition of native bees © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Kingdom Animalia (Animals) Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)  Class Insecta (Insects)  Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)  Superfamily Apoidea (Bees)  Social Bees - True social insects. Communal nests are built in the soil (bumble bees) or in cavities (honey bees). Workers (sterile females) forage for nectar and pollen.  Family Apidae -- bumble bees and honey bees  Solitary Bees - Adults construct individual nests and provision them with plant materials (usually nectar or pollen).  Family Apidae (formerly Anthophoridae) -- carpenter bees  Family Halictidae -- sweat bees  Family Megachilidae -- leafcutting bees  Family Andrenidae: mining bees © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Bees have been around for millions of years, evolving with the flowering plants  Early insects, in their rummaging for food, inadvertently became the agents of pollination; pollen adhering to their bodies washttp://www3.telus.net/conrad/beevolve.htm transferred to the female organs of the plant. Trigona prisca, A stingless  A mutualistic relationship meliponine bee-- a fossil of which was preserved in Cretaceous resulted: amber 74-96 million years ago.  the plants benefitted by increased pollination;  and the insects were helping to ensure a better supply of their food source. © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Plants and insect pollinators became intimately linked  Eventually, both plants and insects became more and more specialized as a result of the pollinator relationship (co-evolution)http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/wildlife-habitat/science/critical-species/pollinators/  Many pollinator insects evolved behavior and physiology completely dependent upon the cycles of flowering plants.  Similarly, certain plants developed flower structures which benefitted – or excluded - particular types of insects.http://idoradesign.blogspot.com/2010_04_01_archive.html © Project SOUND
  13. 13. The pollination duet continues  Even the structure of pollen, itself, changed. Pollen transferred by insects or other animals usually has spines,http://www.earthzine.org/2008/02/14/buzzing-about-climate-change/ ridges or an adhesive surface which aids in attaching to the animal vector.  To attract pollinators, some plants developed specialized organs, nectaries, that secreted a sugary nectar, at the base of the flower. This proved an adaptive advantage since the nectar, as a food source, was a further attraction to many insect species.http://hanesexterminating.com/insect_information  Ultimately, the lifestyles of floweringAnd this explains why native bees plants and of pollinating insects becameare often the best pollinators for forever intertwined.native plants © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Is it a bee? The anatomy of a bee  Bees have four wings (two pair; difficult to see when folded over the body).  Bees have long, elbowed antennae.  Bees have large, well separated eyes with three small eyes (or “ocelli”) on top of the head.  Bees are more robust (i.e. rounder bodies) than wasps and flies; abdomen usually broad near thorax (vs. most wasps). © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Is it a bee?  Most bees are hairy-bodied, with multi-branched hairs (resemble pipe-cleaners or brushes) for carrying pollen.  Female bees can carry large loads of pollen, either on their legs or on their abdomen in a “scopa”.  If you see an insect toting a load of pollen either on its hind legs or beneath its abdomen, it is a female bee. The pollen may be carried as a dry powder in a brush of hairs, or moistened with nectar to form a clump or pellet.http://gardenbees.com/garden/gardpol.htm © Project SOUND
  16. 16. What makes a bee a good pollinator?  Anatomic adaptations  Size  Fuzzy body  Leg adaptations for pollen capture/transport  Behavioral adaptations  Generalist feedinghttp://www.rochester.edu/college/bio/labs/Minckley/Bee_Photos/Anthophora_californica.jpg patterns  ? Eusocial behaviorDigger (Miner) Bee – a good pollinator  Long foraging range © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Lessons about pollination from ag research 2. Native bees are important pollinators – when available in suitable numbers a. Native, unmanaged bee populations provide important pollination services in nature & on the farm b. Native bees provide up to 30-40% of pollination on some CA organic farms c. Native bee species are an undervalued asset worth up to $2.4 billion to California farmers d. Honeybees are not always the most effective pollinators of a given crop;http://www.howdididoit.com/home-garden/how-to-grow-hanging-tomato-plants/ native bees pollinate some crops not pollinated by honey bees (cherry tomatoes) © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Native bees can be more efficient pollinators (on a bee-for-bee basis)  Example: 250 female blue orchard bees (Osmia lignaria) can effectively pollinate an acre of apples; this would require one to two honey bees hives, each containing 15,000 to 20,000 workers.  