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  • 1. 1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Pests, Pests, Pests C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants March 7 & 10, 2009 Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDWhat is a pest?  An organism which has Predator/prey relationships in nature characteristics that are regarded by humans as injurious or unwanted  Eats a desired plant  Causes disease in a desired plant  Carries disease to a desired plant  May be:  A vertebrate (deer; rabbit)  An insect/mollusk (snail)  A bacterium, virus or fungus  A pest in one setting may be beneficial in another; like a weed, a pest may be an organism ‘in the wrong place’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  • 2. 1/7/2013In nature, plants fight back… A recipe for disaster  Native plants evolved with insects, other  Plant species not native to animals, microorganisms area; often ‘cultivars’ – ecosystems in balance  Some produce  Planted in mono-culture noxious chemicals or physical barriers to  Heavily watered & ‘ward off’ natural fertilized – ‘plants on pests steroids’  Some attract  Using overhead watering ‘helper species’ – insects & even birds during warm summer days  Some simply tolerate normal levels of predation  Globalization of pests © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The ‘Old California Garden’ requires an arsenal of ammunition… And the consequences are not pretty…  Human/animal health risks  Contaminated soils & water (including street water runoff) /792923315-spray-doc-wheel-garden-sprayers.html  High cost of pesticides  Beneficial species killed Issues:  Improper use  Effects on animals up the food chain  Overuse  Pesticide resistance  Storage © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  • 3. 1/7/2013 Many of us have found that just including more The ‘New California Garden’ is based on native species improves the ‘pest problems’ in the a better strategy entire garden Plant the plants that are ‘programmed’ to be successful in your area – these will:  Be less stressed – and therefore healthier  Be prepared to ‘fight’ the natural enemies  Attract natural ‘helpers’ in their fight against pests Plant a variety of species – more like a natural ecosystem (not a monoculture) Give the plants the appropriate gardening care:  Appropriate levels of water  Appropriate (often little to no) fertilizer  Protection from other stress & injury Have an appropriate strategy to deal with true pests © Project SOUND © Project SOUND But you need to have a sound strategy to dealing with certain pests…even on native plants Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  "Optimum combination of control methods including biological, cultural, mechanical, physical and/or chemical controls to reduce pest populations to an economical acceptable level with as few harmful effects as possible on the environment and nontarget organisms." R.L. Hix,CA Agric. Magazine, 55:4 (2001) And that’s where the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) provides useful guidelines © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  • 4. 1/7/2013 The IPM Pyramid – ‘first do no harm’ What is Integrated Pest Management?  Use the least invasive – and often most effective - means first: IPM programs use current, comprehensive  Prevention – cultural practices  Mechanical Controls information on the life cycles of pests and their  Naturally occurring biological interaction with the environment. controls (native predators)  Consider using non-native This information, in combination with available predators pest control methods, is used to manage pest  Use chemical controls sparingly, damage by the most economical means, and with as a last resort:  Naturally occurring elements the least possible hazard to people, property, and  Biologics – chemicals made by the environment.’ Non-native predators and chemical plants that are toxic to controls have the important drawback of pests/diseases non-specificity – they kill the good pests  Non-biologic pesticides: with the bad.  Insecticides  Fungicides  Miticides © Project SOUND © Project SOUND An IPM system is designed around sixSome of the benefits of an integrated basic componentsapproach are as follows: 1. Set Action Thresholds  Before taking any pest control action, IPM first sets an action  Promotes natural controls; ‘ecosystem approach’. threshold, a point at which pest populations or environmental conditions indicate that pest control action must be taken. Sighting  Protects human health. a single pest does not always mean control is needed. The level at which pests will either become an economic threat is critical to guide future pest control decisions.  Minimizes negative impacts to non-target organisms. 2. Monitor and Identify Pests  Not all insects, weeds, and other living organisms require control. Many organisms are innocuous, and some are even beneficial. IPM  Enhances the general environment. programs work to monitor for pests and identify them accurately, so that appropriate control decisions can be made in conjunction with action thresholds. This monitoring and identification removes  Is most likely to produce long-term, beneficial the possibility that pesticides will be used when they are not really results. needed or that the wrong kind of pesticide will be used. 3. Preventive Cultural Practices  Often is easily and efficiently implemented.  