• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Fly Pollinators - Notes
 

Fly Pollinators - Notes

on

  • 4,354 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,354
Views on SlideShare
4,354
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Fly Pollinators - Notes Fly Pollinators - Notes Presentation Transcript

    • 1/6/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Flower Flies & Friends: Fly Pollinators & Other Beneficial Dipterans in the Garden and the Wild C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSU Dominguez Hills & Madrona Marsh Preserve Arthur Johnson Center – Friends of Gardena Willows Wetland Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Preserve Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) July 12, 2012 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Colony Collapse Disorder – our wake-up call I’m worried about our food Global climate change Decreasing effectiveness of artificial pest control Loss of crop biodiversity Genetic modification of crop plants Loss of native habitat http://bee-rapture.blogspot.com/2009/04/found-cause-of-colony- collapse-disorder.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
    • 1/6/2013 Can we still find answers in the wild? © Project SOUND Who in the heck are all those little guys? © Project SOUND Class Insecta – the insects Dipterans are numerous  Flies actually represent a large part of metazoan diversity. There are about 1 million named insect species. http://www.coolinfographics.com/blog/2008/12/5/the-species-scape.html  With ~152,000 named species and many more unnamed species, flies account for no less than 1 in 10 species on Earth  And most of those species are living lives that benefit the environmenthttp://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/entomology/intro.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://insects.tamu.edu/students/undergrad/ento402/Arthropoda_files/Arthropoda_number_organisms.html 2
    • 1/6/2013 Evolution of the How many insect species? Difficult to Flies know for sure  Some of the numbers of 1. There are many named insects species are: families/sub-orders of Dipterans  Beetles, 360,000  Butterflies and Moths: 2. There’s lots of 170,000 diversity among them  Flies: 120,000-150,000+  Bees, wasps and ants: 110,000 3. Families vary in size/ number of species  True bugs: 82,000  Grasshoppers: 20,000 4. Some of the sub-  Dragonflies: 5,000 orders & families are http://insects.tamu.edu/students/undergrad/ento402/Arthropoda_files/Arthropoda_number_organ quite ancient, while isms.html others are more recent © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.pnas.org/content/108/14/5690/F3.large.jpg How old are the Some ancient Dipterans Dipterans? look very similar to today’s species http://www.fossilmall.com/EDCOPE_Enterprises/Insects/I2/I2.htm 50 million year old Crane Fly  Dipterans are successful insects that have succeeded – and diversified – over time http://www.internal.schools.net.au/edu/lesson_ideas/dinosaurs/dino_wksht3.html They must be well-adapted to theirhttp://destinationofmarvel.blogspot.com/2010/10/geological-timeline.html   3,125 species are known only from fossils environment(s) – and tough (survived  The oldest, a limoniid crane fly, is some 225 MILLION years massive climate changes in past) old (Upper Triassic (Carnian). © Project SOUND http://www.amberabg.com/a_for_sale/inclusions_zd22.html © Project SOUND 3
    • 1/6/2013 http://biokeys.berkeley.edu/inverts/diptera.html The true flies (Diptera)  One of the most species Distinguishing Diptera rich, anatomically varied and ecologically innovative (true flies) from bees groups of organisms  Diptera have only one pair of  An estimated 150,000+ wings; a second pair of wings species of Diptera have evolved into small dumb-bell been described, however, the total number of extant shaped "halteres", which are fly species is many times used for balance during flight. greater. Typical Fly (The two-winged fly is an advancement in flight; that why  The living dipteran species flies can hover) have been classified into about :  No stinger  10,000 genera, 150 families  Sucking mouthparts  22-32 superfamilies  8-10 infraorders  Very large, compound eyes  2 suborders  Antennae: either long or short. © Project SOUND http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-identify-the-basic-body-parts-of-honey-bees.html © Project SOUND Bee mimics are common Full 4-stage life cycle (like a butterfly) among Dipterans  Some flies, such as syrphids,  Egg - laid in a variety of masquerade as bees and wasps. environments, based on However, the pollinating flies canThe syrphid fly is a bee mimic. speciesPhoto by Beatriz Moisset 2002-2004. be distinguished with a sharp eye – or better yet, a camera.  Larva – usually several stages – wide variation in  The flies have only one pair of food sources (parasitic; wings while bees and wasps have plant; dung; decaying two pairs of wings. matter  Comical, robust and extremely hairy  Pupa – brief or may are the bee flies (bombylids), some include a hibernation with tongues as long as their bodies!  AdultThe tachnid fly is similar in generalappearance to bees or wasps. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
