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  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Fragrant Flowers for Victorian Gardens C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants April 3rd & 6th, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDWhat is it about a grandmother’s garden? What was the Victorian Era? http://jmackey68.wordpress.com/2008/12/10/breaking- http://jerseycoins.com/pictures/QueenVictoria.jpg news-victoria-dead/  Period of Queen Victoria’s reign in England - 1837-1901 http://www.intaglio-fine-art.com/images/trc232.jpg  Time of great change in both Europe & N. America Victorian Style Garden © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  • 2. What was different about the Victorian What was different about the Victorian period? period?  The Industrial Revolution  Increased communication  Period of intense innovation – lots of inventions  Books (including  More people live in/near urban novels) & magazines areas – 6% to > 50% by 1900 in U.S.  Fairs, shows & exhibitions  Growing Middle Class  More leisure time, particularly  Public parks – for middle class women demonstrate the latest styles in  Mass production – of many landscape things; cheap, available reproductions of many styles architecturehttp://www.philadelphia-reflections.com/images/indust.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.victorianflowergarden.com/images/walthamstow01.html Victorian books and magazines served as What was different about the Victorian sources of inspiration period?  Commerce with ‘foreign lands’  Styles from other lands influenced culture (Oriental influence)  Increased interest in the scientific and http://www.iaaf-treasures.com/images/blue-white-tea-set.JPG natural worlds  Plants & seeds – including those from 1840 print – Jane CA, tropics Webb Loudon London © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  • 3. There were actually many different architectural styles in the Victorian era http://www.you-are-here.com/victorian/house.html  Many harked back to earlier, grander times (Georgian; Greek) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Henry_Treffry_Dunn_Rossetti_and_Dunton_at_16_Cheyne_Walk.jpg  Most were quite ornate – ornamentation was a big thing!  The Queen Anne/Eastlake Style was most popular in S. CA –The Victorian Era saw an enormous change in the lifestyles of Americans. With new ‘Gingerbread Houses’, ‘Painted Ladies’opportunities, wealth began to accumulate and the era of exaggeration began. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Examples from Victorian Los San Pedro Angeles  Even more modest homes had lots of quirky details  Note also the large porches – outdoor living http://doves2day.blogspot.com/2009/06/victorian-los-angeles-part-two.html © Project SOUND http://www.laokay.com/SanPedroVictorians.htm © Project SOUND 3
  • 4. Gardening became wildly popular in the Places to see Victorian houses in S. CA Victorian era  Gardening became  Angelino Heights widely popular due in (Echo Park) – part to: Carroll Ave.  new technologies (lawn  ‘Heritage Square’ mower & other garden tools)  San Pedro/ Wilmington  more diverse plant stock  the rise of the middle  Heritage Court / class Redondo Beach Historical Museum  the invention of suburban http://www.jforti.com/VictorianGarden.jpg living.  Hollywood  Redlands and But the number one reason gardening became popular was Riverside the increase in the amount of leisure time the middle class could devote to it. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Victorians viewed their gardens differently than we do…  for the Victorian gardener, the goal was to create unified ‘home grounds’ where house, garden and nature all worked together as one;  to furnish a beautiful setting for relaxation and social entertainment; Perhaps the most distinguishing element of S. CA Victorian  and to provide a productive, gardens, especially when compared to today, is the way in yet esthetically pleasing source which the house and the garden acted as a single unit. of fresh fruits and vegetables In a Victorian garden, you sense immediately that the for the home. landscape embraces the architecture, linking it to the land, like a rose gently twinning up a delicate arbor. http://www.countryliving.com/cm/countryliving/images/Vegetable-Garden- GARDEN0805-de.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  • 5. To Victorians, gardens had individual rooms The Victorian garden was an (much like a house) extension of the house…  Victorian gardens were  Views were framed and expanded, used daily, intensively, paths deliberately curved to hide and their design their ends, beds of scented flowers located at unexpected reflected that use http://www.rcgc.org/GardenTour.html turns, all to delight and distract the passerby.  Gardens were laid out to hold something in  In the way we might value our TV reserve, to encourage a or stereo, gardens were sources sense of exploration and or relaxation and entertainment mystery. in a much quieter age. http://www.city-gardens.net/images/gallery/edwardian_large_1.jpg © Project SOUND http://www.mobot.org/hort/images/tours/vict1.jpg © Project SOUND The garden and house reflected the As is often the case, Victorian gardens exuberance of the era !!!!! reflected a rebellion against the ‘old style’  The landscape designs of Victorian homes reflected the new ornamental lifestyle found inside as well as out.  Colors were bold and vibrant and at times mixed with little heed or restraint.  At the end of the Victorian era, people were ready for a change back to simpler, more naturalistic landscapeshttp://bigorangelandmarks.blogspot.com/2008/08/no-176-1321-carroll-avenue-residence.