Reasons for this increased efficiency:  Greater tolerance for cold and wet weather.  Native bees usually must collect both pollen and nectar, ensuring that they contact the anthers (pollen-producing structures); some honey bees just collect nectar.http://www.osmia.com/bluebee.htm © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Reasons for increased efficiency of somenative bees: specialization  High degree of specialization (some bee species).  Example: Squash bees (genus Peponapis), for example, primarily visit flowers of the squash family  Better fit between flower structure & bee anatomy/behavior.  Example: The stamen (the structure holding the anthers) of alfalfa flowers is held under tension - springs forward with force when released by a visiting bee. The alkali bee (Nomia melanderi), a native ground-nesting bee, is not discouraged by this unusual flower structure and is a major pollinator of alfalfa seed in some western states.  Example: buzz pollination (sonication) - very important for some plants such as blueberries, cranberries, tomatoes and peppers © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Sex & the single tomato plant  Tomato flowers do not produce nectar  Some newer tomatoes are self- pollinating (through breeding); old varieties require cross-pollination  Tomato pollen is released from pores within the anthers (similar to salt being shaken from a salt shaker)  Pollen is generally accessible only to http://www.ericwallnursery.co.uk/glasshouse.html bees that use ‘buzz pollination’ – theMost visitors to tomato are ability to grasp a flower andnon-Apis bees, particularly vigorously vibrate their flightbumble bees; greenhousetomato growers use bumble muscles, releasing pollen from thebees extensively now anthers [sonication]. © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Lessons about pollination from ag research 3. Agricultural and native ecosystems are intimately linked: a. Crop-pollinating bee species are often generalists that pollinate many native plants; restoring pollination services for agriculture could also benefit wild plants and thereby promote conservation of biodiversity across the agro-natural landscape. b. To maintain agricultural pollinationhttp://groups.ucanr.org/jacksonlab/Project_1/Biodiversity_and_Ecosystem_Function_in_an_Organic_Farmscape_in_Y.htm services for the future, attention must be given to a variety of strategies including both native ecosystem conservation and on-farm management © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Lessons about pollination from ag research 4. Proximity matters a. The presence native pollinators strongly correlates with the amount of native habitat nearby b. Native bees venture farther into agricultural fields than honey bees c. The flight distance varies with the size of the bee. Small sweat bees and mining bees may not fly more than 200 or 300 yards from nest to forage area. Large bees (bumble bees, for example) can cross a mile or more of inhospitable, flowerless landscape to forage.http://www.bucknell.edu/x37317.xml © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Applications to the home gardenAttracting native bees has the potential to increaseyields for home vegetable & fruit crops © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Urban pollinator habitat takes a neighborhood – radius of about 6-10 houses The plant choices you make can benefit your entire neighborhood © Project SOUND
  25. 25. What does it take to bee a good neighbor?  Bee response to urban habitat fragmentation was best predicted by ecological traits associated with nesting and dietary breadth  Provide the right habitat – even in a small area – and you can make a difference in your neighborhoodSchools and other public lands provide the perfect venue to provideboth habitat and education to the neighborhood © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Lessons about pollination from ag research 5. Some plants are better nectar/ pollen sources than others for native bees a. Some crop species [Ex: squash] are important nectar sources for selected native bees [squash bees] b. Native plants provide nectar for both wild and honey bees c. The more intensive the planting of non-native farm crops, the less the bee species diversity – less intensive organic farms had more diversity & more open space © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Characteristics of good native bee plants  Long bloom season  Many flowers (often individually small – but many per plant)  Produce both high quality nectar & pollen  Designed specifically to attract bees:  Scent cues  Color/patterning  Shape: good place to land while nectaring © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Plant families & genera that provide nectar & pollen for a wide range of native pollinators  Arctostaphylos - Manzanitas  Ceanothus species  Phacelia – FiddlenecksEriogonum - Buckwheat  Lamiaceae – Mint family  Asclepias - Milkweeds  Polygonaceae – Buckwheat Family  Asteraceae – Sunflower family  Clematis – Virgin’s Bowers © Project SOUND Grindelia - Gumplant