    • 1/6/2013 Flies have gotten a bad reputation Flies have been disliked in many cultures  Just a few species of flies command the most public attention  Among them are important pests:  House flies – pesky; bite; carriers  Horse flies “  Mosquitoes “ Housefly: Musca domestica  Blow-flies flies http://avaxhome.ws/video/fly_tales.htmlBut their attributes have beenelevated to hero status inothers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse-fly Blue-bottle Fly: a common Blow-fly http://ohdannyboy.blogspot.com/2011/08/unseen-fly-justice-of-chen-fang.html © Project SOUND Horse-fly: family Tabanidae © Project SOUND Why don’t we hear more about the good Why we should worry about Dipterans: Dipterans? importance of flies to ecosystems  They are harder to study & watch/photograph/raise  Pollinators  They are less specialized –  Pest control agents – aphids, people tend to like to study beetle grubs, moth caterpillars specialized creatures  Food for others (bats; reptiles;  They are not as cute as other fish; birds; other insects) pollinators – ‘fuzzy bees’ – lacking  Decomposers & soil conditioners in the charisma department  Water quality indicators  They have gotten a bad rap – the ‘yuck factor’  And much more (including some functions we probably don’t even  They need a new PR person know yet) http://www.zazzle.com/house_fly_t_shirt-235110274153973276 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0341816203001280 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
    • 1/6/2013 Why worry about pollinators? Why worry about Dipterans? Can’t the  Pollinators are “keystone organisms” bees do the pollination work? in most terrestrial ecosystems.  Pollinators are essential for  Flies and bees are the two most maintaining the integrity, important insect pollinator groups. productivity and sustainability of many types of ecosystems: natural  Over 71 families of Diptera are areas, pastures, fields, meadows, known to visit and pollinate roadsides, many agricultural crops, flowers, linking the fate of plants fruit orchards, and backyard and animals. vegetable and flower gardens.  Without insect pollinators, many  Depending on the region, the time flowering plants would eventually It turns out the pollination is of the day, the flowering become extinct. a lot more complex than phenology and weather conditions, flies may be the main or  Without the work of pollinators, early agricultural studies exclusive pollinators, or share many fruit- and seed-eating birds lead us to believe pollination services with bees and and some mammals, including people, would have a less varied and less other pollinator groups. healthy diet. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Even before colony collapse disorder, Diptera – our oldest and most wide- some people were concerned… spread pollinators  Depending on a single source  Diptera, the true flies, are an – for anything – should make important, but neglected us all nervous group of pollinators.  Better to ‘diversify the portfolio’ – Dipterans are a  They are an ancient group, part and were probably among the first pollinators of early flowering plants.  Flies live almost everywherehttp://therealnewsjournal.com/?tag=colony-collapse-disorder in terrestrial ecosystems – http://urbangardencasual.com/2009/04/28/possible-cure- arctics to tropics for-honey-bee-colony-collapse-disorder-discovered/  Are abundant in most European Honey Bee Apis mellifera terrestrial habitats © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
    • 1/6/2013 Fly pollinators: specialists & generalists In some situations, flies are the main pollinators, so they clearly have potential  Dipterans are an extremely diverse group, varying in mouth parts, tongue length, size and degree of pilosity.  In some habitats, such as the forest under-story where shrubs  The diversity of flower-visiting flies is may produce small, inconspicuous, reflected in their effectiveness as dioecious flowers, flies seem to be pollinators. Some flies, such as long- particularly important pollinators. http://www.geraniumsonline.com/pollination.htm tongued tabanids of South Africa, have specialized relationships with  In arctic and alpine environments, individual flower genera/species (much under conditions of reduced bee like some bees/butterflies) activity, flies are often the main  Other flies are generalists, feeding pollinators of open, bowl-shaped from a wide variety of flowers. But flowers, with readily accessible they like to visit many of the same pollen and nectar. type while they’re in the neighborhood © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://scienceblogs.com/myrmecos/2008/12/31/slurp/ How do the Dipterans compare to other How does Mother Nature play it safe with pollinators? The experts say… regards to pollination?  Many flies are generalists; their contributions to plant reproductive success are sometimes  Most insect pollinated flowers receive visits discounted because of their reputation as from several different types of insects: ineffective pollinators. bees, flies, beetles, bugs, etc.  However, the complexity of interactions in  In a study of 2200 CA plant species: redundant pollination systems is little studied & deserves further attention.By hedging her odds  71% of the out-crossing species were visited by two potential pollinators  When multiple pollinator species visit the  49% were visited by three or more potential same flowers, their respective value as pollinators pollinators is interdependent and may differ from year-to-year or even over the  Redundancy in pollination systems is course of the flowering season. probably the rule, rather than the exception.  Inefficient pollinators are needed when the more efficient pollinators are absent © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