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  • 6. Gardenesque movement (1832 to 1880s) Early Victorian gardens were very formal http://www.sbg.org.uk/images/gardenareas/mixedborder.jpghttp://www.brambledown.com/cms/public/Botanical1%20LG.jpg  John Claudius Loudon  Style of planting design that moved away from the picturesque English Landscape movements and the obsession with natural form and movement.  It relied on non-native plants and exotics, displaying them individually in beds http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/p2EJDEqFF7Lyk6wXSBhz0Q so they were able to develop their true shape and could be admired from all angles.  Parterres (gardens divided into rectangular sections) satisfied the  The garden designs were based on abstract shapes with specimen plants that Victorian need for traditional rectangular geometric forms and were intended to be admired for their unique attributes strong axial designs. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND I know what you’re thinking: my garden is small too http://www.waddesdon.org.uk/plan_your_visit/garden.htm  The Victorian gardeners motto might have been something like "mans conquest over elements of the natural world." This control might be most apparent in the propagation of lawns. http://www.cggardendesigns.net/page3.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  • 7. Victorian gardens came in all sizes… Eight elements of the Victorian Garden  Though it was a time of excess (and not all 1. Lawn homeowners possessed such self-restraint), the landscape designs were 2. Trees usually in keeping with 3. Shrubs the size and architectural design of the house. 4. Fencing  A smaller home would not 5. Ornaments have a yard filled with gardens, instead choosing 6. Seating one modestly grand grouping of shrubbery 7. Flowershttp://www.davidcheethamgardens.co.uk/html/projects/FormalVictorianFrontGarden/images/TS_detail4.JPG and flowers and a row of modest shrubbery along 8. Vines The key elements of Victorian gardens the fence border. can be used in any size garden http://gaeun.net/read.cgi?board=board-37b&y_number=10&nnew=1 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  If you accept the Victorian metaphor of But the lawns the landscape as a series of distinct outdoor rooms - with the hardscaping forming the “walls”, “floors”, and were more… “doorways,” - it’s easy to visualize ornamenting the room with “furniture” (trees and shrubs) and “carpets” (lawns).  For Victorians, a good lawn was required to provide a verdant canvas upon which to show off the principal decorations of the garden — the trees, shrubs and flowers that were the true heart of the garden. The fact that the lawn also made a perfect surface for entertainment was a happy bonus.  Placement of the lawn was a fairly easy: like http://www.jforti.com/designs.html a fine rug, it was simply laid down to adorn the empty spaces between major structural  Most houses had at least one large expanse of lawn uninterrupted by elements of the landscape. Placement of garden beds or tree groupings to give a good view of the house from the “furniture” however – the trees, shrubs the road or vice-versa. and flowers of the garden - was a much more complicated proposition, and Victorian  The large expanses of lawn on estates were trimmed by gang mowers, gardening books go to great lengths in drawn by horses. The push mower, for more modest lawns, was describing the proper ways to “ornament patented during Victorias reign. the lawn.” © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  • 8. Trees in Victorian gardens were practical & ornamental (like furniture) Larger shrubs/trees for Victorian Gardens: interesting foliage, habit, etc,  Trees were used to shade important parts of the house where direct sun was unwelcome (dining room; veranda).  Ceanothus species  Trees were also used to frame the  Western Redbud - * Cercis occidentalis approach to the house or important  Desert Willow - * Chilopsis linearis views. In the city, trees were planted  Summer Holly - Comarostaphylis diversifolia along the street to aid in privacy.  CA Flannelbush - * Fremontodendron californicum  Weeping trees and those with  Silk Tassels - * Garrya species interestingly colored or shaped leaves were popular and placed strategically  Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia to draw the eye -.often could walk  Island Mallow - Lavatera assurgentiflora around them to fully appreciate them  Catalina Ironwood - Lyonothamnus floribundus  Depending upon climate, one might  Torrey Pine - * Pinus torreyanahttp://www.hgtv.com/landscaping/dream-landscape-2009/pictures/index.html collect exotic trees and "display" them  Blue Elderberry - Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea as part of the lawn decor.Exotic plants might even belabeled, like in a botanic garden © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * California Buckeye – Aesculus californica * California Buckeye – Aesculus californica  Foothills from L.A. county north to OR  Locally in San Gabriel & Liebre mtns  On dry slopes, canyons and the borders of streams in many plant communities including chaparral, oak woodland, pine woodland http://wolf.mind.net/swsbm/Maps/Aesculus_californica.gif http://www.calfloranursery.com/images/pics/a_b/aesculus_californica_flower.jpg http://www.landscaperesource.com/litterbox/images/plants/img_5873web.