  29. 29. The Sunflower family (Asteraceae) provides important food in fall  Bloom in summer/ fall  Long bloom seasonGoldenbushes – Hazardia & Isocoma  Nectar and pollen available to many types of pollinators (even ants, beetles)  Lots of small flowers  Flower shape allows many bees to land & feed/collect © Project SOUND Baccharis species
  30. 30. Sonoran Bumblebee - Bombus sonorus All black head; thorax yellow, with broad black band between the wings; abdomen yellow except for the hind three segments, which are black. Early spring through summer Generalist pollinator – visits many species to nectar http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/SonoranBumblebee.shtml © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Generalist & specialist pollinators Most native bees arent too choosy (native; some non-native garden plants; alien weeds); if they can reach the nectar or gather pollen, they can supply their nest. Some bees, however, are very choosy and will only gather pollen from a small number of plant species. In extreme cases, the bee may be restricted to just a single plant species. “Generalist” bee species visit a large variety of plants and crops, in contrast to “specialist” bee species which forage on a restricted group of plants. ‘Generalist’ pollinators can be extremely useful in both the farm & garden setting © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Floral timing is also important when considering native pollinators  Social bees with a long-lived colony, such as bumble bees and honey bees, need flowers blooming throughout the season. You will see these bees most of the year except when it is very cold  Solitary bees usually have a much shorter active period, often no more than five or six weeks, and have life cycles synchronized with the blooming of preferred flower species.  If you want to attract most native bees (the solitary types) you need to plant theDigger (Miner) Bee – summer appropriate species © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Black-tailed Bumblebee - Bombus melanopygus edwardsii More yellow on body most of California and Southern Oregon Very early season Works furiously polluting Arctostaphylos species, Ribes species, (Native Gooseberries and Currants) and some Cultivated Plum Varieties (early blooming). © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Bombus – the Bumblebees > 250 known species; 45 in the U.S. Large and hairy; black and yellow body hairs, often in bands. They are best distinguished from similarly large, fuzzy bees by the form of the female hind leg, which is modified to form a corbicula: a shiny concave surface that is bare, but surrounded by a fringe of hairs used to transport pollen (‘pollen bag’) Like their relatives the honey bees, bumble bees feed on nectar and gather pollen to feed their young. Believed to be responsible for the pollination of approximately 25% of crops in northern California. High metabolic rate (75% higher than a humming birds!) allows them to forage in early spring © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Bumblebee life cycle  Bumble bees live in a colony with a caste system of workers, males and a single egg-laying queen.  Similar to honey bees, bumble bees construct a wax comb  Bumble bees nest in cavities such as abandoned rodent burrows, brush piles and dried grass tussocks The colony grows through 3-4 generations and may have several hundred workers at the peak in mid-summer. Unlike honey bees, bumble bee colonies do not survive over the winter. However, the fertilized queens ‘hibernate’ until spring © Project SOUND
  36. 36. A typical front yard…. © Project SOUND
  37. 37. What can we use to give the look of theold crepe myrtle, and provide ‘bee food’?  The following all provide many flowers loved by bees:  Early:  Manzanitas (Arctostaphylos)  Early/Mid-season  California Lilac (Ceanothus)  Late spring/summer  Desert Willow (Chilopsis)  Toyon  Summer Holly (Comarostaphylis) © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Big Berry Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glauca  CA foothills from central CA to Baja; includes foothills of Mojave Desert mtns.  Locally in Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mtns.  Rocky slopes, chaparral, woodland < 4500 ft  Soils range from sandy loam with considerable coarse fragments to loam.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3449,3454,3477 http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabu s2/factsheet.cfm?ID=479 © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Big Berry is a large manzanita  Size:  usually 8-12 ft tall; may reach 20  8-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Large woody shrub to small, multi- branched tree; mounded shape  Lovely branch structure – one of the ‘sculptural’ manzanitas  Peeling red bark – showy  Can live 100+ years  Foliage:  Evergreen; leaves pale blue-green  Vertical orientation on branch – looks very precise  Roots: relatively shallow © Project SOUNDhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Arctostaphylos_glauca.htm