    • 1/6/2013Bee vs Fly pollination: the tortoise & the hare Oregon study: Mountain Meadows - Presence of host plant pollen  Conditions affecting bee populations can be Syrphid flies Bumble bee quite different from those affecting fly populations due to the great difference in larval requirements.  Many types of flies have few hairs when compared to bees, and pollen is less likely to adhere to the body surface. But under conditions when bees are scarce, an inefficient pollinator is better than none.  Higher flight activities of flies may well compensate lower pollen carrying capacity. Even in cases where honeybees are abundant on flowers and specialised bees are foraging, flower flies (Syrphidae) can be the most effective pollinators producing the highest Present Absent seed set. © Project SOUND Cultivated plants pollinated by flies So what kinds of plants are known to be  More than 100 cultivated crops are regularly visited by flies and Dipteran pollinated? depend largely on fly pollination for abundant fruit set and seed production . Examples:  At least seventy-one of the 150 Diptera families include flies that  The cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) feed at flowers as adults.  Tropical fruits such as Mango (Mangifera indica), Capsicum annuum and Piper nigrum, pawpaw (Asimina triloba)  More than 550 species of flowering  Fruit-bearing Rosaceae: Apple (Malus domestica) and Pear (Pyrus communis) trees, strawberries (Fragaria vesca, F. x ananassa), Prunus plants are regularly visited by species (cherries, plums, apricot and peach), Sorbus species (e.g. Diptera that are potential Rowanberry) and most of the Rubus-species (Raspberry, Blackberry, pollinators. And that’s just the tip Cloudberry etc.) as well as the wild rose Drone fly pollinating aster of the iceberg: few fly pollinator  Spices and vegetable plants of the family Apiaceae like fennel (Foeniculum surveys exist! vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), caraway (Carum carvi), kitchen onions (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and carrots (Daucus  Diptera have been documented to carota) be primary pollinators for many  In addition a large number of wild relatives of food plants, numerous plant species, both wild and medicinal plants and cultivated garden plants benefit from fly cultivated. pollination. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
    • 1/6/2013 What native plants attract fly pollinators? Why are these plants ‘insect magnets’? The ‘insect-magnet’ plants Sunflower family (Asteraceae)  Yarrow (Achillea millefolia)  Goldenrods (Solidago & Euthamia spp.)  Fall-blooming shrubs (Baccharis; Ericameria; Goldenbushes, Tarplants Rose family  Pink and white-flowered species The Buckwheats (Eriogonum spp.) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Western Yarrow – Achilla millefolia The Yarrows – horticultural plants extraordinaire  Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)  Cultivated in Europe ??thousands of years  About half a dozen species are commonly grown as garden plants  Natural variation in color has been exploited – many named cultivars – yellow, pink, red, purple  The species name, millefolium-of a thousand leaves-describes the fine, feathery foliage which resembles a fern. http://aggiehorticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/Cornell_Herbaceous /plant_pages/Achilleamillefolium.html 9
    • 1/6/2013 Western Yarrow – Achilla millefolia Western Yarrow can be used in many ways!  Found in most of CA  Slopes, hillsides  60-100 species of Achillia  Mixtures worldwide – northern hemisphere  Good garden plant for fresh or dry floral arrangements  In CA, found in seasonally wet places:  Foliage is pleasantly fragrant whenhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,615,616 crushed – used for tea, medicinals  Meadows and pastures  Along stream edges  Can be mowed to form a highly  In sand dunes competitive ground cover to control soil erosion.  Along alkali sinks  On coastal strand  Flowers!!!  In coastal grasslands  In Coastal Sage Scrub and  Good butterfly/insect plant Chaparralhttp://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/astera/achil/achimilv.jpg J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Success with Yarrow Why Yarrow makes a good lawn substitute is almost guaranteed  Spreads quickly, giving good  Yarrow can endure dry, cover impoverished soil  Super for banks and other areas that can’t easily be mowed  Survives with little maintenance – neglect  Spreading habit inhibits weeds  Best in full sun; grows but less  Can be mowed – occasionally and flowering in shade on high setting w/ rotary mower  A true perennial taking two  Companion plant – attracts beneficial insects, repels others years to become established  Does well on poor, dry, sandy  Included in most commercial soils where other plants grow mixed ‘native lawn’ mixes poorly http://www.dgsgardening.btinternet.co.uk/yarrow.JPG Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 10
