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Fabulous fruits 2014


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Lecture on edible California native fruits given as part of the native plants gardening series 'Out of the Wilds and Into your Garden' - 2014

Lecture on edible California native fruits given as part of the native plants gardening series 'Out of the Wilds and Into your Garden' - 2014

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  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden © Project SOUND Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2014 (our 10th year)
  • 2. © Project SOUND Fabulous Fruits: California native plants with edible fruits C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve April 5 & 8, 2014
  • 3. 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide © Project SOUND A few lessons from the gardens of France
  • 4. We’ll also see how Moroccan gardens incorporate fruit trees © Project SOUND
  • 5. What do most people think of when they think of fruit trees? © Project SOUND
  • 6. The Rose family contains some of our most tempting fruits  One of the six most economically important crop plant families  Includes: apples, pears, quinces, loquats, almonds, peaches/ nectarines, apricots, plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and roses © Project SOUND Hawthorn
  • 7. What is a fruit? How do they develop?  Fruit (botany): a part of a flowering plant that develops from specific tissues of the flower (one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues).  As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). © Project SOUND
  • 8. Why did fleshy fruits arise in some plants?  Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds.  By making the fruits more attractive (sweet/colorful), plants attract the best disseminators: birds, animals & humans  This is another good example of:  Mutualistic relationships  Plants spending a little extra energy on reproduction © Project SOUND Are plants our servants – or are we theirs???
  • 9. There actually is a CA native apple  Raintree Nursery  Forest Farm Nursery © Project SOUND *Malus fusca - Pacific crabapple
  • 10. © Project SOUND * Madrone – Arbutus menziesii ©2006 Julie Wakelin
  • 11.  SW British Columbia S through WA, OR, CA (coastal mountains & west slopes Sierra Nevada; San Gabriels .  The southern limit: Mount Palomar, San Diego County.  Wooded slopes/canyons in oak, redwood, mixed evergreen forests, chaparral < 5000 ft. © Project SOUND * Madrone – Arbutus menziesii ©2006 Julie Wakelin Image by Scott Jones bin/ i/Arbutus_menziesii
  • 12. Madrone: declining in most of its range  Possible causes: fire control  Under natural conditions, madrones depend on intermittent naturally occurring fires to reduce the conifer overstory.  Mature trees survive fire, and can regenerate more rapidly after fire. They are often associated. They also produce very large numbers of seeds, which sprout following fire.  Possible causes: increasing development pressures  Destruction due to changed drainage: extremely sensitive to alteration of the grade or drainage near the root crown.  Until about 1970, this phenomenon was not widely recognized; many local governments have addressed this issue by stringent restrictions on grading and drainage alterations when Madrones are present.  Possible causes: disease  Susceptible to many fungal pathogens  Affected to a small extent by sudden oak death, a disease caused by the water-mold Phytophthora ramorum. © Project SOUND
  • 13. © Project SOUND Madrone: a stately tree  Size:  50-100+ ft tall (slow growth; generally 20-50 ft)  20-75 ft wide  Growth form:  Large evergreen woody tree  Heavy limbs; irregular pattern  Bark red; peeling  Foliage:  Green to blue-green  Leaves medium size (3-5 in. long), simple, shiny  Regular leaf drop  Roots:  Extensive root system  Resprouts from burl ©2002 Timothy D. Ives H. Vannoy Davis © California Academy of Sciences
  • 14. © Project SOUND Flowers: like manzanita  Blooms: in Spring; usually Mar- May S. CA lower elevations  Flowers:  Small size  White; urn-shaped like manzanita  Large, showy clusters  Bee pollinators; also visited by hummingbirds  Seeds:  Small and hard  Strong embryo dormancy - Require 40-60 day cold-moist stratification + acid treatment for good germination © 2006, G. D. Carr