  41. 41. Flowers: Manzanita type  Blooms:  One of the earliest  usually Dec-Mar in our area  Flowers: typical Manzanita  Small pink flowers  Urn-shaped; in terminal clusters  Key early nectar source for bees and other early-season pollinators  Fruits:  Red ‘little apples’ of manzanita  Relatively large (1/2”); edible  Ripen in late spring/summer  Vegetative reproduction: cannot re-sprout © Project SOUNDhttp://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya
  42. 42.  Soils: Manzanita for sandy soils  Texture: well-drained, sandy or rocky soils are best  pH: 6.0-7.5 is best  Light: full sun to light shade – typical chaparral shrub  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains; supplement w/ deep waterings as needed  Summer: treat as Zone 2 first year; then Zone 1-2 or 1 forNote: leaves and litter contain toxic mature plant. Don’t over-wateramounts of arbutin and phenolic acids. mature plants (fungal diseases)These compounds allelopathically inhibitgermination and growth of annuals for a  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilsdistance of 3.3 to 6.6 feet (1-2 m) fromthe edge of the canopy drip line  Other: use an organic mulch © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Bigberry Manzanita: shrub or tree  Easy-care shrub for slopes; good for erosion control  Specimen shrub; needs little pruning  As a small shade tree; open shade  As a key shrub/tree for the habitat garden: bees, butterflies, birds, humanshttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glauca © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Converting your yard to bee habitat: one step at a time http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Los-Angeles/960-Manzanita-St-204_11-512831.htmEach time you add a food source or createa nesting site you improve theNeighborhood Pollinator Preserve © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Lessons about pollination from ag research 6. Size matters: a. More native plants = more native bees; around 30-40% optimal for watermelons, but even less provides some pollination service b. Amount of native vegetation nearby is best predictor of pollinator services; even 10%http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/news/nealwilliams.html by area increases pollination rates c. You can achieve native flower density with a few big plants or lots of small ones © Project SOUND
  46. 46. * White Coast Ceanothus – Ceanothus verrucosus © 2010 Andrew Borcher © Project SOUND
  47. 47. * White Coast Ceanothus – Ceanothus verrucosus  Strictly coastal (western San Diego County and adjacent Baja California)  Possibly collected by Theodore Payne from Seven Oaks (LA Co.) in 1919  Dry hills, mesas, chaparral; elevation < 900‘  AKA ‘Wart-stemmed Ceanothus’http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6586,6589,6653 http://the-chaparral-sage.blogspot.com/2009/03/ceanothus-verrucosus.html © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  48. 48. White Coast Ceanothus: large shrub  Size:  6-12 ft tall  6-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub or small tree; rounded shape  Fast growth – at first  Dense, stiff branches with gray bark & small ‘wart-like’ bumps (leaf attachment)  Foliage:  Shiny dark green above; hairy & white beneath  Simple, rounded leaves© 2003 Charles E. Jones © 2009 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © Project SOUND
  49. 49. One of the best white- flowered Ceanothus  Blooms: very early – usually Jan- April  Flowers:  Usually white; occ. light blueJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Many tiny ceanothus flowers in tight ball-like clusters at ends of branches  Really showy – looks like covered in snow or white Crepe Myrtle  Sweet scent attracts bees & other pollinators  Fruit:  Dark sticky fruit in summer – birds love it © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Chaparral shrub  Soils:  Texture: well-drained a must; sandy or rocky best  pH: any local; 6.0-7.0 optimal  Light:  In nature on N-facing slopes  Full sun along coast; part- shade in hotter inland  Water:  Winter: needs adequate water  Summer: low needs once established – Zone 1-2 probably best (1-2 times per summer) in most soils; to Zone 2 in sandy  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: organic mulch recommendedhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Slope_effect.JPG © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Shrub or tree: your choice  Low-care plant for slopes  Background evergreen shrub in dry gardens  Trained as a small tree © 2006 Steve Matson  As an informal or clipped (semi- formal) hedge or screenhttp://www.soenyun.com/Blog/tag/ceanothus-verrucosus/ © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Yellow-faced Bumble Bee Bombus vosnesenskii Most common bumblebee of California ; San Diego throughout most of California (except the desert areas) to British Columbia Largely a summer bee - most of the hive living from April to September Wide generalist feeder Slow and easy to photograph Nests in the ground, commonly in old gopher holes. Has a wicked sting, and they can sting repeatedly - but only when provoked © Project SOUND
