Fabulous ferns 2011


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This lecture was given in February, 2011 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Fabulous ferns 2011

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Fabulous Ferns C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve February 5 & 8, 2011 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What do you picture when you think of ferns? © Project SOUND
  4. 4. http://www.cityprojectca.org/blog/archives/835Fern Dell at Griffith Park © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Ferns go back a long ways…> 360 MYA http://taggart.glg.msu.edu/isb200/cswamp.jpgFerns had their heyday in the Carboniferous Period (360-300 MYA) - 100 MY before the dinosaurs http://www.kgg.org.uk/alethopteris4.jpg © Project SOUND
  6. 6. The move from water to land was difficult – even though conditions were a lot more tropical (humid/watery) back then  Need:  a rigid structural system for support  anchors to the ground (plants) or ways to move around  a vascular system to transport water and nutrients All this takes a long time and the ability to change – a lot © Project SOUNDhttp://cmex.ihmc.us/VikingCD/Puzzle/Advance2.GIF
  7. 7. Ferns were among the first plants with avascular system & lignin support systemhttp://media.photobucket.com/image/plant%20evolution%20tree/kofh/Genesis/plantkingdom.jpg © Project SOUND
  8. 8. They also evolved a more sophisticated means of reproduction – alteration of generations (e.g. ‘sex’) © Project SOUND
  9. 9. All higher organisms(including ferns & humans) have alternation of generations In sexual reproduction, only ½ of a parent’s chromosomes are passed on to the egg/sperm/spore (they are the (n) generation) When fertilization occurs the new embryo (and the resulting adult) have the full complement of chromosomes (2n generation) Sexual reproduction allows a species to recombine genetic traits © Project SOUND
  10. 10. So ferns – like all other higher plants – do have sexIt’s just not quite as efficient - and it requires water © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Ferns now make up only a fraction of theliving plants – in part due to less efficient sexhttp://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/ISR/botzo/plants.gif © Project SOUND
  12. 12. What are the ferns? (summary)  Ferns are vascular plants differing from mosses by having true leaves.  They differ from seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) in their mode of reproduction—lacking flowers and seeds.  Like all other vascular plants, they have a life cycle referred to as alternation of generations, characterized by a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic phase.  Unlike the gymnosperms and angiosperms, the ferns gametophyte is a free-living organism. http://www.perspective.com/nature/plantae/ferns.html © Project SOUND
  13. 13. The American Fern Society Over 100 years old – established in 1892 > 900 members worldwide (one of the largest international fern clubs in the world. Objective: fostering interest in ferns and fern allies. Wide range of publications & activities – good way to learn more about wild ferns from experts and meet other people with a similar passion for ferns. Web site - http://www.amerfernsoc.org/ is designed to expand on this exchange of information with amateurs and professionals around the world. © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Taxonomy of the Ferns – in a state of change http://www.amerfernsoc.org/ © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The living fern-allies can be divided into fourclasses:  Psilotopsida:  ?Only living member Psilotum (whisk ferns)  Probably the most primitive vascular plant still in existence - may be directly related to the first vascular plants on land.  Lycopodiopsida:  Represented by the Selaginellia (Spikemosses), Lycopodium (clubmosses), and the Isoetes (Quillworts).  Equisetopsida:  Represented today by only one genus, Equisetum (Horsetails). © Project SOUND
  16. 16. The living fern-allies can be divided intofour classes:  Polypodiopsida (Pteropsida)  The true ferns  By far the most numerous of all of the fern-allies.  Nine sub-classes (Families), about 250-300 genera and over 12,000 different species alive today. © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Selected Families/Genera used in gardens  Family Adiantaceae  Genus Adiantum (Maidenhair Ferns)  Genus Cheilanthes (Lipferns)  Family Blechnaceae  Genus Woodwardia (Chain-ferns)  Family Dennstaedtiaceae  Genus Dennstaedtia (Hay-scented fern)  Genus Pteridium (Bracken)  Family Dryopteridaceae  Genus Cystopteris (Fragile Fern)  Genus Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)  Genus Matteuccia (Ostrich Fern)  Genus Onoclea (Sensitive Fern)  Genus Polystichum (Sword Ferns)  Genus Woodsia (Woodsias)  Family Polypodiaceae  Genus Polypodium (Polypodies)  Family Thelypteridaceae  Genus Thelypteris (Beech Fern) © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Selected Families/Genera used in gardens  Family Dryopteridaceae – Woodfern Family  Genus Cystopteris (Fragile Fern)  Genus Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)  Genus Matteuccia (Ostrich Fern)  Genus Onoclea (Sensitive Fern)  Genus Polystichum (Sword Ferns)  Genus Woodsia (Woodsias) © Project SOUND