    • 1/6/2013 What is it about Yarrow that attracts? So we’ve discovered one type of ‘fly plant’  Myophily  Adult flies feed on nectar & pollen; less often on fruit  Common examples: bee flies (Bombyliidae), hoverflies (Syrphidae)  Regularly visit flowers to feed, while also pollinating.  Sapromyophily  Adults normally visit dead animals or  White/pink color dung to lay eggs.  Many tiny flowers per cluster; many clusters per plant  Attracted to flowers that mimic these  Flower structure relative open; easy to access odoriferous items. These plants have a strong, unpleasant odor, and are brown  Floral clusters relatively flat – also allows easy access Skunk cabbages strong smell or orange in color.  +/- Sweet scent and dark color attract carrion  The plant may have traps to slow them  Produce lots of high quality nectar & pollen flies that lay their eggs thinking down and become inadvertent pollinators © Project SOUND that it is rotting flesh. © Project SOUND  Pale color (whites, pinks, What native plants attract fly pollinators?Myophily fly flowers purples and blues most common) The ‘insect-magnet’ plants  Dull surface; may be nectar  Sunflower family (Asteraceae) guides  Yarrow (Achillea millefolia)  Produce abundant pollen  Native Thistles (Cirsium)  Goldenrods (Solidago & Euthamia spp.)  Produce high quality nectar  Fall-blooming shrubs (Baccharis; Ericameria; Goldenbushes  Flower are open; nectar easily  Rose family available  Pink and white-flowered species  Male and female parts of the  The Buckwheats (Eriogonum spp.) flower are well exposed.  Native Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Many of these flowers are  The Mustard family (Brassicaceae)Buckwheats (Eriogonum) are good scented, but for the most part,candidates as fly flowers the scent is imperceptible.  Euphorbia & Sedum species © Project SOUND  The Carrot family (Apiaceae) © Project SOUND 11
    • 1/6/2013 Water Parsley – Oenanthe sarmentosa Water Parsley – Oenanthe sarmentosa  Coastal California to British Columbia Canada; also western Sierra foothills  Local historically: Ballona, West LA, San Pedro, Long http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?329,478,480 Beach (Bixby Ranch)  Grows in marshes, ditches, pond edges, slow-moving streams, seasonally wet places, from near coastline up to ~ 5000 ft. © 2002 Brad Kelley © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2006, G. D. Carr Large plants in the Carrot Family Queen Anne’s Lace: natural roadsides and grandmother’s garden  Actually a garden escape – like ‘Wild Mustard’ or ‘Wild Radish’ – a weed that has naturalized extensively.  A true carrot - Daucus carota; domesticated carrots are cultivars of Daucus carota ssp. sativus.  Native to temperate regions of Europe, southwest Asia  The plant was introduced into this country during colonial times. It probably came * Henderson’s Angelica – across the ocean in sacks of grain, perhaps Water Parsley – Angelica hendersonii with the Pilgrims. Common Cowparsnip – Oenanthe sarmentosa Heracleum maximum  Should NOT be planted – use our natives4-8 ft. tall; very large coarse leaves from the Carrot family instead. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
    • 1/6/2013  Size:Looks rather like Leaf Celery  2-4 ft tall Flowers are numerous  2-3 ft wide  Blooms  Late spring to summer: usually  Growth form: May to July in Western L.A.  Herbaceous perennial; dies County back in fall/winter  Weak, succulent stems  Flowers:  Many-branched  Tiny white flowers typical of the Carrot family (Apiaceae); old-© 2003 Lee Dittmann  Foliage: fashioned look  Compound leaves - oddly  Flowers more loosely packed – pinnate (simple or double) – can usually see the compound margins coarsely toothed umbels easily  Overall shape triangular  Flowers attract a wide range of  Anise Swallowtail larval food nectaring insects: butterflies,  Handle with gloves – may native bees, flies & others cause skin allergies  Seeds:  Roots: fibrous roots and slender  Flat, ribbed seeds white rhizomes - spreads © 2004, Ben Legler  Use fresh seeds; multiple rinses © 2011 Zoya Akulova © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Easy to grow with  Soils: Water Parsley in the Garden  Texture: most adequate water  Excellent choice for large containers – can  pH: any local provide the moisture it needs + contain  Light:  Around ponds, water gardens; in pots in  Full sun to light/dappled shallow water shade for good flowering  Moist woodland habitat gardens  Seeds/roots used as an emetic, pounded  Water: roots used as a laxative  Winter: tolerates very moist conditions, even shallow standing water  Summer: like moist soil – Water Zones 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer:  Fine with light fertilizer  Leaf mulch will add some nutrients  Other: organic mulch http://flickriver.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/7 © Project SOUND 2157621911287568/ © 2012 Aaron Arthur © Project SOUND © 2004, Ben Legler 13
    • 1/6/2013What pollinator flies will we attract with Family  Large family: ~ 6000 named species Water Parsley? Syrphidae  Often called syrphids, hover flies, flower flies or sweat bees. Small/medium size  The most important fly pollinators  Occur in wide range of habitats worldwide: are Hover Flies (Syrphid flies) and dunes, salt/freshwater marsh, all grassland Bee Flies (Bombyliidae family) ecosystems, scrub and forest-ecosystems  There are many others that visit  Lots of variability – example: short- and flowers to feed on nectar. very long-tongued species  The common fly pollinators have http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/diptera/Syrphidae.htm  Visit wide range of flowers and can developed yellow and black stripes transport pollen long distances on their abdomens, though they  Important pollinators: regional studies in are not related to bees or wasps. Europe (Ssymank 2001) showed that up to This is probably a defense 80% of the regional flora may be visited by mechanism to deter predators; flower flies. Important in local habitats. flies pretending to be stinging insects, though they cannot sting.  