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  • 9. Hippocastanaceae (Horse-chestnut Family) CA Buckeye is a deciduous shrub/tree  ?? Should it be a separate family –  Size: some lump into Sapindaceae  12-20+ ft tall (40 ft. max. in favorable sites)  Small family (3 genera/15 species) of deciduous trees and shrubs  15-30 ft wide  Temperate to tropical: Asia  Growth form: (Himalayas to Japan, China), SE  Tree-like or shrub-like – has multiple Europe, North America, also Central and South America (Billia) main trunks http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2007/01/aesculus_californica.php  Very sculptural – elegant even without  Includes Horse-chestnuts, Red & leaves Yellow Buckeyes  Shape - mounded  All have palmate leaves, showy flowers and large, heavy seeds  Foliage:  Bright to medium green leaves; fall-  Some cultivated ornamentals, deciduous notable horse-chestnut (Aesculus  Palmate leaves typical for family hippocastanum) which is widely planted in temperate regions.  All parts toxic if ingested © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_californica  Roots: re-sprouts from stem SOUND © Project Flowers are fabulous!! Fruits & seeds are  Blooms: spring to summer - very large!! usually May-July in our area  Fruits are leathery/ tough,  Flowers: pear-shaped  Pale pink (sometimes white)  Splits open in winter to release  Densely packed on flowering the seed stems – extremely showy  Sweetly scented  Seeds are very large (1-2 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_californica  Very old-fashioned look – inches in diameter) excellent for Victorian Style  Seeds will readily germinate – gardens not difficult to grow from seedhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/aesculus-californica  Beneficial insects (including native bees), butterflies and  Ground squirrels may bury the their larvae, Hummingbirds are seeds, which they can eat attracted to nectar  Seeds high in saponins – can be used for soap – toxic to eat © 2006 Christopher L. Christie © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  • 10.  Soils: CA Buckeye is perfectly atPlant Requirements  Texture: any from sandy to home in a Victorian Garden heavy clay  pH: any local, including acidic  As an accent plant with its showy  Light: flowers and attractive branch  Full sun best in most gardens structure (light it a night for  Will take light shade or some night accent) afternoon shade  As a small shade tree  Water: http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/aesculus-californica  Winter: needs adequate water  In the scented garden – sweet  Summer: needs to be summer dry scent once established – Zone 1 or 1-2;  Thrives on dry slopes & hillsides – susceptible to S.O.D. great for binding soil  Fertilizer: none needed; likes poor soils, but can tolerate light fertilizer  Good hummingbird plant and organic mulch  Don’t plant near apiaries – will kill  Other: prune to shape when the European honey bees and dormant (winter) or leave alone honey made from nectar is toxic © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Victorians loved their ‘specimen plants’ – Toxic plants and Victorian Gardens usually used as accents  Probably due to several factors:  Inclusion of medicinal plants in home gardens – many toxic http://picasaweb.google.com/seedbyte/GreenAlchemyPlantImages#  Love for exotics – including those from distant lands http://michaelweishan.com/gardenblog/?p=830 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDR.A. Howard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 10
  • 11. The ‘Plant Hunters’ Victorians were collectors of curiosities…  The interest in ferns began in  The Victorian period was the late 1830s when the the golden era of plant British countryside attracted collecting. increasing numbers of amateur and professional botanists  There was a desire for (male and female). exploration and  People of many different discovery and Victorian social backgrounds sought out plant hunters were the species and varieties botanical adventurers described in the fern who risked life and limb identification books to press http://www.darwincountry.org/explore/000529.html the fronds in albums or to to bring back exotic  The English Victorians had a great collect fern plants to grow in plants from around the passion for ferns and this passion was expressed by collecting them, their gardens or homes. world. growing them and making a wide range of ferny decorative objects  Some ferns were, in pottery, glass, metals, textiles, unfortunately, collected out of wood, printed paper, stone and other materials. existence Sir Joseph Banks © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Stumpery * Lewis’ Mock Orange – Philadelphus lewisii  Originating in the English romantic period in the 19th century, a stumpery is a garden whose structure is based on tree stumps.  Quite characteristic of its era, its a perfect example of the Victorians romanticized and exaggerated sense of nature © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys Collegehttp://goldenagegardens.blogspot.com/2008_05_01_archive.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  • 12. Lewis’ Mock Orange – Philadelphus lewisii Mock Orange: a large deciduous shrub  Western N. America from British Columbia to CA  Winter deciduous  Northwestern California,  Size: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada  usually 4-8 ft tall; can be taller, particularly in shady sites  Previously split into several  8-10 ft wide variants (lots of floral and foliage variability) – now just  Growth form: considered all one species  Naturally a loose, informal shrub with down-curving, ‘fountain-like’  Named for : branches  Can be pruned to be much more  the Egyptian king Ptolemy dense: hedge Philadelphus  Foliage: simple; lovely woodsy green  the scientist-explorer (reminds you of OR woods) Meriwether Lewis, who first discovered and collected it  Roots: will spread, particularly withhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5602,5609,5610 