  • 15. Madrone fruits: showy and edible  Pea-size bumpy, scarlet red berries  Ripen fall through winter  Very showy – one of the reasons this species is planted  Can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed or used to make ‘cider’; can be stored for a long time if boiled and dried  Salinan, Miwok, Pomo, and other California tribes hand picked berries. Higher branches were shaken or hit with a long stick to knock off the berries into a basket or cleared area  You can use a long-handled pruner . © Project SOUND
  • 16. Ground madrone/manzanita berries  Collect berries in fall.  Dry berries.  Grind into a fine powder.  Use as a sweet spice or sugar substitute – or for tea. © Project SOUND
  • 17. Wild Granola  Ingredients  4 cups rolled oats  1 cup chopped almonds or other nuts  ¾ cup coconut  ¼ cup maple syrup or Manzanita sugar  ½ cup vegetable oil  ¾ tsp salt  ½ cup prepared Oak nut flour  ¼ cup dried and ground wild berries (Madrone, Manzanita, Toyon)  ½ cup fresh berries if available  Instructions  Preheat oven to 300o.  Combine the oats, nuts and coconut; add syrup or Manzanita sugar, Oak nut flour, oil and salt.  Pour onto 2 sheet pans; cook for approximately 1 hour, stirring occasionally.  Add ground berries.  Top with fresh berries just before serving. © Project SOUND
  • 18. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils  pH: slightly acidic best  Light:  Plants need part-shade for establishment  Probably not suited for very hot gardens  Water:  Winter: good rainfall; most places in natural range get more than we do  Summer: Treat as Water Zone 2 in our area: occasional deep water  Other: organic mulch away from trunk and burl Image by Scott Jones
  • 19. © Project SOUND Madrone : big places  Large tree in Zone 2 places; shade tree  Along the coast  On North-facing slopes ©2007 Julie Kierstead Nelson © 2013, Ben Legler © 2005, Shaun Hubbard
  • 20. Madrones are great habitat trees  Important food for the dark- eyed junco, fox sparrow, band- tailed pigeon, quail and others; Fruits also eaten by mammals  Important habitat for primary cavity-nesting species such as the red-breasted sapsucker and hairy woodpecker.  Secondary cavity nesters such as the acorn woodpecker, downy woodpecker, mountain chickadee, house wren, and western bluebird also nest in Madrones © Project SOUND © 2009, Al Dodson The trees provide food, perches and nesting places for many bird species.
  • 21. Madrone as medicine  Burns - Rub crushed, fresh leaves on skin according to the Cowichan Indians.  Colds, Coughs and Sore Throats - Add approximately 5 leaves to boiling water and steep for 20 minutes to make tea. Drink twice daily for colds and gargle as needed for sore throats.  Purification and Ceremony - Leaves were used in puberty ceremonies by the Karok Indians.  Rheumatism, Sore Muscles, Joint Inflammation - Rub crushed leaves on skin.  Stomach Disorders - Chew 1 to 2 leaves for stomachache or cramps, according to the Miwok and Cahuilla Indians, or make Madrone cider by steeping the leaves for 20 minutes. © Project SOUND
  • 22. © Project SOUND *Black (Western) hawthorn – Crataegus douglasii © 2004, Ben Legler
  • 23. © Project SOUND *Black (Western) hawthorn – Crataegus douglasii,6716,6717  Native to northern and western North America to N. CA - most abundant in the Pacific Northwest  Grows in varied habitats from forest to scrubland.  Requirement: access to deep water
  • 24. Hawthorn: not just in N. America  Historically, hawthorn species were used for building hedges and many cultivars have adorned ornamental English gardens.  The common name hawthorn comes from an Anglo-Saxon word haguthorn that is translated into “a fence with thorns.”  The English affinity for hawthorns extends to the traditional use of its beautiful blossoms in May Day celebrations, to poetry where the tree often symbolizes the spirit of spring – and to lovely jellies © Project SOUND in-hedgerows-across-britain
  • 25. © Project SOUND Hawthorn: large shrub of small tree  Size:  10-35 ft tall  10-20 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded, shrubby form  Several trunks – or short single trunks with many stout stems above  True thorns  Winter deciduous  Slow growing  Foliage:  Medium green  Oval leaves with distal teeth  Roots: deep roots J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences © 2004, Ben Legler