As a first line of pest control, IPM programs work to manage the crop, lawn, or indoor space to prevent pests from becoming a  Cost-effective in the short and long-term. threat. These control methods can be very effective and cost- efficient and present little to no risk to people or the environment. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  • 5. 1/7/2013 An IPM system is designed around six IPM plan for your garden – a work in basic components progress4. Mechanical controls: Should a pest reach an unacceptable level,  Requires observation & mechanical methods are the first options to consider. They knowledge – specific for include simple hand-picking, erecting insect barriers, using traps, vacuuming, and tillage to disrupt breeding. your garden5. Biological controls: Natural biological processes and materials can  Will vary somewhat with: provide control, with minimal environmental impact, and often at low cost. The main focus here is on promoting beneficial insects  Yearly weather conditions that eat target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from  Maturity of plants naturally occurring microorganisms (e.g.: Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes), also fit in this category.  New plants6. Chemical controls: Synthetic pesticides are generally only used  Will be modified based on as required and often only at specific times in a pests life cycle. your previous experiences Many of the newer pesticide groups are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.: nicotine, pyrethrum and  Suggestion: keep a garden insect juvenile hormone analogues), and further biology-based or ecological techniques are under evaluation. notebook/journal © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Many resources to help you University of California Statewide IPM Project (UCIPM)  Books – check out your  Goals of the IPM Project are to: local library, or add to your  reduce the pesticide load in the own environment,  increase the predictability and  On-line resources thereby the effectiveness of pest control techniques,  develop pest control programs that  County Master Gardeners are economically, environmentally and socially acceptable,  Other Governmental  marshal agencies and disciplines into resources: (see list) integrated pest management program, and  U.S.  increase the utilization of natural  State & Local pest controls.  Educational component:  Print & on-line resources  UC IPM Pesticide Education Program © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  • 6. 1/7/2013 Set Acceptable Pest Levels Monitor & Identify Pests  Find out what pests/  Base monitoring on garden conditions: temperature & diseases occur in your humidity garden – observation  Look for pests on vulnerable tissues  Learn more about the pests,  Shake out the pests, then view with magnifying glass their effects  Decide if action is needed  What are their life-stages  Suggestion: keep a log of dates,  What seasons/conditions are conditions in your garden journal they associated with  What plant species are susceptible  Learn how to determine when action should be taken © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Prevention/Cultural Practices are the first Criteria for selecting a treatment line of defense against pests strategy are:  Cultural practices: just good old garden management practices 1. Least hazardous to human health  Providing alternate hosts for pests  No monoculture 2. Least disruptive of natural controls  Preventing over-wintering  Sanitation 3. Least toxic to non-target organisms  Proper water & nutrient management 4. Most likely to be permanent  Correct watering  Physical barriers 5. Easiest to carry out safely and effectively  Pruning to improve air circulation  Weeding 6. Most cost-effective  Mulching 7. Most site-appropriate © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  • 7. 1/7/2013 Pest challenges vary with the season…. Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Mimulus/Diplacus aurantiacus  Warmer weather & new growth – spring/early summer  Sucking insects  Chewing insects  Gall & Blister Mites  Warm weather – summer/fall  Foliage fungal diseases  Borers (insects) Scarlet Monkeyflower  Root/stem rots Musk Monkeyflower (fungal/bacterial)  Cool, wet weather – winter/early spring  Mollusks  Anthracnose (fungal) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Sucking insects Any perennial or shrub/tree with fresh  Definition: Insects that insert their mouthparts into the sugary phloem (conducting tissue) & suck new foliage can attract sucking insects the ‘sap’  Examples:  Aphids  Mealy Bugs  Whiteflies  Psyllids  Scales  Leafhoppers  Damage:  Often confined to the young, succulent growth (leaves, shoot-tips and buds  Tissues appear puckered or crinkled  Monitoring: watch for:  Signs of the insects themselves –check particularly undersides of leaves, other protected areas  Ants – tend to be ‘nurse’ species  Abnormal plant growth © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  • 8. 