during his exploration of the regular water – may want to contain Louisiana Purchase  Quick-growing © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Philadelphus-lewisii/ Mock Orange has always been grown for Mock Orange is very easy to grow - it’s wonderful flowers  Soils: literally any soil, even clay and alkali soils  Blooms: usually May to July; long  Light: bloom period with hundreds of  best flowering and form in full sun; blooms  bright/dappled shade is ok (particularly  Flowers: in very hot gardens)  Showy, white in clusters  Very intense fragrance like that of  Water: orange blossoms  Fragrance will perfume entire yard;  Winter: anything goes; even takes may want to plant back in garden some winter flooding  Summer:  Bee pollinated: a great plant for © 2003 Christopher L. Christie  Does best with moderate to regular native bee pollinators water; every other week as needed Mock Orange is the Idaho state  Seeds: relatively large; can in summer flower propagate from seed (needs a cold  Fairly drought tolerate – but will treatment – stratification – for best lose leaves germination) http://www.cwnp.org/photopgs/pdoc/phlewisii.html  Fertilizer: none needed; organic mulches probably a good idea © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  • 13. Some interesting facts about Mock Orange Mock Orange in the garden  Was a favorite shrub in Victorian  Widely used as a medicinal: gardens  Dried powdered leaves & bark used  Excellent habitat plant: to rub on sores & swollen joints hummingbirds, small birds,  Decoction use for soaking skin butterflies, bees conditions  In a woodland garden  Leaves and flowers contain saponins – make a natural soap  Along streams, ponds  Stems used in basket-making  As a large shrub; nice specimen  Hard wood used for combs, knitting plant in fragrance garden needles, digging sticks and tool handles  For informal hedges, screens  Deer, rabbits and squirrels eat this http://www.wsu.edu/~lohr/wcl/PhiladelphusLewisii.jpg plant, particularly young plants/  Cultivars for CA: Goose Creek & foliage Leave it natural, prune to shape Marjorie Schmidt’Gladys Lucille Smith © California Academy of Sciences or cut back 1/3 of branches when dormant to rejuvenate © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Functional spaces  Clotheslines, work sheds or any other http://www.craftsman-style.info/garden/arbor.htm functional spaces were kept hidden from the view from the road and front drive.  These spaces were set http://www.visitcumbria.com/sl/fellfoot.htm off by groups of shrubbery, trees,  Fell Foot Park and Garden - a typical late Victorian garden of vines & trellises. rhododendrons, oaks and pines. Closer to Edwardian in feel. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://2bnmaine.com/blog/2008/06/ 13
  • 14. Vines & climbers Native Honeysuckles, were used by Clematis, Morning- Victorians glories  Vines of all types were used as decoration and to http://www.frwhs.org/zimmerman_restoration.html hide "unsightly" features, such as fences and tree stumps.  Vines could also be trained up the side of a porch to ward off the sun. Lonicera hispidula http://brookegiannetti.typepad.com/.a/6a00e554d7b8278833010537137d54970b-500wi © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Shrubs were often planted so Shrubs often played that each one would stand on ….but not always utilitarian roles… its own rather than blending together.  A variety of plants were  Shrubs were used mainly chosen for uniqueness in for delineating property blossom, shape or variety – like lines or marking paths. objects of art.  The point was the showinesshttp://www.beaudrydesign.com/portfolio-7.php  They might also be used to and uniqueness of individual hide an "unsightly" wooden plants. The goal seemed to be fence or house foundation, to find that special specimen http://www.linseysgardens.com/port_osh.asp that no other could find. or used to frame doorways or bay windows.  Popular shrubs for Victorian gardens included: Azalea,  It was popular to mix the Ceanothus, Holly, Hydrangea, Rose, Lilac, Forsythia, species of shrubs. Andromeda, Barberry, Peony, & Nightshades. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://2bnmaine.com/blog/2008/06/ 14
  • 15. Purple Nightshade – Solanum xanti Purple Nightshade – Solanum xanti  Southwestern U.S. to Baja  In CA, foothills west of Sierras and desert foothills  In coastal sage scrub or chaparral usually  ITIS recognizes several subspecies – Jepson does not http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7682,7701  Also called Chaparral Nightshade, Blue Witch © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDPurple Nightshade – adaptable to conditions Purple Nightshade – old-fashioned perennial or sub-shrub  Size:  2-4 ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial or sub-shrub – base becomes woody  Mounded to sprawling – depends a bit on light  Branchs thin, herbaceous  Foliage: all parts toxic if eaten  Bright to medium green  Leaves simple  Roots: taproot but also spreads some via rhizomes (not invasive – more likely to spread via seed) http://www.delange.org/NiteshadeChaparral/NiteshadeChaparral.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  • 16.  Soils: Flowers are large, Blue Witch - adaptable  Texture: just about any from showy and sweet sandy/rocky to clay  pH: any local  Blooms in spring/summer:  Usually Feb-May in western L.A.  Light: Co.  