  53. 53. *Desert-willow – Chilopsis linearis © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia
  55. 55. Not all situations are suitable for native pollinator plants: good, productive alternatives © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Lessons about pollination from ag research 7. Lack of suitable nest sites can be a serious limitation to native pollinator conservation a. Species differ in their nesting needs b. In many California locations, habitat alteration or destruction, not lack of food, eliminated native pollinators. c. Bare ground needed for ground- dwelling native bees; this is becoming rare in both rural & urban areas d. Certain practices destroy nest sites: tilling, early cutting, grazing – even mulching – decrease nest sites forhttp://www.pollinatorparadise.com/solitary_bees/Diversfy.htm some species © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Most native bees are not hive-builders  ~ 70 percent of native bees excavate underground nests. Solitary bees dig narrow tunnels leading to a series of brood chambers, each one provisioned with a mixture of pollen and nectar and each holding a single egg.  ~30 percent of bees nest in wood tunnels, usually pre-existing holes such as those made by wood-boring beetles, but some will chew out the center of pithy twigs. Females create a line of brood cells, often using materials such as leaf pieces or mud as partitions between cells. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.askthebuilder.com/695_Woodpecker_Damage.shtml
  58. 58. Providing homes for native pollinators http://beechronicle.posterous.com/?tag=beehouses Learn more about the nesting requirements of local bees – they may be quite specific Provide natural sites if possible: bare ground; old tree stumps Learn about how you can construct pollinator ‘homes’ in your garden: many good resources on-line © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Large Carpenter Bees - Genus Xylocopa  ~ 500 species worldwide  Large – sometimes mistaken for bumble bees, but they have a shiny (not hairy) abdomen  Their name comes from the fact that nearly all species build their nests in burrows in dead wood, bamboo, or structural timbers http://www.insectaculture.com/xcalifornica.htm  Female carpenter bees are capable of stinging, but they are docile and rarely sting unless caught in the hand or otherwise directly provokedhttp://entomology.ucdavis.edu/news/valleycarpenterbees.html © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Valley carpenter bee (Xylocopa varipuncta): fun to watch  A widespread western US species  Generalists - may be found foraging on a number of different species : Asclepias, Salvia, Trichostema, and Wislizenia for nectar; Eschscholzia and Lupinus for pollen.  They, like bumblebees are early morning foragers.  Quite active – but can be photographed withAlso utilize culinary herbs patiencesuch as basil, mint,  Carpenter bees can “buzz pollinate” -rosemary, oregano, excellent pollinators of eggplant, tomato andlavender, and thyme. other vegetables and flowers.  Can be nectar robbers in plants with tubular flowers. Using their mouthparts they cut a slit at the base of corolla and steal away with the nectar without having pollinated the flower. http://insectsgalore.blogspot.com/2010/05/valley-carpenter-bee-xylocopa.html © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Sex life of the Valley Carpenter Bee: it just gets better the more we know!  Green-eyed golden males (the females are all black) have huge perfume glands in their thoraces.  Territorial males take up positions in non-flowering plants near other males – often near Mulefat.  As a group (lek) they actively release their rose-scented blend of chemicals.  Females are attracted from downwind and choose a male with which to mate. © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Landscape established: shrubs, lacklusterhttp://www.estately.com/listings/info/1728-fraser-circle--1 http://yuba_city.california.freemls.us/  Considerations: 1. Appropriate size/scale 2. Fits with existing home/landscape: water; color scheme; etc. 3. Provide better bee habitat – focus on generalist foragers © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Lupines provide early/mid-season nectar for large bees © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Silver Bush Lupine – Lupinus albifrons © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifoliushttp://www.solardarkroom.com/blog/2011/06/04/grizzly-flat-after-the-station-fire/ © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Longleaf Bush Lupine - Lupinus longifolius  Formerly Lupinus chamissonis var. longifolius  Southwestern CA from Santa Barbara to Baja  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral and oak woodland  Formerly frequent in the foothills and on bluffs along the seashore in Los Angeles, Orange & San Diego counties  Longifolius = long-leavedhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4099 © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Ah… a bush