1/7/2013 Aphids: where there’s one there are many….. Aphids – Ugly but not usually murderers...  Often called plant lice, are small,  Preventive cultural soft-bodied insects. practices:  Control ants  They range in color from black to http://pmo.umext.maine.  Control weeds – green to yellow. edu/factsht/Suck.htm particularly Brassica species  Their numbers may greatly increase in a short time and  Mechanical Controls: crowding stimulates the  Blast off with a stream of production of winged forms. water  Use sticky strips around  They may cover the entire trunks to manage ants surface of a leaf or stem.  Biological Controls:  They (and other sucking pests)  Lady bugs; Lacewings can be vectors of plant viruses (crop & ornamental plants).  Chemical controls:  Insecticidal Soap is usually  They can also weaken plants, adequate making them susceptible to other diseases © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Whiteflies Monitor particularly on citrus and  Monitoring: vegetable crops (and plants near them)  By placing yellow sticky cards in greenhouse & other vulnerable environments  Periodic inspection of undersides of leaves of susceptible species  Preventive cultural practices:  Don’t purchase infested plants  Control ants  Encourage natural predators  Mechanical Controls:  Yellow sticky traps (early in infestation)  Blast off with stream of water  Hand-remove infested leaves  Vacuum them up with hand vacuum Ash Whitefly (Siphoninus phillyreae)  Biological Controls: nty.htm can attack Toyon & other natives  Ladybugs, Lacewings, parasitic wasps & mites Wooly Whitefly on Citrus  Songbirds  Chemical controls:  Insecticidal Soap  Chemical pesticides usually not very helpful –  Mechanical methods and encouraging natural enemies offer best resistance quickly develops chance for control © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  • 9. 1/7/2013  Females feed on plant sap, normally in roots or other crevices. They secrete a powdery wax Controlling aphids, whiteflies & Mealybugs is an Mealybugs layer (therefore the name mealybug) used for important ‘cultural practice’ for preventing other diseases protection while they suck the plant juices.  Monitoring:  Check stem axils & bottoms of plant stems for insects  Mealybugs are similar to  Act immediately when you see them to control whiteflies and aphids: they infestation produce large amounts of waste product (honeydew)  Preventive cultural practices: which coats plants and  Insect new plants – remove pests surrounding surfaces.  Control ants (which protect Mealybugs)  Encourage natural predators  This sticky layer is a perfect  Mechanical Controls: growth medium for a black  Remove by hand & destroy Sooty Mold fungus commonly known as  Apply rubbing alcohol with a Q-tip or cotton "sooty mold". ball; destroys insects & egg masses [note: try on small area first – may damage plant]  This mold damages plants by covering leaves and reducing  Biological Controls: light available for  Lady Bug, Lacewings, parasitic wasps –all natural photosynthesis.  Chemical controls:  Insecticidal Soap or horticultural oils © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Good natural enemies are there – just True Bugs plant species that will attract them  Many are actually beneficial predators  Green Lacewing  Common generalist predator  Preventive cultural practices:  Kills: mealybugs, psyllids, thrips,  Encourage healthy plants mites, whiteflies, aphids, small caterpillars, leafhoppers, and Green Lacewing insect eggs  Chemical controls: not recommended in most cases  Use common pesticides & you’ll kill this beneficial insect You will need to learn about  Plant species in the Rose & Milkweed Bug the common beneficial insects in order to recognize Buckthorn (Ceanothus) families to and attract them provide food for Lacewings © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  • 10. 1/7/2013 Attract Know all life phases of these By planting beneficial these species beneficial insects insects Bigeyed bug Native grasses  Don’t use pesticides that will kill the Polygonum sp. (Silver Lace Vine) beneficial insects Copyright © 2007 Ron Hemberger Hoverflies Achillea sp. (Yarrow)  Larval stage – though ugly - is often the Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) ‘eating’ stage Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac)  Look closely at the insects (use a Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) magnifying glass) – what are they eating Prunis ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) (plant or insect) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Lacewings Prunus ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Lady beetles Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Atriplex sp. (Quailbush, Saltbush) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Native grasses Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Salix sp. (Willow) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Lacewing Life Cycle Attract these By planting Western Yarrow – Achilla millefolia beneficial these species insects Minute Achillea sp. (Yarrow) pirate bug Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Minute Pirate Bug Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Parasitic & Aesclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Predatory Milkweed) Wasps Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Tachnid flies Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon) Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Tachnid Fly © Project SOUND © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 10