Full sun to part-shade  May bloom well into summer with a  Do well under trees little water  Water: http://www.fourdir.com/p_purple_nightshade.htm  Flowers: showy in all ways  Winter: need adequate  Large – to 1 inch across http://bfs.claremont.edu/biota/plants/sxanti.html winter/spring water  Intense blue-violet with yellow  Summer: drought tolerant but will anthers – typical for nightshades go dormant; occasional summer  Lovely, sweet scent – like a violet, water (Zone 1-2 to 2) will extend but better bloom period  Fruits:  Fertilizer:  Pea-size; look like a small, purple-  None needed, but won’t kill it brown tomato  Leaf or other organic mulch http://www.hazmac.biz/080121/080121SolanumXantiIntermedium.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.azhikinggallery.com/galleryintro.asp?galleryid=BallantineTrail_032209 Purple Nightshade – perfect Blue Witch requires little for Victorian gardens maintenance  Nice in a large container, urn (even in some shade)  Relatively pest-free  As a long-blooming perennial  Prune occasionally to shape  Works well under oaks or otherhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Solanum_xanti.htm summer-dry trees  Interesting growing around other perennials & shrubs  Fine for slopes  An old standby for scented gardens – plant where you can enjoy the old-fashioned fragrance http://www.azhikinggallery.com/galleryintro.asp?galleryid=BallantineTrail_032209 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://chestofbooks.com/flora-plants/flowers/Western-Wild-Flowers/images/Purple-Nightshade-Solanum-Xanti.jpg 16
  • 17. Several nice cultivars of Blue Witch 2007 stamps honoring pollinators  ‘Navajo Creek’ Bumblebees with relatively short mouthparts visit flowers that hold  Intensely purple flowers nectar in open cups, while those with  Crinkled leaves longer tongues probe for nectar in http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_s/solxanobinav.html  Low-growing (< 2 ft) tubular flowers with hidden nectaries ‘Navajo Creek’  All the other attributes of the (the plant glands that secrete species nectar). http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/2007/sr07_021a.htm  ‘Salmon Creek’  Dark purple flowers The flowers of some plants, such as tomatoes and other  Dark foliage nightshades, contain no nectar but produce an abundance of pollen in tubular anthers. To obtain pollen from these flowers,  Rambling habit – will grow through bumblebees employ a technique known as buzz pollination. By other plants grasping the anthers and rapidly vibrating their flight muscles,  Other than that, similar to the they dislodge the pollen. ‘Salmon Creek’ species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Victorian kitchen garden: Victorians firmly believed in combining “grace the sources of fresh fruits with utility” & vegetables  ‘Few and wide walks are preferable to many narrow ones.  No grocery store around If the garden is small, then one the corner to provide good walk all about is sufficient. ‘exotic’ & common foods If long and narrow, the cross walks should be kept to ahttp://www.hgtv.com/landscaping/dream-landscape-2009/pictures/index.html minimum..’. http://www.gardeninggonewild.com/?p=2979  Walkways meandered about the yard and were considered aesthetically pleasing. Shrubs and trees were always planted in groupings along crossing points to hide the destination of the next path, lending an intriguing coziness to the landscape design. http://www.lissadellhouse.com/kitchen.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.beaudrydesign.com/portfolio-7.php 17
  • 18. The Victorians lavished tremendous attention on their walks and drives Victorian paths ‘should be edged’  Victorian gardening manuals abound with  Whatever material is used for the bed of extensive advice on making paths and drives. the path, it is necessary to have an edging of some sort. Box (hedge) is to be  In general they consisted of crushed stone and preferred gravel, which was the staple of Victorian landscapes. Solid surfacing such as brick and  Various other sorts of edging, such as stone was actually quite rare outside of major bricks placed on edge, slate, deal etc. are urban areas, due to the high cost of transport. used, but all are objectionable. Grass edgings are sometimes laid, but they  Unlike today’s gravel paths though, Victorian require often to be mowed and often resent paths were quite elaborately constructed, using an unseemly appearance. multiple layers of crushed stone and gravel. The  In gardens of small extent, edgings are walks were periodically rolled after heavy rains sometimes formed of useful kinds of to produce a flat, even surface. vegetables, such as parsley, strawberries, thyme, hyssop, winter savoury or chamomile.  ‘The colour of the gravel should be of a These, while they remain young and yellowish hue as dark gravel has not so cheerful ungathered, have an effect not out of an appearance. Lighter coloured gravels are also character with a kitchen garden. the more easily tarnished and, unless kept exceedingly well, soon look ill.’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND* Woodland Strawberry – Fragaria vesca ssp. californica * Woodland Strawberry – Fragaria vesca ssp. californica  Coastal mountains and Sierra Nevada from OR/WA to Baja  Locally in the San Bernardino & San Jacinto Mtns., San Diego Co.  In dry to moist meadows, young woodlands, sparse forest , woodland edges and clearings.  Often plants can be found where they do not get sufficient light to form fruit. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6723,6725 © 2002 George Jackson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