lupine for your CSS garden  Size:  3-5 ft tall & wide  Growth form:  Mounded perennial shrub – typical shrub Lupine  Stems are woody, erect  Foliage:  Gray-green leaves; slightly hairy  Leaves on 4” petiole; 6-9 leaflets that are slightly longer than other local bush lupines  Flowers:  Spring: usually April-June  Light violet-purple lupine flowers with yellow banner spot  Flowering quite typical for lupineshttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/bushlupine.html  Seed pod: typical lupine pod © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Lupines are good for sunny, dry places  Soils:  Texture: well-drained is a must (as for most local bush lupines)  pH: any local is fine  Light:  full sun (coastal) to part shade  Water:  Young plants: weekly (as needed) until established  Winter: moist soils; monitor & supplement in very dry years  Summer:  Quite drought-tolerant; can get by with no water in part-shade  Will take infrequent (1-2 x per month) if soils are well-drained  Fertilizer:  None needed & use will likely decrease lifespan (true for all the bush lupines)http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/bushlupine.html  Plant will improve soil fertility by increasing available nitrogen (typical of Pea family) © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Salvias: good bee plants, but large size Remember: consider mature size when choosing any plant to include in a mature landscape You get a lot of ‘habitat’ area from shrubs – most productive © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Sunflowers are good summer bee plants But many of them are also rather large So what choices do I have if I want attract these little bees – but have so little/no space? © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Family Halictidae, Sweat Bees  Large (> 2000 known species) and diverse Family  Small (> 4 mm) to midsize (> 8 mm)  Usually dark-colored and often metallichttp://sjmastergardeners.ucdavis.edu/?start=474&blogasset=3627&close=yes in appearance. Several species are all or partly green  Commonly referred to as sweat bees (especially the smaller species), as they are often attracted to perspiration; when pinched, females can give a minor sting.  The oldest fossil record of Halictidae dates back to Early Eocene with a number of species known from amber deposits. © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Halictid bees are summer foragers  Generalists – will visit many different species of summer-blooming plants; love sunflowers – but you’ll see them on other species as well  Adults are pollen eaters; larva are pollen & nectar eaters  Nesting:  Solitary or slightly social. Depending on the species, the females might dig their nests close together, sometimes even sharing a common entrance tunnel.  Build their vertical burrowed nests in the ground, usually in clay or sandy soil.  Populations are declining due to loss of habitathttp://www.laspilitas.com/animals/insects/halictini/halictini.htm © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Lessons about pollination from ag research 9. ‘Out of the way’ places can be utilized for bee habitat a. Bees can seek out patchy resources and persist within small fragments of habitat b. Restored patches can be largely located in less productive, largerhttp://www.citrona.com/nativeplanthedgerow.htm “source” areas off-farm and as small patches of “stepping-stone” habitat on nonproductive farm areas [e.g., around tail water ponds and ditches, as hedgerows, along roads, etc.http://dietrick.org/projects/bbb.html © Project SOUND
  74. 74. What’s all the buzz in farm land? Providing habitat for native pollinators  Native hedgerows & windbreaks around farm borders promotes pollinators and natural enemies to pests without taking land out of production.  Green manures/orchard groundcovers provide erosion & pollination services  Bee pastures and other native patch restorationNative groundcovers forroadsides, irrigation ditches and  Riparian buffers provide habitatother non-cultivated areas for bees and other wildlife as well as flood control and water purification © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Applications to the home garden Many Ag growers may already have an abundance of potential habitat for native pollinators on or near their land. Having semi- natural or natural habitat available significantly increases pollinator You may also have ‘out-of-the- way’ places that can support pollinators There are good pollinator plants that do well in small spaces: vines, sub-shrubs, perennials & annuals © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Coastal (Dune) Buckwheat - Eriogonum parvifolium
  77. 77. Ashy-leaf Buckwheat – Eriogonum cinereum © Project SOUND
  78. 78. California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Characteristics of California Buckwheat  Size: similar to Dune Buckwheat  2-5 ft tall  3-5 ft wide; ‘fill-in’ an area  Growth form:  low mounded semi-evergreen shrubhttp://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.html  Many-branched  Foliage:  Leave alternate, but densely clustered at nodes, evergreen, narrow lanceolate (nearly needle-like) © Project SOUND http://www.birdmom.net/wildflowerspink.html