  • 11. 1/7/2013Why Yarrow makes a good lawn substitute Levels of Control 1. Cultural control is a preventative measure using fertilization, plant selection, and sanitation to exclude problematic pests  Spreads quickly, giving good and weeds. cover 2. Physical control is another preventative strategy. It includes, pest exclusion; creating barriers; modifying conditions such  Super for banks and other areas as temperature, light and humidity; trapping; and manually that can’t easily be mowed weeding. Foods and beverages should be eaten and stored only in designated areas.  Spreading habit inhibits weeds 3. Biological control makes use of a pests natural enemies. This  Can be mowed – occasionally and strategy introduces beneficial insects or bacteria to the on high setting w/ rotary mower environment or, if they already exist, provides them with the necessary food and shelter and avoids using broad-spectrum  Companion plant – attracts chemicals that will inadvertently kill them. beneficial insects, repels others 4. Chemical control is used after all other control strategies are  Does well on poor, dry, sandy deemed inappropriate or ineffective. Target-specific, low- soils where other plants grow toxicity pesticides should be applied in a manner that will poorly maximize the effectiveness of pest management and minimize the exposure to humans and other non-target species. Spot treat if possible to reduce exposure. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Smothering and suffocation agents - mild Smothering and suffocation agents - mild  Insecticidal Soap  Horticultural Oil  It works on contact by breaking down the target pest’s cuticle (waxy  Coating pests with horticultural oil covering) — promoting dehydration and, blocks the passage of air through ultimately, death. their spiracles (breathing holes),  Short period of action (48 hours) thus killing (suffocating) them.  Non-targeted – kills both beneficial insects as well as pests  Used on dormant plants (see label for specific product)  Best use: judicious, small-scale spot applications  labeled for use against overwintering  Safer’s Insecticidal Soap (the most eggs of European red spider mites, common brand), is used indoors or out, is effective on aphids, cabbageworms, scale insects, apple aphids (not rosy earwigs, flea beetles, lace bugs, aphids), bud moths, leafrollers, red leafhoppers, mealybugs, psyllids, sawfly bugs, codling moth larvae, pear psylla larvae, scale crawlers, squash bugs, thrips, spider mites, whiteflies, and (adults), blister mites, galls, whitefly more. nymphs, and mealybugs. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  • 12. 1/7/2013Sucking insects of spring/summer: review Ah, Summer….. the time of dusty leaves & over-watering Monitor  Periods of new foliage/rapid growth  Monitor at least weekly  Look particularly at undersides of leaves, young branch tips, flower buds – be sure to use a magnifying glass Cultural Practices  Blast affected area with water  Hand remove  Encourage natural predators  Control ants Biological Controls  Beneficial insects – your best line of defense Chemical controls  Not usually needed (except for very bad infestations – not often seen with native plants)  May kill beneficial insects – so use very sparingly  Try least toxic: Insecticidal soap © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Challenges of the dry season  Dry, dusty foliage  Hot, muggy (or foggy) days  Appropriate watering:  How frequently  How much at any one time  How to water: overhead, drip/trickle  What time of day to water The stage is set for a different cast of garden pests 10 years old. Almost no water other than a dust wash off every month or so. Arctostaphylos Carmel Sur’ in foreground, Toyon and Western Redbud behind. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  • 13. 1/7/2013 Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia Natives in the Rose Family (Rosaceae) Shrubs  Chamise - Adenostoma fasciculatum  Mountain Mahogonies - Cercocarpus species  Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia  Creambush - Holodiscus discolor  Ironwoods - Lyonothamnus floribundus  Holly-Leafed & Catalina Cherries - Prunus ilicifolia  CA Wild Rose - Rosa californica  CA Blackberry - Rubus ursinus Smaller perennials  Pacific silverweed - Argentina egedii  Strawberries - Fragaria species  Wedgeleaf Horkelia - Horkelia cuneata © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDCommon pests of Rose Family (think Leafhoppers & Sharpshootersgarden roses)  Pests of new foliage  Leafhoppers are small, green,  Sucking insects wedgeshaped insects that attack many  Pests of summer garden, forage and fruit crops. They  Pests associated with dust (mostly suck out plant juices causing yellowing, insects) leaf-curling and stunting.  