Very convincing mimicry of bees and wasps: black with yellow or orange; narrow waist © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Family  Adults feed on pollen and nectar, Why do flies visit flowers? larvae eat plant materials or areSyrphidae predators on other insects, most  The most important is for food : nectar and sometimes notably aphids (~ 40% of species pollen. Pollen is rich in proteins, which is required by some are predators). adult flies before they can reproduce.  Female hover fly usually lays her  To lay eggs: the larvae feed on flower heads, developing eggs near aphid colonies. The fly fruits/seeds or insect pests larvae feed on insect pests, mainly aphids, as well as scales and  Because they’ve been tricked (scent/appearance that mimics caterpillars. the carcasses where they normally lay their eggs)  Aphids cause annual damage to  To keep warm: in arctic and alpine habitats, some flowers crops and plants, making the hover attract flies by providing a warm shelter. flies important agents in natural  As rendezvous sites for mating. Large numbers of flies will biological control. congregate at a particular type of flower  Routinely used as a biological control agents in many agricultural crops like California lettuce. the byproduct of all these behaviors can be pollination © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
    • 1/6/2013 Showy Milkweed – Asclepias speciosa Showy Milkweed – Asclepias speciosa  Western N. America from Canada to Baja; throughout CA  Open areas at low elevations in dry to moist, loamy to sandy soil  Often in areas that are seasonally flooded or quite damp © 2004 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?583,586,599 http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/floramw/species/asclspec.htm Showy Milkweed: a stout perennial Flowers are…showy!  Size:  Blooms:  2-5+ ft tall  In summer: May-Sept  Spreading by rhizomes; often  usually July-Aug in our area forms a clump  Flowers:  Growth form:  Large compared to other  Drought/winter deciduous milkweeds ; sweet scent perennial  Pale pink or purple – in  Stems stout, succulent, erect or dense, ball-like clusters nearly so  Very showy in bloom – among  Foliage: our prettiest perennials  Leaves large 96-8 inches long),  Seeds: gray-green, velvety  Relatively large, with silky  Milky sap typical of Milkweeds parachute (typical of  Larval food, Monarch Butterflies milkweeds)  Roots: stout taproot; don’t move once  Seed pods are 3-5" long and© 2005, Ben Legler established. are either spiny or smooth. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2005, Ben Legler 15
    • 1/6/2013  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any, including clays Showy Milkweed Shines  pH: any local, including alkali  In large pots, planters  Light:  Mid- or back-bed in perennial  Full sun to light shade gardens  Near birdbaths or water features  Water:  Lovely massed  Winter: good winter/spring  Scented gardens moisture; supplement if needed http://plantlust.com/plants/asclepias-speciosa/  Summer: variable once established; probably best as Zone 2 or 2-3 once established  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; light or no mulch (or inorganic)http://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=125&account=none  Other:Cut back to the ground in late fall  Spreads via rhizomes & seeds(native Californians would burn) (on bare ground).  Protect from slugsProjectsnails © & SOUND http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html © Project SOUND  Large families - > 5,000 species Native Milkweeds make Family Bombyliidae worldwide. great insect habitat - Bee Flies  Medium size – about the size of bees, who they closely resemble  Bees – many kinds including  Adults feed on nectar and pollen; bumblebees believed to be important pollinators of many plants although few species have  Lepidoptera (Moths & been studied in detail. Butterflies)  Occur on all continents except  Other insects: Antarctica; common in S. CA  Flies http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/diptera/Bombyliidae.htm http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- california/plants/asclepias-speciosa  See them hovering around flowers, or if  Milkweed bugs resting, usually on bare soil. They are  Milkweed long-horned extremely wary and difficult to approach.http://www.plantsofthesouthwest.com/Showy- beetle  Yellow milkweed aphids  Majority of larvae are parasites ofMilkweedbri-Asclepias-speciosa/productinfo/P1180/  Many, many more beetle larvae as well as the brood of solitary burrow-nesting wasps/bees. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