  • 19. Characteristics of CA Woodland Strawberry Flowers are sweet  Size:  Blooms:  < 1 ft tall  Spring into summer  3-6+ ft wide, spreading clump  Usually Mar. to June in our area – may also have some  Growth form: summer bloom  Herbaceous perennial – typical form for strawberries  Flowers:  Produces runners (stolons) with  Smaller than F. chiloensis © 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy new plantlets Jo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences  Typical 5-petal white flowers  Fall deciduous; dies back of the genus  Really nice for a ground-cover  Foliage: plant; light, sweet fragrance  Leaves are medium green, typical  Attract butterflies shape for strawberries  Leaves and flowers arise from  Seeds: usually will reseed single base  Vegetative reproduction: easy  Roots: rather shallow to dig up plantlets to produce new© 2006 Vivian Parker plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND But the fruits are  Soils: Plant Requirements  Texture: any, including clays sweeter yet!  pH: any local including acidic  Larger fruit than Fragaria  Light: chiloensis (Beach Strawberry)  Full sun (cooler gardens) or dappled shade are best  Among the most tasty of all the wild strawberries –sweet scent  Will grow fine in part-shade to quite shady, but fruiting reduced  Excellent choice for:  Eating fresh  Water:  Including in baked goods  Winter: likes good rains  Making preserves & syrups  Summer: wide tolerance –  Drying occasional (Zone 2) to regular water (Zone 3)  Berries have antioxidant properties  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizer – really likes a leaf mulch  Berry juice is a natural bleach  Other: good frost tolerance © 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy  Leaves make a tea for GI upsets © 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 19
  • 20. Strawberries in the Victorian Garden Fragaria vesca Montana de Oro  As a novelty in a strawberry pot or other attractive pot  Naturally occurring cultivar from Montana de  As a ‘wild’ groundcover under Oro State Park. high-canopy trees – great under oaks & pines  Vigorous groundcover to 8" © 2007 California Native Plant Society with a wide spreading  In the vegetable garden habit.  Lining walks or flower beds  Chosen for garden use  In the Children’s Garden http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3093/3190034104_8ae33ca930.jpg?v=0  Tolerant of heavy shade but best with at least half-  In a woodland themed garden Hardy to 10º F. day light.  spreading in between shade-  Fruit is small but tasty. loving perennials like Columbine and Coral Bells. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/fragaria-californica Fencing was a must… Seating was essential in the Victorian garden  Most Victorian gardens were fenced – primarily to keep animals (and food snatchers) out.  Benches, seats, pavilions,  Cast iron was by far the most popular and gazebos were made as material because it was the most decorative as possible. http://www.beaverbrook.org/mhgvicto.htm ornamental (and let you see through to the gardens & home beyond).  Benches were quite ornate -  The more elaborate the home, the more usually carved from stone, elaborate (usually) the fence and gate. or in cast iron or "rustic" wood.  In more informal settings, rustic fencing was used. This might be made  Seats were generally placed of "rustic" wood bent into decorative motifs. where at the end of a garden walk or wherever a  The picket fence was to be hidden with grand view was to be had – shrubs at best, or vines if shrubs were out of the question. or places made for entertainment. http://subkinks.blogspot.com/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 20
  • 21. Gazebos & Summerhouses Scented flowers add to provided shady places for Victorian ambiance in entertaining & reading the late afternoon  A small gazebo can add a  Oenothera caespitosa decorative Victorian touch to (Evening Primrose) http://www.belvederegardenbuildings.com/ the garden  Solanum species  Seats were placed under trees (nightshades) and of course in pavilions and  Carpenteria californica gazebos – for pleasant summer afternoons.  Fragaria californica (woodland strawberry)  Rattan and wicker furniture was used mainly on porches  Keckiellia antirrhinoides and in sun rooms of the house. (snapdragon)http://raleighdurham.about.com/od/attractionsandlandmarks/ss/NC-Arboretum_9.htm http://www.city-gardens.net/portfolio_of_garden_desgins.htm?galcat=2&galid=11 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Yellow Bush Penstemon – Keckiella antirrhinoides * Yellow Bush Penstemon – Keckiella antirrhinoides  Endemic to San Bernardino mtns., coastal ranges and N. Baja  Dry, rocky slopes below 4500 ft. in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub, Oak Woodland http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7177,7347,7348,7349 © 2003 Charles E. Jones © Lee Dittmann © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 21
  • 22. Keckiellas: cousins to true Penstemons Characteristics of Yellow Bush Penstemon/Keckiella  Both members of  Size: Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family)  3-5 ft tall (can be to 7 ft)  Keckiellas were once lumped into  2-4+ ft wide the genus Penstemon  Growth form:  Both have flowers typical of the  Woody sub-shrub, but family – but Keckiellas are more perennial-like in form likely to be yellow, orange, redBrother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Mounded form  Members of genus Keckiella are  Drought-deciduous distinguished from the closely-  Foliage: related Penstemons by their  Many small, narrow woody stems. leaves  Genus Keckiella was named after  Roots: long the American botanist David D. Keck – taxonomist & geneticist. http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=22973 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/kecka2.htm Flowers are spectacular  Soils: Very drought tolerant  Texture: sandy or rocky best –  Blooms: need to be well-drained  Spring to early summer  pH: any local  Usually April-June  