Pests associated with warm, moist conditions (mostly fungal but some bacterial/viral)  Leafhoppers are often responsible for the spread of plant pathogens  Diseases associated with cool, wet especially viruses and phytoplasmas conditions:  Fungal diseases (foliage & root)  Preventive cultural practices:  Rosa CA vs. non-native roses  Mechanical Controls:  It is relatively pest and disease free, except if the plant is subject to  blast of water from a garden hose overhead irrigation, poor air circulation  Removing infected lower leaves and humid conditions in the shade.  Insect pests are usually not a problem  Dusting plants lightly with with such a hardy plant and with so diatomaceous earth many “beneficials” around. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  • 14. 1/7/2013 Leafhoppers & Sharpshooters Glassy-winged Sharpshooter – reportable pest  Biological Controls:  Carry the bacterium,  Predatory insects such as mantids and Xylella fastidiosa, that dragonflies causes Pierce’s Disease – a serious threat to CA  Spiders, green lacewings (Chrysopa spp.), grape industry minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.), lady beetles (Hippodamia spp.), and predaceous mites. Adults are about 1⁄2 inch long  X. fastidiosa also causes almond leaf scorch,  Small parasitic wasps in the genus phoney peach disease, Gonatocerus alfalfa dwarf, oleander  Chemical controls: leaf scorch and citrus variegated chlorosis.  Narrow range oils, insecticidal soaps, or kaolin clay  Report to County Ag.  rotenone, carbaryl, malathion or Service if found in new methoxychlor areas © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Tiny insects with fringed wings. They feed on Pierce’s Disease: many native plants are Thrips  pollen and tender plant tissue, rasping the tissue and sucking the exuding sap. alternate hosts  The leaves take on a silvery appearance after the thrips feed, and plants become stunted and  Aesculus californica deformed.  Artemisia douglasiana  Thrips are usually a pest of seedling plants but  Heteromeles arbutifolia may attack plants in any stage. They attack an extremely wide variety of woody plants.  Juglans californica  Mimulus aurantiacus  Certain thrips species are beneficial predators  Oenothera hookeri that feed only on mites and other insects  Philadelphus lewisii  Monitoring:  Populus fremontii  Thrips often feed within buds and furled leaves.  Quercus spp. Their damage is often observed before the thrips are seen.  Rhammus californica  Discolored or distorted plant tissue or black  Rosa californica specks of feces around stippled leaf surfaces are clues that thrips are or were present.  Salix spp.  Look carefully for the insects themselves before  Sambucus spp. taking action. Severe infestation foliage looks silver-spotted  Vitis californica  Thrips are poor fliers but can readily spread long distances by floating with the wind or being transported on infested plants. Blue Elderberry © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  • 15. 1/7/2013 Thrips – mostly just ugly… Gall & Blister Mites: ugly but not killers  Healthy woody plants usually tolerate thrips damage; however, high infestations on certain herbaceous ornamentals and developing fruits or vegetables may justify control  Cause blistered leaves or galled twigs on many landscape plants  Preventive cultural practices:  Practices to conserve natural predators; including alder, aspen, baccharis, decrease dust, no pesticides beech, elm, grape, linden, maple,  Pull weeds  Prune and destroy infected branches and walnut  Mechanical Controls: Live oak erineum mites  Monitoring:  Blast of water from a garden hose  Misshapen leaves  Biological Controls:  Preventive cultural practices: ort/images/thrips.jpg  Many natural predators  Remove damaged leaves  Chemical controls: thrips activity does not usually warrant the use of insecticide sprays  Mechanical Controls:  Narrow-range oil, neem oil, pyrethrins combined with piperonyl butoxide (Garden Safe Brand  Remove damaged leaves Multi-purpose Garden Insect Killer, Spectracide Garden Insect Killer)  Malathion or rotenone only for severe problems Toyon Thrips © Project SOUND Baccharis gall © Project SOUND Spider Mites are tiny Spider Mites: prevention is best  Not insects, but closely related to ticks and  Preventive cultural practices: chiggers. They suck out juices from leaves  Wash dust off leaves in summer and stems, causing plants to become  Don’t use insecticides (carbaryl (Sevin); imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon) ) that kill natural deformed or have a bronze or yellow predators; severe infestations often follow appearance insecticide use!  Heavy infestations can cause leaf and bud  Mechanical Controls: drop, serious stress and death of the plant.  