  • 26. © Project SOUND Flowers: Rose family  Blooms: in Spring – April-May in wild - ?? April in S. Bay  Flowers:  Modest size: perhaps ¾ inch; but in showy clusters  White; in parts of 5 typical for Rose family  Unusual scent (‘fishy’) – attracts pollinators including butterflies and midges Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 27. Pomes: think ‘apple’  Pome: seed-bearing ovary (core) is surrounded by a thick, fleshy hypanthium  Usually has multiple seeds  Common in the Rose family  Examples:  Garden fruits: apple, cotoneaster, loquat, pear, Asian pear, pyracantha  Native fruits: toyon, hawthorn, manzanita, mission manzanita. serviceberry, rosehip, © Project SOUND
  • 28. Rose’s dirty little secret…poison  The highly cyanogenic nature of rosaceous stone fruits (e.g. almonds, peaches, cherries) has long been known.  The fleshy portions of the ripe fruits are basically innocuous – so we eat them  The seeds, which accumulate the cyanogenic disaccharide (R)- amygdalin, have been responsible for numerous cases of acute cyanide poisoning of humans and domesticated and wild animals © Project SOUND
  • 29. Toyon – just a rose by another name?  The cyanogenic glycoside content of Toyon - as well as its resultant toxicity to insects and other herbivores - is well described.  The cyanogenic potential is highest in the newly developing leaves.  The cyanic glycosides in the pulp of immature fruits protect them from premature bird predation  During the long seed maturation process, cyanogenic glucosides are gradually shifted from pulp to seed, while pulp carbohydrates increase and fruits turn from green to red.  The birds read the cues and eat the fruit  Subsequent seed predation is prevented by the localization of cyanogenic glycosides in the seeds. It can be used (as needed) or converted to other Nitrogen compounds. © Project SOUND Toyon is the ‘pome’ branch of the Rose Family along with quince, pear, apple hawthorn, pyracantha, cotoneaster, pomegranate, and others
  • 30. Hawthorn: lovely for jellies, sauces  Dark red when ripe in fall  Fairly easy to pick – just beware of thorns [another Rose protective trick]  Many uses:  Jelly/syrup  Catsup/chutney  Sauces  Alcoholic cordials/wine  Etc., etc., etc.  Come to the Spring Garden Tea at Madrona – April 12th to taste © Project SOUND
  • 31. © Project SOUND Hawthorn Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local except very alkali  Light:  Part-shade/dappled sun is optimal in our area  Full sun with adequate water  Water:  Winter: plenty  Summer: regular to moderate water – Water Zone 2-3 or 3 for good fruiting  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: needs an organic mulch and/or herbaceous groundcover (Yarrow; strawberries; etc.) Plant young & don’t move – long taproot
  • 32. © Project SOUND Hawthorn  In an edibles or medicinal plants garden  As a small tree or background shrub – or in a hedgerow  Habitat:  Larval Host: Gray Hairstreak, Mourning Cloak  Birds ; insect pollinators ©2009 John J. Kehoe
  • 33. Hedgerows: food, health & habitat  Many of the plants in this month’s list are perfect size and habit for hedges and hedgerows  Be sure to look at the list © Project SOUND
  • 34. © Project SOUND Netleaf hackberry – Celtis laevigata var. reticulata Celtis reticulata
  • 35.  Native to western United States (mainly the Southwest), but extending eastward  Riverside & San Bernardino Co, Kern Co - Banning, Mojave Desert Mtns  Most commonly in bottomlands, washes, ravines, arroyos, etc. Also as scattered individuals in desert shrubland and semi-desert grasslands. © Project SOUND Netleaf hackberry – Celtis laevigata var. reticulata,7730,7731
  • 36. © Project SOUND Celtis: nice size water-wise tree  Size:  20-30 ft tall  20-30 ft wide  Growth form:  Usually a small tree with relatively short trunk; bumpy bark  Spreading branches; rounded form  Medium-slow growth; lives 100- 200 years  Winter deciduous  Foliage:  Medium green; simple with net-like veins underside; gritty feel  Roots: wide-spreading, shallow & deep. Don’t plant too near foundation ©2013 Jean Pawek
  • 37. © Project SOUND Flowers: not much to write home about  Blooms: spring - usually March- April S. CA  Flowers:  Separate male and female flowers on same plant  Female flowers (shown) not very noticeable – green-yellow and small  Flowers on this year’s growth  Fruits develop from an inferior ovary  Vegetative reproduction:  Can re-sprout from root crown if above-ground portions are damaged