  80. 80. http://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.htmlDune Buckwheat – E. parvifolium CA Buckwheat – E. fasciculatum © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Garden requirements are similar for mostlocal Buckwheats  Soils:  Texture:  Best in well-drained soils; Dune Buckwheat thrives in sandy soils  Most will do fine even in clays with careful water management  pH: any local  Light:  Most are fairly adaptable; full sun best near coast; part shade in hotter gardens  Summer water:  Very drought tolerant once established  Look a little better with occasional summer water; let soil dry  Fertilizer: none; like poor soils
  82. 82. CA Buckwheat:  Great for summer color: May-showy for months Nov. possible  As an alternative to the non- native Rosemary  In perennial beds  On parking strips & bordering paths and driveways  For erosion control  larval foodsource for Morman Metalmark, Bramble Hairstreak, Common Hairstreak, Avalon Hairstreak Shrubby Buckwheats can even be sheared to shape for a more formal look © Project SOUND
  83. 83. CA Buckwheat cultivars make goodgroundcovers  ‘Dana Point’ - brighter green leaf, more mounding than species  Bruce Dickinson – good for groundcover; stays close to the ground, spreads nicely, and holds good form throughout the year.  ‘Theodore Payne – low groundcover (1 ft high; 1-3 ft spread)  Warriner Lytle - A sprawling low growing California buckwheat; can ‘Dana Point’ grow to 2 feet tall but is often more prostrate, hugging the ground like a mat © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Even small spaces can be bee heaven © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Phacelias are among our best general nectar sources in spring  Many flowers per stalk  Produce lots of high-quality nectarLarge-flowered Phacelia - Phacelia grandiflora  Nectar is easy for many types of pollinators to get to  Open over a long period of time – open ‘up the stalk’  High flower to foliage ratio – lots of energy put into floral production  Easy to grow – under many conditions - dependable Tansey-leaf Phacelia – Phacelia tanecetifolia © Project SOUND
  86. 86. * Coast (California) Phacelia – Phacelia californica © Project SOUND
  87. 87. * Coast Phacelia – Phacelia californica  Coastal bluffs and canyons from Santa Clara County to Del Norte County, below 1500‘ & into OR  ?? 1 report from San Gabriel Mtns  Rocky bluffs and canyons; grows in chaparral, woodland, and coastal bluffs and grasslandhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4599 © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Coast Phacelia: a delightful perennial  Size:  1-3 ft tall (foliage ~ 1 ft)  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Low-growing (1-2 ft in garden); ground-cover Fast-growing© 2011 Neal Kramer   Foliage:  Light to medium green; hairy (contact dermatitis)  Large, mint-type leaves growing in basal rosette  Looks like a garden plant http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Phacelia-californica/ © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Showiest of Phacelias  Blooms:  Long bloom season: spring to summer  Can bloom April to July with some summer water© 2011 Neal Kramer  Flowers:  Pale lavender to pink  Typical bell-shaped Phacelia flowers  Open up along a stout flowering stalk  Excellent nectar source for bees, butterflies  Seeds: many small seeds – will naturalize if happy © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Coast Phacelia: from seed or plugs  Phacelias tend to be easy to grow from seed  No pretreatments; plant in winter/spring  Plants available from Hedgerow Farmshttp://hedgerowfarms.blogspot.com/2011/03/nursery-update.html © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Versatile Phacelia  Soils:  Texture: likes a well-drained soil, but will tale most any  pH: any local  Light:  Quite adaptable  Full sun to part-sun, dappled shade; some shade best in hot gardens  Water:© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Winter: good winter rains  Summer: wide range from weekly irrigation to drought tolerant; best Zone 2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizer  Other: organic mulch OK but not required http://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14316 © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Coast Phacelia: a filler plant  In pots & planters; along walls  An herbaceous groundcover under high trees  Mixed with grasses & other plants for a N. CA coastal prairie  Around lawns & other irrigated areashttp://www.gapphotos.com/featuredetails.asp?featureref=75 © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Bees can be happy in small spaces © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Lessons about pollination from ag research 9. Creating native ‘bee habitat’ confers additional benefits a. Attracts other beneficial insects b. Attracts beneficial birds and wildlife; food, cover & nest sites c. Erosion/soil conservation benefits: wind & water d. Makes the landscape more attractive for human inhabitantshttp://www.bucknell.edu/x37317.xml © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Advantages of ‘Pollinator Plants’ for the home garden  They are often showy & pretty; usually lots of blooms and attractive scents (remember, they have to attract their pollinators)  They will increase pollination of food plants, leading to better production  They will attract wonderful insects to your garden – hours of entertainment for the whole family (or neighborhood)  They are ecologically sound – an important part of local ecosystems © Project SOUND