blast of water from a garden hose  1:1 mixture of alcohol and water [test on small area]  Damaged areas typically appear marked with  Plant isolation many small, light flecks – over slightly cobwebby - giving the plant a somewhat  Biological Controls: speckled appearance.  Small, dark-colored lady beetles known as the "spider mite destroyers"  Activity peaks during the warmer months;  Minute pirate bugs, big-eyed bugs (Geocoris Dry, dusty conditions favor all spider mites species) and predatory thrips  Parasitic spider Mites  Monitoring:  Chemical controls: not during hot weather or for  Usually plant damage—stippling or yellowing of water stressed plants – test first on a few leaves leaves Few insecticides are  Insecticidal soap  Look for webbing underneath leaves effective for spider mites and many even  Horticultural oils (Sunspray)  Shake mites onto paper & observe with hand aggravate problems  Sulfur lens © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  • 16. 1/7/2013 Chewing insects are Is it a sucking or a chewing pest? also active in summer  Sucking pests, such as aphids, leafhoppers, scale insects and whiteflies,  Definition: Chewing insects eat produce these symptoms: plant tissue such as leaves, flowers, buds, and twigs. • Discoloration (yellow or brown) and necrotic (dead) spots on leaves or petals;  Indications of damage: uneven or • Wilted appearance of plant or plant parts; Cabbage Looper broken margins on the leaves, • Curled, malformed leaves and petals; and skeletonization of the leaves, and • Shiny, sticky “honeydew” or black-colored leaf mining. coating of sooty mold.  The damage they cause (leaf  Chewing pests, such as caterpillars, notching, leaf mining, leaf beetles, grasshoppers and leaf-cutter skeletonizing, etc.) will help in bees, produce these symptoms: identifying the pest insect. • Holes in foliage or stems; • Discolored areas on the surface or margins  Examples: of leaves or petals;  beetle adults or larvae, • Severed stems, leaves or buds or wilting of  moth larvae (caterpillars) stem or cane (limb girdling);  many other groups of insects. • Wilting of plant (root damage by white grubs or other root feeders); and • Semicircular holes in leaf margins (leaf- cutting bees). © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Botanical pesticides: natural but not Neem Oil/ Azadiractin harmless for control of chewing insects  Neem oil extracts are squeezed from the seeds of the neem tree and contain the active Pyrethrum is extracted from the flowers of a chrysanthemum grown in Kenya and ingredient azadirachtin Ecuador. It is one of the oldest and safest insecticides available.  Mode of action — Pyrethrum (and synthetic pyrethrum) paralyze insect’s nervous system.  Rather sensational insecticidal, fungicidal and  Used for – aphids, scale insects, spider mites, thrips, caterpillars and many other leaf- bactericidal properties, including insect feeding pests growth regulating qualities. Rotenone or rotenoids are produced in the roots of two genera of the legume family: Derris and Lonchocarpus (also called cubé) grown in South America.  Mode of action--Azadirachtin disrupts molting  Mode of action: shuts down cellular metabolism by inhibiting biosynthesis or metabolism of  It is both a stomach and contact insecticide; toxic to many species of insects in many ecdysone, the juvenile molting hormone. different insect orders (caterpillars, beetles, flies, etc.).  Mild human toxicity; ? Risk for Parkinson’s Disease  Used for:  Azatin® is marketed as an insect growth Eugenol (Oil of Cloves) and Cinnamaldehyde (derived from Ceylon and Chinese regulator, and Align® and Nemix® as a cinnamon oils). stomach/contact insecticide for greenhouse and  Mode of action – similar to Pyrethrum ornamentals.  Used for: chewing insects like beetles – but general insecticide  Many leaf chewing insects including Gypsy moth larvae, imported cabbage worms, leafminer Nicotine is extracted by several methods from tobacco species’ larvae and pupae, various leafrollers,  Mode of action – nervous system conduction; convulsions, death various loopers, grasshoppers, beetles, mealybug  effective against most all types of insect pests, but is used particularly for aphids and species’ immatures, sawfly larvae, sweet potato caterpillars--soft bodied insects. and silverleaf whitefly immatures, and webworms EcoSMART™ plant oil-based pesticides © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