  • 38. Fruit: sweet drupes  Fruits are small drupes ( ¼ - ½ inch)  Ripen in late summer or fall; ripe fruits are red to dark red  Surprisingly sweet and tasty – you can eat them fresh, but they have a big seed  Important food source for many Native American peoples; eat fresh, dried, as fruit leather, cooked  Make nice jelly, candy, syrup – or dried and ground for tea, seasoning  Birds love them; they stay on the tree in winter, so birds can eat great quantities of them © Project SOUND
  • 39. Drupe: think ‘peach’  Drupe: Seed enclosed within a stony endocarp (pit).  fleshy, one-seeded fruits that do not split open at maturity; the seeds are enclosed in a woody shell, the endocarp (Toxic).  These hard-shelled seeds are often called ‘stones’.  Cherries, plums, peaches (including Desert peach and Desert almond), mangos, hackberries, madrone and olives are stone-fruits (drupes). © Project SOUND
  • 40. Have you ever noticed how birds know when the fruits are ripe? © Project SOUND hungry-birds.html
  • 41. Why do fruits change color as they ripen?  Answer 1: to let their seed disseminators know that fruit is ripe (seeds are mature)  Answer 2: changes in fruit’s pigment composition  Decrease in chlorophyll (which masks other pigments)  Production of new pigments: anythocyanins  Changing pH – changes color of anthocyanins from blue to red  Other chemical changes © Project SOUND
  • 42. Cooking with native Rosaceae fruits  Pick when ripe – a few slightly under-ripe are fine (and will help jelly set better)  Wash and remove damaged fruits  Dry or expose to heat through:  Baking  Simmering in a little water to extract juice  Seeds will stay intact (they are pretty hard)  Seeds are strained out before using as juice/jelly/syrup © Project SOUND
  • 43. © Project SOUND Hackberry: hardy  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local, including alkali  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: wide tolerance range: Water Zone 1-2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: whatever you want to supply  Other: galls are common; pther than that no problems Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Start training up fairly early
  • 44. © Project SOUND Hackberry: water- wise shade tree  Shade, water-wise, habitat and fruit – good all-purpose tree  Good choice for home & public  Fine for rain garden/infiltration  Takes heat, cold, sun
  • 45. French gardens are known for their play of sun and shade © Project SOUND
  • 46. Follow the French: choose edible trees © Project SOUND %20sheets/Celtis/Celtis%20reticulata.htm decor/105065 In small gardens, fruit trees provide shade, food and habitat
  • 47. © Project SOUND * Western Serviceberry – Amelanchier alnifolia © 2007 Matt Below
  • 48. © Project SOUND * Western Serviceberry – Amelanchier alnifolia  Mainly a plant of the Pacific Northwest, the midwest and western Canada – up to AK  In CA, mainly in the northwest; also, in the western San Gabriel mountains  Found on forested slopes, open rocky woods, cliff edges, prairies, or along side streams or lakes; also bogs and wet sites.  ‘Serviceberry’ and ‘Juneberry’ refer to the time of bloom OGY/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=193
  • 49. © Project SOUND In the local mountains, Western Serviceberry is an understory to pines  Often grows in the shade of the overstory trees In Western San Gabriels
  • 50. © Project SOUND Western Serviceberry: very adaptable  Size:  6-15+ ft tall  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Erect shrub/single or multi- trunk small tree  Branches smooth with gray or red bark  Dense, but winter-deciduous  Medium/slow growing  Foliage:  Medium to dark green  Leaves oval, toothed  Roots: spreads via rhizomes; also deep taproots
  • 51. © Project SOUND Serviceberry is showy in bloom  Blooms:  Spring: usually Apr-May in Western L.A. Co.  Bloom period up to 1 mo.  Flowers:  White; rose-like  In dense clusters; very showy  Fragrant (sweet)  Seeds:  Like rose; propagate similar to roses © 2004, Ben Legler
  • 52. © Project SOUND But most folks like the berries best  Ripen in summer  Dark blue-purple when ripe with white bloom – look like blueberries  Loved by berry-eating birds – you’ll probably have to outwit them!  Use just like a blueberry:  Eat fresh or dry  Used in baked goods  Use for sauces, syrups, jellies, beverages, etc.