    • 1/6/2013 Climate change and pollinator abundance: Climate change and pollinator abundance:remember the larvae when considering flies timing is (almost) everything  When we are concerned with the abundance of flower-feeding  Ecologists are concerned that climate change may decouple the flies, we generally think of adults that feed at flowers. synchrony of inter-dependent organisms. For the majority of flies, we do not have even baseline phenology information.  However, larval food supplies could be more important in producing differences in fluctuations among species  There is evidence of parallel pollinator and insect-pollinated plant decline for flower flies and bees in UK and NL (Biesmeijer et al.  Different life styles, different larval habitats, and 2006). The factors threatening the species are mostly unknown. differences in the regional distribution (broad or restricted ranges) could also result in different patterns of population  What consequences can we expect from the loss of pollinators? To stability. what extent can any one pollinator be replaced by another? The answers to these questions are unknown and urgently need  If larval food is a key resource for most fly species, fly investigation. species may show significantly different patterns of  There is an urgent need for networking among researchers, and for fluctuation than bees whose larvae are all dependent on pollen more fundamental and applied research toward improving our for food, reinforcing the idea that different pollinator groups knowledge of pollination services. This knowledge is crucial for may respond differently to environmental change. agriculture and wildland preservation efforts. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Last month we introduced the topic of Potential Risks/Controversies: Human genetically modified plants Health Effects  Introducing allergens and toxins into food  Transfer of antibiotic resistance marker genes; cause the development of diseases which are immune to antibiotics  Unknown effects of a new – and biologically basic – technology; not much is known about their long- http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all -about-gm-foods term effects on human beingsThe majority of commercially released transgenic plants are currentlylimited to plants that have introduced resistance to insect pests andherbicides. © Project SOUND 17
    • 1/6/2013 Potential Risks: Environmental Effects Potential Risks: may worsen current environmental challenges  Unintended phytotoxicity: plants less resistant to other pathogens/environmental challenges  Unintended transfer of transgenes through cross-  Adversely changing the nutrient content of a crop; pollination consequences for herbivores  Unknown effects on other organisms (e.g., soil  Antibiotic resistance is spread: to other (wild) microbes; butterflies); toxicity plants, animals, microorganisms  Loss of floral and faunal biodiversity: farmers plant  Emergence of "super" weeds: herbicide/pest only the GM plants; beneficial insects killed resistant; high yield  Effects of global climate changes – changed  Development of (or, more rapid development of) geographic distribution of pests; ?? Impact of insecticide resistance in pests transgenic plants; pollinator diversity, etc.  Second-largest family - > 10,000 How does Mother Nature play it safe with Family species worldwide. regards to pollination? Tachinidae  Adult tachinid flies known for their bristly facies and sometimes abdomens  Most insect pollinated flowers receive visits – though some only sparsely so. from several different types of insects:  Parasitoid habit - almost all are bees, flies, beetles, bugs, etc. endoparasites of other insects;  In a study of 2200 CA plant species: commonly the larvae of the  71% of the out-crossing species were visited Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) by two potential pollinators and the adult/larval forms of beetles.By hedging her odds  49% were visited by three or more potential http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/diptera/index.htm#Brachycera  Other tachinids attack true bugs of pollinators the Hemiptera (Heteroptera), larvae  Redundancy in pollination systems is of Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants, probably the rule, rather than the sawflies), and adults of Orthoptera exception. (grasshoppers, katydids, crickets).  We can’t afford to loose our redundancy!  Some might have use in pest control © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
    • 1/6/2013 * Henderson’s Angelica – Angelica hendersonii * Henderson’s Angelica – Angelica hendersonii  Coastal areas from WA state to Santa Barbara Co  Coastal bluffs and dunes, < 500 ft elevation http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?329,337,343 © 2009, G. D. Carr © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND Henderson’s Angelica: stout perennial CA native Angelicas  Size:  All have similar appearance:  2-4 ft tall succulent, large  2-4 ft wide  All grow in slightly more moist  Growth form: climates than ours – mostly N. CA  Fall/winter deciduous  Vary in the amount of leaf hairs – herbaceous perennial Angelica lucida Hendersonii is ‘velvety’ on underside  Stout, succulent stems  Mounded form with basal leaves  Foliage:  Large, compound leaves  Hairy beneath  Wear gloves when handling – may cause allergies© 2009, G. D. Carr  Roots: sturdy taproot – very Angelica hendersonii Angelica tomentosa aromatic © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 19
    • 1/6/2013 Flowers: loved by insects Angelicas do well in  Soils: gardens  Texture: most, including heavy clays  Blooms: in spring – usually  pH: any local May-June in our area  Light:  Flowers:  Full sun to light shade; part-  Very showy compound shade in very hot inland gardens umbels  Lots of cream-pink flowers  Water: – thousands per umbel in  Winter/spring: needs good soil best circumstances moisture to grow  Looks like a garden plant  Summer: best with near-regular water – every other week –  Seeds: Water Zone 2-3  Dry, flat winged seeds typical of Carrot family  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils© 2010 Margo Bors  Other: organic mulch OK; leaf mulch best © 2010 Margo Bors © 2010 Robert Steers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Angelicas in gardens Many practical uses of Angelicas  In edible/medicinal garden  Edible:  For immediate coastal areas  Young stems eaten raw (before it leafs out) or cooked as is root –  In the perennial bed – with celery-like taste Goldenrods - give it room  Root, leafstalks and stems are often  In a habitat garden candied  In watered rock gardens – N. Coastal  Medicinal: produces several antibacterial compounds  Tea from leaves  General tonic – don’t take too often  For sore throats© 2008 Neal Kramer  Tea or dry powdered roots  For sore throat  On skin infections & for athlete’s foot  As insect repellant © 2009, G. D. Carr © Project SOUND Also used as a ceremonial plant © Project SOUND © 2010 Zoya Akulova 20