  • 17. 1/7/2013 Read & follow More pesticide safety tips directions  Keep pets and people away from the area where you store, mix, and apply pesticides. Stay away from a treated area for as long as  Mix pesticides according to the label directs. label instructions. Don’t use more or less concentrate  Do not spray on a windy day or when air than the label recommends. temperatures will be above 85°F before the Mix only as much material spray solution dries. as you need for the  Clean equipment and mixing tools as soon as application. you finish spraying.  Wear protective clothing  Dispose of pesticides properly as specified on the label.  After spraying, change your protective clothing and bathe. Wash the clothes you  Label a set of mixing and were wearing separately from your regular measuring tools that are laundry. used only for insecticides and fungicides, and store  Keep records of where and when you sprayed, what pesticide you used, and how them with the products. much you used. Give the treatment time to work, then evaluate and record your results. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Black Spot - Diplocarpon rosae fungus Currants & Gooseberries – Ribes spp Pink-flowering Currant - Ribes sanguineum Chaparral Currant - Ribes malvaceum  Occurs during warm, damp/humid weather; spores overwinter in infected canes & fallen leaves  Preventive cultural practices: Provide good air circulation, appropriate sunlight conditions Don’t over-water; no overhead irrigation Remove & dispose of infected leaves; don’t handle plants when foliage is wet Cut back & dispose of infected canes; dispose of fallen leaves  Chemical controls: fungicides – copper, sulfur & Neem Oil © Project SOUND White-flowering Currant - Ribes indecorum Catalina Perfume - Ribes viburnifolium © Project SOUND 17
  • 18. 1/7/2013 Common pests/diseases of Ribes species The ‘Disease Triangle’ – the key to understanding plant pests & diseases  Fungal Diseases  Leaf Spot or Anthracnose  Proper environment  Cane Blight  Warm, wet conditions  Powdery Mildew Currant  Overhead watering  Rusts  Poor air circulation  Virus and Virus-like Diseases  Cultural (prevention)  Insects & Mites controls are mostly  Sucking insects about making the  Gall formers environment inhospitable Fungal species  Stem borers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Rusts – large group of foliage Powdery Mildew - Sphaerotheca pannosa fungi attacking many plant fungus species  Occur during warm, damp/humid weather; spores overwinter in infected wood & fallen leaves  Preventive cultural practices:  Provide good air circulation, appropriate sunlight conditions  Don’t over-water; no overhead irrigation Susceptible: Rose family, Dogwoods, Honeysuckles, Sycamores, Willows, Sunflower  Remove & dispose of infected Occurs during warm, damp/humid weather; spores overwinter in infected wood & leaves fallen leaves  Cut back & dispose of infected Preventive cultural practices: branches; dispose of fallen leaves  Provide good air circulation, appropriate sunlight conditions  Don’t over-water; no overhead irrigation  Chemical controls: fungicides – Remove & dispose of infected leaves  Cut back & dispose of infected branches; dispose of fallen leaves copper, sulfur, horticultural oils &  Chemical controls: fungicides – copper, sulfur, horticultural oils & Neem Oil Neem Oil © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
  • 19. 1/7/2013 Natural Compounds as preventive Fungal Canker measures: fungal diseases Diseases  Example: Copper-Sulfate  Cause: several types of fungi  Copper-Sulfate Spray or Dust Copper that invade bark injuries & Bordeaux substitute is an organic fungicide infect connective tissues of containing 7% copper sulfate (metallic) trunk  Monitoring: a killed area or  Effective in preventing a wide range of various blister on the bark, a branch blights, spots, certain rots, downy and or the trunk of an infected powdery mildew, leaf blister, anthracnose, tree. May ooze. scab, stem canker, Septoria spp. and  Preventive cultural practices: Stemphylium spp. leaf molds and more.  Promote overall tree health; don’t over-fertilize  No insecticidal qualities, and will not burn  Prevent trunk/branch plants. wounds  Proper pruning; dormant  Must be applied early (when plants dormant) season  Call an experienced arborist  Appropriate cultural practice for fungal prone or County Dept. of Ag.; early species like Currants treatment can help © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Fireblight - Erwinia amylovora Mature trees, when stressed, are  Bacteria that infects the new spring susceptible to stem-boring insects growth in Rose family  During warm, wet weather the bacteria ooze in brown droplets from cankers and are spread by pollinators and splashing  Drought stress water to the flowers and then to twigs. can be avoided  Verify the presence of fireblight by by supplemental peeling back newly infected bark-the wood winter watering will have a reddish-brown discoloration. when needed  Prune diseased wood back at least 6 inches into healthy tissue. Entire branches (even whole plants) may need to be removed.  Do not put prunings into a compost pile; dispose of them in the green waste.  Sterilization of the pruning instruments between each cut with a 10% bleach goldspotted oak borer (GSOB) solution. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 19