  • 53. Berries: think ‘currant’  Fruit from a superior ovary, whole pericarp is fleshy, no stony layer, one or many seeds  entire ovary wall ripens into a relatively soft pericarp, the seeds are embedded in the common flesh of the ovary  Examples: tomato, persimmon, grape, date, blueberry, grape, serviceberry, currants/ gooseberries, loquat, pomegranate, orange, lemon, grapefruit, banana; most members of the squash family (Cucurbitaceae) such as watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber. . © Project SOUND
  • 54. What’s the difference between a vegetable and a fruit?  Answer: it all depends on who is talking  Botanist:  Fruit is a matured ovary that contains seeds; a vegetable is from a non- sexual part (leaf, root, stem, etc.)  If it contains seeds, it’s a fruit  Chef:  Fruit is sweet and a vegetable is not © Project SOUND squash-l.jpg?400:400
  • 55. © Project SOUND Serviceberry does well in the home garden  Soils:  Texture: just about any moderately or well-drained soil  pH: likes pH between 5.0-7.5  Light:  Adaptable: part-sun best, but can take full sun to quite shady  Water:  Winter: like good soil moisture  Summer: best in Zone 2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: likes a good organic mulch like leaf litter © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  • 56. © Project SOUND Serviceberry: a garden favorite  Makes a great small tree for front yard or patio  Fine as a large shrub; dormant Dec.-Feb/Mar  Good choice for hedge, hedgerow or screen  Espalier along a wall  Can even trim to a medium groundcover eriscape/xeriscape/garden2002.htm l Leave some of previous year’s growth as fruiting wood
  • 57. © Project SOUND French gardeners make the most of whatever space they have  French (and other Europeans) grow grapes, citrus, apples, pears and other fruits in very narrow spaces: espalier and hedges
  • 58. Walls/fences can provide food and beauty  Hanging pots/planters with greens, herbs  Used to support melons & other vines  Fruit trees espaliered along a wall © Project SOUND'%20Get-Together.html nReaction.aspx
  • 59. Espaliers  First introduce in the Roman times and later mastered in the European Middle Ages, espaliers were a way of planting fruit trees and berry- bearing shrubs in limited spaces (small courtyards) because they are trained to grow vertically along flat surfaces.  They can be created using fruit trees and/or selected native shrubs/trees (need to have proper growth structure)  Great use of narrow spaces  An espalier can add color, texture, smell and many other elements to a dull wall/fence. © Project SOUND chicago-botanic-garden/
  • 60. Ribes – a member of the Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae)  120-150 gooseberry species: Northern Hemisphere and temperate South America  Deciduous woody shrubs  Alternate and usually palmately (hand-like) lobed leaves  Flowers in “fives”, in bunches at ends of short branches  Edible fruits – although some are more tasty than others! Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service
  • 61. Everybody loves wild currants!!!  Flowers:  Hummingbirds  Numerous early pollinators  Forage source for Coppers, Monarch and Anglewing butterflies.. Foliage:  Roosting, loafing, nesting for birds  Browse for large animals  Insect food nlarged%20Photo%20Pages/ribes.htm
  • 62. Everybody loves wild currants!!!  Fruits:  Humans - berries are tasty and tart, high in Vitamin C  Birds – many species  Robins  Cedar waxwings  Vireos  Grosbeaks  Mockingbirds  Finches  Jays  Many, many more nlarged%20Photo%20Pages/ribes.htm
  • 63. Moroccans (and French) also grow fruiting plants in containers © Project SOUND
  • 64. Our native Ribes would probably work well in large containers  Ribes aureum var. gracillimum  Ribes californicum  Ribes indecorum  Ribes malvaceum  Ribes speciosum  Ribes menziesii  Ribes montigenum  Ribes sanguineum var. glutinosum © Project SOUND
  • 65. © Project SOUND Oregon Grape – Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium © 2006 Louis-M. Landry
  • 66. © Project SOUND Oregon Grape is a popular home shrub  foundation plant  mass plantings; shrub border  mixes well with other broadleaf evergreens  useful in shady spots  desirable for spring bloom, high quality summer foliage and blue fruit in fall  All CA native barberries have edible fruit