    • 1/6/2013 Family Asilidae -  > 7,000 species world- wide; nearly 1,000  The Fly or Sohonasomtaka Kachina in North America. Fly Kachina (Hopi) Robber Flies can be a Chief, Guard, or Hunter  Among the largest of the predatory depending on the ceremony. He may flies; they can not only look like bumble also appear as a warrior who bees, they can sound like them too! punishes the clowns when they get out of hand during the ceremonies.  Stout, spiny legs, bristles on the face (mystax), and 3 simple eyes (ocelli) in a Insects and animals offer advice characteristic depression between their and teach life to the Hopi people. As two large compound eyes. The mystax a guard he would protect and keep helps protect the head/face in ceremonies from outsider intrusions struggles with prey.  The Robber Fly Kachina, Kuwaan  The short, strong proboscis is used to Kokopelli, is named after a stab and inject victims with saliva humpbacked fly that is always containing neurotoxic and proteolytic mating. Like Kokopell Mana, this enzymes which paralyze/digest the prey; kachina represents fertility. the fly then sucks the liquefied meal much like we vacuum up an ice cream http://www.silvertribe.com/Hopi-Kwaan-You’ll often see them perched, soda through a straw. Kokopelli-Kachina-doll-artist-Neil-David-Sr.- KS1094waiting for prey © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Purple Sanicle – Sanicula bipinnatifida Natural groundcovers are so much more complex than suburban lawns © 2006 Matt Below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 21
    • 1/6/2013 Purple Sanicle – Sanicula bipinnatifida Purple Sanicle is a low-grower  Size:  Coastal foothills and slopes  foliage < 1 ft tall; flowering from British Columbia to Baja stalks slightly taller  Locally: San Gabriel foothills;  1-2 ft wide (at most) Puente-Chino Hills  Growth form:  Found in a wide range of plant  drought deciduous herbaceous communities: valley grassland, perennialhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?329,519,523 chaparral, yellow pine forest, © 2001 Gary A. Monroe © 2011 Thomas Reyes  Flat leaves from a central taproot below 4500  Foliage:  Usually grows in grassy areas on sunny slopes  Compound leaves with long petiole  Medium green; somewhat like celery leaves  Roots: taproot © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2011 Ryan Batten © 2012 Gary McDonald Flowers are usuallyCarrots: in wild vs garden burgundy  Blooms: in spring – usually Mar- Apr in our area  Flowers:  Usually a very attractive burgundy or dark purple; occasionally yellow  A little extra water make a huge  Many tiny flowers in difference compound umbels typical of  Garden soils also tend to be a Carrot family little richer  Look like fuzzy ball of © 2004 Laura Ann Eliassen flowers – attract many types  Plants in Carrot family tend to look of insects more lush in gardens than they do in the wild (except in places like  Seeds: dry, prickly fruits – WA and British Columbia) spines curved© 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2004 Carol W. Witham 22
    • 1/6/2013Plant Requirements  Soils: Garden uses for  Texture: most; sandy to clay  Best used as it is in nature – as  pH: any local a mixed groundcover with  Light: grasses, annual wildflowers and  Full sun near coast perennials like Goldenrods,  Part-shade/dappled sun Yarrow inland © 2004 Carol W. Witham  Excellent habitat plants  Water:© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Winter: adequate  Summer: let plants dry out with grasses after seed set.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: best not to move after established; may even want to start from seed in place. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND ‘Life-friendly’ groundcovers & lawn substitutes: the importance of home gardens © 2007, Rod Gilbert© 2004, Ben Legler http://www.goert.ca/news/2010/05/spring-field-trips/ Fern-leaved desert-parsley growing with camas and western buttercup © Project SOUND http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/purplesanicle.html © Project SOUND 23