  • 20. 1/7/2013 Stem Borers: Longhorned borers, bark & ambrosia beetles, clearwing moths, twig girdlers, Diseases that affect soils flatheaded borers  Willows, Cottonwood/Poplar, Sycamore, Oak, Juniper, Pine, Ceanothus, currants  More common in areas previously used for  Monitoring: particularly for old or stressed agriculture, vegetable gardening, palm trees/shrubs  Bark staining trees  Bore holes  Frass; pupal cases [Clearwing Moths]  Caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens in  Preventive cultural practices: the soils  Encourage vigorous, healthy plants  Prevent stem/root injury  removing weakened, injured, dying, and  Enter plants via the roots dead trees  Mechanical Controls:  Very difficult to control – require soil  Biological Controls: sterilization  Parasitic nematodes  Chemical controls: © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Blights & Branch Die-back Blights & Branch Die-back  Preventive cultural practices:  Keep plants healthy; don’t stress by over- or under watering Causes:  Verticillium wilt—Verticillium fungi  Remove Verticillium-susceptible  Fusarium wilt - Fusarium fungi weeds, such as lambs quarters,  Root Rot fungi amaranth (pigweed), nightshade Susceptible:  Strawberries, caneberries brdieback.html  Remove and dispose of affected  Vegetable crops (tomato) plants, including roots  Woody trees (many) Oak Twig Blight Monitoring:  Solarize affected soils  Symptoms: Decline in twig and leaf growth. Dieback in individual twigs and branches. Foliage becomes light green to chlorotic and then may scorch by midsummer. A discoloration of the inner bark may occur.  Chemical controls: consult a licensed arborist or County Agent  Leaves on one or more branches suddenly wilt, turn light tan, and die. Dead leaves generally remain on the tree throughout the growing season. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 20
  • 21. 1/7/2013 Root, collar & crown rots Root/collar/crown rots  A large number of root rots are caused by members of the water mould  Preventive cultural practices: genus Phytophthora.  Proper drainage and irrigation,  Favored by high soil moisture and soil particularly in clay soils; consider temperatures in poorly drained soils. berming to increase drainage  More common in soils with prior  Choose species that can tolerate Azaleas, Avocado, Citrus poorly-drained soils Brown streaks on roots  Monitoring:  Never cover root collar with dirt or mulch  Plants wilt at midday and may recover at night (ultimately, plants yellow and  Don’t damage roots die).  Buy only healthy plants  In trees, sparse growth and slow decline.  Weed around the tree/shrub  Feeder roots have blackened tips,  Remove and destroy infected brown streaks or appear to be rotting. plants, roots  Mushrooms around tree base indicate final stages.  Chemical controls: Call experienced, © Project SOUND licensed arborist for infected trees © Project SOUND Oak Death Syndrome - Phytophthora ramorum A number of other native broad-leaf species harbor Phytophthora ramorum in  Kills CA native oaks and other California and Oregon (See the trees/shrubs in N. CA & OR (for now) complete list in Part 1.). Little is known about the role of  Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), Evergreen huckleberry these species in the life cycle Vaccinium ovatum Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), and spread of the disease. The Toyon Heteromeles CA Buckeye and Honeysuckle arbutifolia pathogen is difficult to culture (Lonicera hispidula) and others are from many of these species, susceptible. Disease symptoms have and is difficult to diagnose not been well characterized on these because of the presence of hosts at this time. other foliar diseases.  Leaf lesions are characteristically round with a bulls-eye appearance of California buckeye Bigleaf maple Acer macrophyllum alternating light and dark rings Aesculus californica California honeysuckle Pacific madrone Wood rose Lonicera hispidula Arbutus menziesii Rosa gymnocarpa © Project SOUND © Project SOUND All photos: Garbelotto Lab, UC Berkeley,8,Slide 8 21
  • 22. 1/7/2013And now we’re back to the rainy season… Snails & slugs  Preventive cultural practices:  Don’t over-water  Remove dead leaves from ground  Mechanical Controls:  Mechanical picking  Trapping: under boards or newspapers  Pans of beer or sugar water  Copper bands (for tree trunks)  Biological Controls:  Encourage birds, toads  Chemical controls: ….with it’s own unique set of pest challenges  ‘Non-toxic’ Iron phosphate snail bait – ‘Sluggo’ brand © Project SOUND © Project SOUND anthracnose - Gnomonia leptostyla  The only serious disease of sycamores; will not kill the tree.  Common in cool wet weather of spring.  Monitoring:  First symptoms appear on young leaves as they unfold.  Older leaves turn brown, and dead areas occur along the leaf veins. Brown areas eventually include the whole leaf.  The ends of twigs may be killed back 8 to 10 inches.  Cankers may develop on the tree trunk and main branches  Preventive cultural practices:  Proper tree spacing and pruning to promote good air circulation  Gather and destroy all fallen leaves and twigs.  Prune out all infected twigs and branches and destroy them. Remove the dead, cankered tissue down to healthy wood.  Dry winters weaken trees, increasing the effects of diseases. To reduce this problem, water trees once a month during dry winters.  Chemical controls:  Chemical sprays normally are not necessary to control anthracnose So, go out to your garden and get to know it’s insects © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 22