  • 67. Nevin’s Barberry – Mahonia (Berberis) nevinii J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 68. Nevin’s Barberry (chaparral shrub) tolerates typical garden conditions  Soils:  Well-drained; sandy or gritty best  Light:  full sun is best  Bright shade  Water:  Quite drought tolerant when established  Give very infrequent deep waterings to improve berry set  Nutrients:  None/low eID=37 A good choice for hedges and hedgerows
  • 69. © Project SOUND Fremont’s Barberry – Berberis (Mahonia) fremontii Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 70.  Primarily a plant of the Four Corners region  In CA, Peninsular Ranges, e&s Mojave Desert (Granite Mtns; New York Mtns)  Rocky slopes, pinyon/juniper woodland, chaparral, 900–1850 m © Project SOUND Fremont’s Barberry – Berberis fremontii ©2002 Dr. Louis Emmet Mahoney bin/,2000,2005
  • 71. © Project SOUND Fremont’s Barberry: large shrub  Size:  5-10 ft tall  5-10 ft wide  Growth form:  large, straggly to mounded evergreen shrub  Upright form; branched  Slow-growing  Foliage:  Green to gray-green; leaves holly-like  Unique, attractive  May provide fall color  Roots: bright yellow dye and medicinals  Introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne
  • 72. © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic!!  Blooms: in spring – usually March-May in S. CA, depending on weather  Flowers:  Bright, golden yellow  Small but many – a mature plant can be covered in flowers  Fragrant  Flowers attract insect pollinators (primarily bees)
  • 73. Berries are edible  True berries with small seeds  Ripen in summer  Ripe berries red to purple; about ½ inch  Slightly drier flesh than other Berberis/Mahonia  Berries are sour but edible fresh, cooked (usual), or to make a beverage  Birds and mammals also eat berries – they won’t go to waste © Project SOUND
  • 74. © Project SOUND Most drought tolerant mahonia  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade; tolerates heat well  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: quite dry to some irrigation – Water Zone 1-2 to 2 probably best.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; inorganic or very thin organic mulch  Other:  Beware of prickly leaves  Is not planted in agricultural areas because is an alternate host for wheat rust (fungal)
  • 75. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Fremont’s barberry  Ornamental shrub; seasonal color  In hedges/hedgerows or espalier  Great addition to habitat/edible garden  Appropriate for desert gardens Al Schneider @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database s/mahonia.htm
  • 76. © Project SOUND Barberries are tart but delicious  Can be eaten directly for a tasty zing!  Can be fermented with sugar to wine  Make nice, tart jellies – good with meats  Boil berries in soup to add flavor  Use to make sauces and marinades for ham, pork, chicken
  • 77. © Project SOUND * Silver buffaloberry – Shepherdia argentea
  • 78.  Primary distribution outside of CA  South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains  Mt. Pinos, Cuyama River Valley/Piru  Along streams, river bottoms, slopes, 1000–2000 m.  Introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne © Project SOUND * Silver buffaloberry – Shepherdia argentea ©2010 Lee Dittmann
  • 79. Elaeagnaceae – the Oleaster family  45-50 species; three genera (Elaeagnus, Hippophaë, Shepherdia).  Small trees and shrubs  Temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia  Most of the species are xerophytes (dry habitats); several are also halophytes, tolerating high levels of soil salinity.  Commonly thorny, with simple leaves often coated with tiny scales or hairs.  Often harbor nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes of the genus Frankia in their roots, making them useful for soil reclamation.  Can be weedy © Project SOUNDRussian Olive - invasive _%E2%80%94_Matt_Lavin_001.jpg
  • 80. © Project SOUND Silver buffaloberry: silvery foliage  Size:  6-15 ft tall  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Deciduous large shrub or small tree  Bark silver-white, exfoliating  Some stout thorns  Foliage:  Leaves simple, lance-shaped  Color: silvery green – like olive tree  Roots: complex; shallow and deep; sprouting from rhizomes ©2005 Louis-M. Landry