Light:  Open over long time (several  Full sun to part-shade; some months) afternoon shade is fine http://research.calacademy.org/research/botany/wildflow/wildflowers.asp?w_id=14  Flowers:  Water:  Bright yellow & very showy – 1-3  Winter: needs adequate inches long & look like  Summer: likes to be fairly dry, snapdragon flowers but with occasional water (and  Plant literally covered with washing off the leaves) will blossoms remain green until fall – Zone 1-2  Sweet fragrance; attracts hummingbirds  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Seeds: many small seeds in dry  Other: prune heavily to shape when capsule (like Penstemons) dormant (fall); will look scraggly otherwise http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/keckiella-antirrhinoides © Project SOUND © Project SOUND J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences 22
  • 23. Good substitute for Scotch Broom Hybrid ‘Roy Taylor’  As a showy accent plant – looks  Hybrid – Keckiella nice with Salvias antirrhinoides X K. cordifolia ?  In the scented garden  Shrubby habit  As a hedge plant  Golden flowered (between  On steep, rocky slopes © Lee Dittmann both parents in color)  In the habitat garden – good  Originated as a seedling in nectar plant the cultivar garden at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic garden.  Some supplemental water is beneficial during the dry summer months CA Dogface Butterfly http://tolweb.org/Zerene © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Hybrid ‘Phillip Munz’ Ornaments were key accessories – inside and out  Urns, sculpture, fountains,  Hybrid – Keckiella sundials, gazing balls (lawn antirrhinoides X K. balls), birdbaths, and man- cordifolia made fish ponds were all commonly used.  Sometimes sold as K.http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3162/2580974908_51661e088d.jpg cordifolia ‘Phillip Munz’  Cast iron was a commonly used material for such  Shrubby vine to 15 ft. long – accoutrements. like K. cordifolia  Often, urns were not  Flowers red-orange planted with anything, but were simply set in pairs to  Evergreen with a little ornament stairs or summer water balustrades. http://www.gardenvisit.com/garden/long_cross_victorian_gardens © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 23
  • 24. Asian and classical Add some flowering motifs were popular perennials and sub-  Chinese art and objects were shrubs wildly popular during the Victorian era, so you may consider adding a touch of the  A Victorian Garden was Orient into your Victorian planted with flowering http://www.pondshowcase.com/Ladew/index.shtml garden. borders, which were indicative of gardens in http://www.beaverbrook.org/mhgvicto.htm  Red-glazed planters with painted scenes from the far the 1800’s. east or black lacquer garden stools would suffice.  Plants in The Victorian  Victorians often incorporated Garden include: Coral garden pools filled with goldfish Bells, Astilbe, Phlox, - also from the Orient Hydrangea, Boxwood,  Sculptures often featured Mallows, Daisies, and classic figures Sedum. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.moirafarnham.co.uk/portfolio.php?garden=6 California Brickelbush - Brickellia californica California Brickelbush - Brickellia californica  Thoughout the SW from Wyoming & CA to Texas and into Mexico  In CA, common shrub of dry, rocky slopes & washes in our chaparral & coastal- sage-scrub areas below 8000 ft.  A plant of ‘winter water’ places  named for Dr. John Brickell (1749-1809), early naturalist and physician of http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi- bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,83 Georgia who came to the 1,836 U.S. in 1770 from Ireland http://www.swsbm.com/Maps/Brickellia_c alifornica.gif © 2001 Steven Thorsted © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 24
  • 25. Brickelbush: another little Brickelbush is all about fragrance…. bush ‘sunflower’  Size:  1-4 ft tall & wide, occ. taller  Blooms: summer/fall; usually  Increases; spreading via Aug/Sept in our area underground stems (rhizomes)  2-4 week bloom period  Growth form:  Mounding perennial shrub arising  Flowers: small yellowish-green from a woody stem flowers are pendulous & held  White-gray stems are slender, in little bunches many-branched, spreading  Fragrance: like none other;  Foliage: ‘From a great distance, you will  Attractive, triangular leaves be drawn by the irresistible,  Entirely deciduous at higher powerful perfume! ‘ elevations; dies back to wood  Also good nectar/pollen source  Growth rate/lifespan in late summer/early fall  Quick growing  Plant may live for one to severalhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiabrickellbush.html decades, renewing itself via suckers – not invasive http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiabrickellbush.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Garden conditions Brickellia in the  Soils: garden  Texture: any; best in well-drained but a little more tolerant of clays  Absolute must for a scent  pH: 5-8 - any usual local soil is fine garden – will perfume your neighborhood in early fall  Light:  Full sun to part-shade; adaptable to many  Great for a natural garden garden light situations with other drought-tolerant species  Water:  Young plants: water weekly for first year  Plant in mixed beds, with until established other shrubs; may lose leaves  Winter: moist soils at least briefly  Summer:  Probably ok in large  Drought-tolerant ; no summer water containers, planters required after first year, but will take a little summer water  Important medicinal plant for  Fertilizer: none needed Native Peoples  Other: little maintenance; prune out  Good habitat plant: provides dead branches cover, seeds, nectar in fall http://www.westernnativeseed.com/brical.jpeg © 2006 Matt Below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 25