    • 1/6/2013 Pollinator flies in urban environments: Pollinator flies in urban environments little know but suggestive results  In Japan, a broad-scale, four-year survey In an extensive 5-yr survey of syrphid flies in Poland compared all insect visitors to roughly 100 plant species in each of three different Found lower species diversity in urban and agricultural areas. habitats:  a university campus - mostly exotic vegetation, In comparison, natural habitats were species-rich and characterized by shifting proportions of species, as one moved  an undisturbed oak forest, and Bottom line: what you from one habitat toward another. Syrphid fly species composition  a botanically rich mosaic containing both native plant in your garden does closely followed patterns of food supply and habitat condition. make a difference deciduous and planted coniferous forest. The proportion of phytophagous and terrestrial saprophagous  The site of greatest human disturbance was species dropped significantly, with only four species of phytophages poorest in species numbers . present near the housing estates. These four were pests that eat  The total number of arthropod species on the ornamental plants, or weed-eating species. Urban areas were plants of the university campus was 37% of dominated by four syrphid species with broad geographic ranges the total of the oak forest and 23% of the total mosaic of natural and planted forest. Loss of habitat plants = loss of beneficial flies © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Common Lomatium – Lomatium utriculatumCommon Lomatium – Lomatium utriculatum  AKA: Bladder Parsnip; Hog Fennel  Baja to British Columbia – also very locally  The genus Lomatium: composed of about 80 species restricted to w. North America.  The genus name, from the Greek loma (a border), refers to the wings on the fruit. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?329,426,476 © 2004 Robert E. Preston, Ph.D. © Project SOUND © 2009, Maria Yousoufian © Project SOUND 24
    • 1/6/2013 Two native California Lomatiums Common Lomatium: another small one  Size:  Foliage usually 1 ft tall; flower stalks to 18”  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Drought-deciduous; literally disappears in dry summer  Foliage:  Bright green; mostly in basal rosette  Leaves very finely dissected – like carrot; lacy and delicate-looking * California Lomatium –  Larval food: Anise Swallowtail Lomatium californicum2-5 ft tall; 4-5 ft wide Common Lomatium – Lomatium utriculatum  Roots: a taproot © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Plant is sometimes Growing the wild carrots called ‘Spring Gold’  Use fresh seed – the best  Blooms: in spring (Feb-May); usually predictor of success Mar-Apr our area.  Flowers:  Soak fruit/seed in several changes of water to remove  Bright, golden yellow – hence the common name germination inhibitors – or plant out in fall  Pretty, delicate compound umbels http://www.hazmac.biz/061 – very attractive in a woodsy way 023/061023LomatiumUtricu latum.html  If seed from a colder climate –  Attract many spring-flying or seeds are older – give 1 month insects - bees, flies, wasps, cold-moist treatment beetles and more  Plant in deep enough pots or  Seeds: directly in ground  fruits flattened and ribbed – typical of family  Don’t leave in pots too long -  Will reseed on bare ground/ taproots inorganic mulch © Project SOUND http://wikis.evergreen.edu/pugetprairieplants/index.php/Lomatium_utriculatum © Project SOUND 25
    • 1/6/2013  Soils: Add a little Spring Spring Gold for clay soils  Texture: best in clay soils gold to your garden  pH: any local  As an attractive pot plant  Light: with native bulbs  Part-shade (afternoon shade) or dappled sun in  In a rock garden or around most gardens the vegetable garden  As part of a prairie,  Water: meadow or other mixed  Winter/spring: adequate natural planting © 2009 Barry Rice until flowering ceases  Summer: taper off to dry – Water Zone 1 to 2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils. Would do well with leaf mulch  Other: keep weeded around plants © 2007, Rod Gilbert © Project SOUND http://seedsofsuccess.smugmug.com/Bureau-of-Land-Management/BLM- © Project SOUNDhttps://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/apiaceae/lomatium/lomatium-utriculatum/ OR930/4721037_pt67MZ#!i=279488941&k=2Ceng Pollinator decline and research needs Practical uses of Spring Gold  Our understanding of pollination services is considerably  Edible uses hampered by a lack of some very basic knowledge.  Young, crisp leaves eaten raw.  Pollination services of flies are underestimated and functional  Leaves, sometimes with flowers, cooked, relations poorly understood. fried in oil and salt and eaten. Or may be boiled, roasted or steamed as a pot herb  In the past, much pollination research has focused on bees, or in stews/soups. leaving a wide opportunity open for the study of other pollinator assemblages.  Roots: raw or cooked – or dried – harvest just after flowering; good addition to  Although some types of fly pollinators have been well studied, soups/stews as a group, fly pollination deserves far more research.  Medicinal uses  It is striking how large the gaps in species knowledge are:  Roots (fresh or dried) for headaches probably less than 10% of all Diptera species are named worldwide; considerable gaps exist even in Europe, where the fauna is generally well documented. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/mobile/species/Lomatium_utriculatum.htm 26
    • 1/6/2013Flies: Important in SW Native American lore  Big Fly, dotsoh, is very important to the Navajo Indians in Northern Arizona and New Mexico. He is an intercessor, mentor and advise giver. He appears to have much of the capacities of the Spider Woman figure in the Navajo except to men, especially Holy Man. He is the daytime messenger to the Sun  In the Piman speakers of Southern Arizona and Northwestern Mexico, Blue-Green Fly teaches the Seris of the Sonoran coast and the Pima of AZ how to make fire.  Robber Fly is a hunter in Chiricahua Apache lore who carries his meat in a bag on his shoulder. Flies once were humans – they brought fire to all people © Project SOUND http://www.swanlake.bc.ca/native-plant-gallery.php © Project SOUND 27