  • 81. © Project SOUND Flowers: simple  Blooms: in spring - usually April-May in many areas  Flowers:  Dioecious (separate male & female plants)  Both are simple, yellow flowers – small (males slightly larger)  Long bloom period  Bee pollinated – perhaps with help from pollinator flies  Vegetative reproduction: sprouting from rhizomes Al Schneider @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 82. Fruits are drupe-like  Ripen in late summer/fall  Ripe color varies – usually dark red but may be yellow  Fruits have single large seed  Use soon after harvesting – and best to harvest after a cold spell – sweeter  Used to make pies, jams, and jellies & other cooked foods; or dried – breaks down the low levels of saponins  Native Americans also used berries/bark medicinally for fevers, stomach complaints & more. © Project SOUND Dakotas%20Miles%20City%20Field%20Office%20Develops%20Native%20Plant%20Materials% 20Program.htm
  • 83. Harvesting Buffaloberry  The fruit ripens in late summer and should be picked slightly under ripe when making jellies because of the higher pectin levels.  The fruit is best harvested by shaking branches and catching the fruits in a sheet or flat pan spread on the ground. © Project SOUND
  • 84. Why do fruits get softer, juicier and sweeter with time?  Answer 1 – to attract their seed disseminators  Answer 2 – part of the life cycle of the fruit (fruit senescence)  Breakdown of cellulose bonds (some) makes fruit softer  Fruit cells take up and store more water (juicier)  Ripening fruits are a ‘sink’ – more sugars are diverted to them from the leaves  Some bitter-tasting (often poisonous) compounds break down  Involves several plant hormones, often in response to environmental signals © Project SOUND
  • 85. Saponins and other compounds break down with ripening  Buffaloberry's fruit is tart but sweetens some if given enough time to ripen bright red and to pass through several freezes.  Robins, Sparrows, Red-Winged Blackbirds, Grosbeaks, and many other birds usually eat the fruit when it is yellow or light orange in July and early August, weeks before humans would call it palatable. © Project SOUND
  • 86. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained is best, but adaptable  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: needs good moisture  Summer: fairly drought tolerant but best with some summer water – Water Zone 2 or 2-3. Let dry out between waterings to prevent fungal diseases  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic or thin layer of organic mulch; prune out suckers regularly – other than that easy
  • 87. © Project SOUND Garden uses  Often used as hedge/ hedgerow plant – also good on slopes  Nice accent plant – showy foliage and berries – quite pretty with a little pruning R.A. Howard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database buffaloberry/
  • 88. © Project SOUND * Western Chokecherry – Prunus virginiana var. demissa
  • 89. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Chokecherry  Trimmed as a small tree  For hedgerows & screens  As a large accent shrub – pretty most of the year  For erosion control – good on slopes  Note: recommended only for colder gardens – ‘chill factor’
  • 90. What is a ‘chill factor’?  Number of hours between 32 and 45° F in a winter  Why is it important? Keeps trees from breaking dormancy prematurely – corresponds to a ‘normal winter’s worth’ of cold  What happens if not met? Plants won’t emerge from dormancy – won’t bloom/fruit normally and may develop other symptoms such as delayed/ extended bloom, delayed foliation, reduced fruit set/poor fruit quality.  Native plants from an area have the ‘right’ chill requirements for that area © Project SOUND every-native-plant-gardener-must-know/ We live in a ‘low chill factor’ area
  • 91. How do I know what the chilling requirements are for a native fruit plant  Not so easy – many native fruit plants have not been formally tested.  Always safe – local natives  Also good bets:  Chaparral plants (S. CA)  Likely the desert plants  Take a chance:  Many plants have a wider tolerance range than first believed  Even if you don’t get lots of fruits, you’ll have a nice tree/shrub © Project SOUND
  • 92. © Project SOUND * Desert Peach – Prunus andersonii
  • 93. © Project SOUND Small and shrubby, but a real peach  Size:  3-6 ft tall  3-6 ft wide – but spreading  Growth form:  Dense, mounded shrub; lots of side-branching  Individual stems live ~ 5-10 years, then die  Winter-deciduous  Bark light gray  Foliage:  Light green to gray-green  Leaves small for peach - desert  Roots: clonal; spreading via rhizomes