  96. 96. There are many attractive choices… © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Indian Milkweed - Asclepias eriocarpahttp://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asclepias_eriocarpa
  98. 98. Milkweeds  Milkweeds are found in many areas of CA  In the South Bay, Narrow- leaf Milkweed found onlyIndian Milkweed in S. Channel Islands  Sites are typically  Dry  Sunny  Barren soil (bare areas in chaparral/Oak woodlands; streambeds; alluvial areas)Narrow-leaf Milkweed
  99. 99. Characteristics of Indian Milkweed  Hairy, gray-green perennial  2-3 ft. tall and wide  Flowers cream-pink, June-Aug.  Pollinated by bees, insects and butterflies  Has a long taproot – best if planted in placehttp://ww1.clunet.edu/wf/chap/scientific/bjc-974.htm
  100. 100. Indian Milkweed is a food source for butterflies and other insects Variable checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas chalcedona) http://www.californiagardens.com/Plant_Pag Photo by Gabi McLean es/Tarantula_Hawk.htm http://www.natureathand.com/Gallery/Asclepias_eriocarpa _29025.htm Tarantula Hawk (Pepsis mildei)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asclepias%20eriocarpa
  101. 101. Narrow-leaf Milkweed - Asclepias fascicularis
  102. 102. Showy Milkweed – Asclepias speciosa© 2004 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND
  103. 103. Tricks to gardening with Milkweeds  Easy to grow  Plant (seeds) in place if possible  Do best in well-drained soil – but can tolerate clay if not over-watered  Full to part sun  Average water needs – keep somewhat dry. Can tolerate winter flooding  Cut back to ground in winter (native Californians burned it to encourage healthy growth)
  104. 104. Consider Using Milkweeds  For butterfly/pollinator gardens  For showy white-pink flowers in summer  Along paths and walkways  In mid-beds – would look nice with brighter pinks and purple flowers http://www.fourdir.com/p_wooly_milkweed.htm
  105. 105. Lessons about pollination from ag research 10. Farm practices matter a. Use of pesticides & herbicides decreases number of native &http://www.earthzine.org/2008/02/14/buzzing-about-climate-change/ honey bees b. mowing, haying, burning or grazing and other farm (and garden) practices can destroy nests c. Growing a diversity of plants – crop & native – benefits pollinator diversityhttp://www.immersivmedia.com/gardensoft/garden_detail.aspx?garden=1085 © Project SOUND
  106. 106. Blue Toadflax – Nuttallanthus (Linaria) canadensishttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1721/nuttallanthus-texanus-texas-toadflax/ © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Blue Toadflax – Nuttallanthus (Linaria) canadensis  Grows in much of N. America from Canada to Mexico  In western CA from OR to Baja; locally in coastal prairie, PV  Open sandy areas that are moist in winter/ spring , then dry with summerhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Linaria+canadensis © Project SOUND http://flippetyfloppety.blogspot.com/2011/05/blue-toad-flax.html
  108. 108. Blue Toadflax: an annual for small places  Size:  1-2 ft tall  ~ 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous biennial/ annual  Foliage:  Blue-green to green  Leaves long & narrow  Many leafy stems from the base  Foliage poisonous if eaten http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/bl_toadflax.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuttallanthus_canadensis
  109. 109. Flowers are dainty  Blooms: late spring/summer ; can be Apr-Sept with a little summer water  Flowers:  Small (1/2”), lavender-white  Look like small snapdragons; on sturdy stalk  Open up the stalk – long bloom period  Butterflies (Buckeye larval food) & bees (bumblebees & long-tongued bees)  Seeds:  Many tiny seeds; willhttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1721/nuttallanthus-texanus-texas-toadflax/ naturalize © Project SOUND http://oc.encydia.com/es/Nuttallanthushttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Nuttallanthus_texanus.htm
  110. 110. Let Toadflax weave through the garden  As a secondary plant in cottage gardens or mixed flower beds  In rock gardens, ‘streams’ or rain gardens  In a native prairie areahttp://www.mycornerofkaty.com/2011_03_01_archive.html  Consider non-native Purple toadflax as an alternative http://mashpedia.es/Linaria http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/bio406d/images/pics/vrn/linaria_texana.htm © Project SOUND
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