  • 26. Victorians loved Victorian Gardens were all about show… their flowers!!  It was a time of bright, vibrant colors.  People wanted to show off new money and new things, so it became quite popular to acquire new and exciting varieties of plant material.  Ornate accent flowers were highly popularhttp://www.videojug.com/film/an-introduction-to-victorian-floral-gardens © Project SOUND http://www.kentlawncare.com/English_Victorian_Garden-lg.jpg © Project SOUNDCharacteristics favored by Victorians The Victorian gardener ‘wanted everything’ (sound a little like you?)  Vibrant and passionate colors including vivid greens,  Huge advances in hybridization & collecting rich dark browns, and a expeditions resulted in an incredible influx of contrast of light new plants into the Victorian garden. yellows/golds, reds & pinks  Even the more modest landscapes gardens soon  Fragrance began to bulge with exotic introductions.  Good for cut flowers –  The zest for novelty, though, had a distinctive Victorians used flowers downside: many gardeners succumbed to a extensively tendency to try to cram their gardens with as  The ‘Language of Flowers’ – a many specimens as possible means of communication in a  Shortly after the Civil War, warnings against repressive era (red roses such excess became common for Victorian still imply passionate, gardening guides. Artful composition was romantic love) required © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 26
  • 27. Victorians used flowers in many ways Typical Victorian garden plants  Carpet bedding, the use of same-height flora, was popular. Most often used to Ageratum, Alonsoa, Amanthus, Asters, Scarlet depict a motif or design Basil, Begonia Tuberous, Begonia, Bulbs, Caladium, (think ‘Disneyland’). Calendula, Campanula, Chrysanthemum, Cobaea,  Urban dwellers without Cockscomb, Coleus, Columbines, Coreopsis much of a yard would often Delphinium, Dianthus, Dusty Miller, Ferns, plant large urns beside the Flowering tobacco, Fuschia, Geranium, Scented front door with flowers or Geranium, Heliotrope, Impatiens, Iris, Lobelia, small shrubs. Lupines, Marigold, Moonflower, Morning Glory,  Flowers could also be Nasturtium, Oxalis Pansy, Periwinkle, Petunia, planted along the front walk Portulaca, Primrose, Rose, Miniature Rose, underneath the shrubs Snapdragon, Sweet Alyssum, Sweet Pea, which bordered it. Thunbergia, Verbena, Violet, Yarrow, Zinnia.  Window boxes were also popular. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Lindley’s Blazingstar – Mentzelia lindleyi * Lindley’s Blazingstar – Mentzelia lindleyi  Alameda and Santa Clara counties and western Stanislaus and Fresno counties (CA endemic)  Rocky, open slopes, coastal-sage scrub, oak/pine woodland below 2500 ft. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4990,4994,5008 Pleasing to the eye and easy to grow – a favorite in European gardens for years! http://www.bayesianinvestor.com/pix/2005/hamilton1.jpg© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 27
  • 28. Lindley’s Blazingstar is a star annual wildflower! Flowers are magical!  Size:  Blooms:  1-2 ft tall  Mid- to late-spring - usually April to June, but varies with rain,  2-3 ft wide temperature  Growth form:  Can extend bloom period  Annual wildflower, altho’ form somewhat with judicious water more reminiscent of a http://image03.webshots.com/3/9/58/1/3195801FhFOqRSYVH_ph.jpg  Flowers: perennial  Large – to 3” across http://www.eol.org/pages/486817  Upright or mounded & sprawly; much-branched  Brilliant, iridescent yellow – extremely showy & unusual  Foliage:  Open in late afternoon with  Medium green lovely, sweet fragrance – oh so  Somewhat dandelion-like Victorian!  Fuzzy/hairy  Seeds: many small seeds in dry capsule – plant in fall/winter as the rains begin © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences  Soils: Excellent choice for theGrowth Requirements Victorian Garden  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local except very alkali  As an attractive container plant – large pots and urns  Light:  Full sun best – like most  In a mixed bed with perennials and wildflowers other native annuals – particularly nice with blue-flowered plants  Water:  Winter/spring: needs good  Most showy when planted in massesCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences rainfall – supplement as  Good choice for slopes needed  Summer: taper off to Zone 1 as blooming ceases; don’t over-water in clay soils  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils http://delta-intkey.com/angio/images/breg1831.jpg – but wildflowers often OK with some fertilizer © Project SOUND http://lh4.ggpht.com/_wRUPMHSWQ9c/SGKinOtNUGI/AAAAAAAAAHc/g2xF http://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?pr © Project SOUND http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3232/2450995819_8a0e50b0f3.jpg?v=0 OFHNUIw/P6090083.JPG odid=676 28
  • 29. Eight elements of the Victorian Garden 1. Lawn 2. Trees 3. Shrubs 4. Fencing 5. Ornaments 6. Seating 7. Flowers 8. Vines http://gaeun.net/read.cgi?board=board-37b&y_number=10&nnew=1 http://www.1artclub.com/victorian-gardens-2/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Adapting to smaller gardens: key elements  Formal planting schemes/manicured plants  Use of plants with exotic features  Massed plantings  Use of scented plants  Correct use of hardscape features:  Paths/walks  Seating  Fencing  Water features  Accessorieshttp://www.gardendesigns.uk.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?id=3 © Project SOUND 29