  • 94. Yum, peaches  In wild, tend to be small & dry  With a little summer water they are delicious  Native Californians eat fresh, make into jelly, dry into fruit leathers  Stems, leaves & roots used for medicines, dyes © Project SOUND © 1982 Gary A. Monroe
  • 95. © Project SOUND * Desert almond – Prunus fasciculata
  • 96.  Southwestern U.S. deserts  San Luis Obispo south to the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts from 2,000 to 6,000 feet  Slopes and washes in Creosote Bush Scrub, Joshua Tree Woodland, Pinyon- Juniper Woodland, Coastal Sage Scrub, Desert Chaparral © Project SOUND * Desert almond – Prunus fasciculata
  • 97. © Project SOUND Desert almond: resilient desert shrub  Size:  3-7+ ft tall  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded to sprawling large shrub; winter-deciduous  Many short, rigid branches with gray-white bark  Foliage:  Small, narrow leaves  In bundles (fascicles)  Medicinal: weak tea for colds, rheumatism  Roots: spreads via roots or rhizomes
  • 98. A desert survivor  The leaf structures of most desert perennials are modified to prevent water loss: size, shape, coverings  The leaves of Prunus fasciculata, have very tiny hairs that help reduce water loss by reflecting heat and sunlight.  Long-term persistence in current landscape accompanied by high resilience to climatic changes are a likely reason that this species has retained high genetic diversity during the past 10,000 years. © Project SOUND
  • 99. © Project SOUND Flowers: not as showy as some Prunus  Blooms: when weather begins to warm – usually March-April  Flowers:  White or pale yellow; small  Typical for Rosaceae: perfect flowers in parts of 5  In axils of twigs/leaves  Good at attracting insect pollinators  Seeds:  large, hard pit  Like many such in Rose family (peach; plum; etc) seed is toxic (contains cyanins)
  • 100. Fruits: prized by Native Americans  Cahuilla considered the fruit a great delicacy; important food and a highly prized food source  Small size: about ½-3/4 inch and large pit  Becomes yellow-orange and somewhat soft when ripe (summer) – quite pretty at this time  Flesh can be eaten raw or cooked  Probably best cooked for jelly, sauces, mixed fruit leathers © Project SOUND
  • 101. © Project SOUND Desert almond: adaptable  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained from clays to sand  pH: any local including alkali  Light:  Full sun (or at least 6 hours per day) for best fruiting  Water:  Winter: adequate; supplement in dry winters  Summer: quite drought tolerant; best fruit Water Zone 2 – infrequent deep water  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – might try light fertilizer (fruits)  Other: no mulch/inorganic mulch or very thin layer organic when young ©2013 Jean Pawek
  • 102. © Project SOUND Desert almond  Proven winner in desert gardens  Good choice for edible/habitat hedge or hedgerow  Good for erosion control  Interesting accent plant, particularly in winter and when fruiting ©2013 Jean Pawek
  • 103. © Project SOUND Managing fruiting shrubs in the Rose family  Pest management:  Susceptible to Fire Blight & fungal diseases  Practice good preventive measures (see last lecture handouts)  Pruning:  Flowers/fruits on last year’s wood – leave some if you want fruits  In general, best with minimum of pruning once general shape is established  Suckering:  Will happen with watering  Plant accordingly; good candidates for mowed lawn area or someplace where they can just fill in
  • 104. Hardy habitat hedgerow pairings  Desert almond  Desert peach (Prunus andersonii)  Fremont’s barberry  Desert thorns (Lycium spp.)  Desert lavender (Hyptis emoryi)  Desert Olive - Simmondsia chinensis © Project SOUND
  • 105. In summary  We’ve learned  What a fruit is  How fruits form  Some different types of fruits  We’ve been reminded again of the close relationship between plants, humans and animals © Project SOUND Lazuli Bunting in Serviceberry Bush
  • 106. In summary  We’ve seen some ways that fruiting trees and shrubs can be used in gardens:  Shade trees  Hedges & hedgerows  Espalier  In large containers © Project SOUND
  • 107. Summary  We’ve learn why unripe fruits and seeds/pits of fruits from the Rose Family can make you sick  We’ve also learn ways to pick and prepare these fruits safely © Project SOUND
  • 108. We hope we’ve inspired you to consider adding a native fruit tree/shrub © Project SOUND
  • 109. And we’ll keep on trying to tempt you… © Project SOUND Come to the Native Plant Garden Tea at Madrona - April 12 Visit Mother Nature’s Backyard Blog