  19. 19. The Sword Ferns - genus Polystichum http://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto=60 Western Sword Fern 135-160 species worldwide – mostly temperate regions Usually live in moist places Have typical fern structure/anatomy © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Parts of a typical fern http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/Ferns.htm Leaf = frond Midrib of leaf = rachis Petiole = stalk, stipe Leaflets = pinna Stem/stalk (rootstalk) = rhizome (like rhizome of higher plants) Roots = roots © Project SOUND
  21. 21. * Western Sword Fern – Polystichum munitumhttp://www.nwplants.com/business/catalog/pol_mun.html © Project SOUND
  22. 22. * Western Sword Fern – Polystichum munitum  Western N. America, primarily coastal states, from AK to Baja  In CA, almost always below 2500 ft.  Favored habitat: the understory of moist coniferous forests at low elevations – locally, San Gabriel mtns.  It grows best in a well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones.http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200004619 http://www.backyardnature.net/n/x/sword-fn.htm © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polystichum_munitum
  23. 23. Fern pinna may be divided into pinnules or lobes  1 times pinnate – simple [Sword Fern]  2 times pinnate – more complex [Wood Fern]  3 or 4 times pinnate – complex (look lacy) [Maidenhair & Lipfern] © Project SOUNDhttp://bss.sfsu.edu/holzman/courses/Fall00Projects/swordfern.html
  24. 24. Western Sword Fern – corresponds to most people’s notion of a fern  Size:  3-6 ft tall  spreading to 3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright growth habit  Height depends on light – taller in dense shade  Evergreen leaves in clumps of 100 or so – moderate spread rate  Long-lived  Foliage:  Medium to dark green  Single pinnate ( 1 times pinnate) with alternating pinna  Fronds unroll, forming fiddleheads© 2008 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  25. 25.  A sorus (pl. sori) - a cluster of sporangia The fern sorus (structures producing/containing spores)  Form yellow/brownish mass on the edge or underside of a fertile frond.  In some species, sori are protected by a scale or film of tissue called the indusium, which forms an umbrella-like cover.  As the sporongia mature, the indusium shrivels. The sporangia then burst and release the spores.  The shape, arrangement, and location of the sori are often valuable clues in the identification of fern taxa.  May be circular or linear.  Arranged in rows or randomly  Location may be marginal or set away from the margin on the frond lamina. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/pcmb/osu_pcmb/pcmb_lab_resources/images/pcmb300/cfern2/reproduction3.jpg
  26. 26. Reproduction by spores Ex: Sword Ferns  Sword fern sori occur on the undersides of normal-sized pinnae more generally distributed along the frond.  Each round sorus is composed of dozenshttp://www.backyardnature.net/n/x/sword-fn.htm of spherical items. Those are not spores, but rather stalked, baglike sporangia filled with several spores.  When the sporangia are ripe they burst, release the spores, and the wind carries the spores to new locations  If environmental conditions are just right, they germinate to form fern prothalli, from which eventually new ferns will emerge.© 2008 Keir Morse © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya
  27. 27. Sword Ferns are  Soils:  Texture: well-drained loams are forest floor plants best  pH: acidic (4.0 – 7.0)  Likes lots of humus  Light:  Part shade to quite dark full shade  Water:  Winter: plenty  Summer: moist soils – Zone 3  Fertilizer:  ½ strength fertilizer fine  Organic mulch – leaf litter is optimal  Other: difficult in very hot gardens© 2008 Matt Below © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Sword Ferns – woodsy  Brightens very shady places  Under dense evergreens (pines, etc)  At back or shaded beds – nice background color  On wet, mossy banksGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/Polystichum_munitum.html © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/polystichum-munitum
  29. 29. Sword Ferns - Victorian  In a decorative pot  In a wall or fern grotto  In a rocky ferneryhttp://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/PNQkvKYUhfgwxJ9NW0YE_Ahttp://www.paghat.com/swordfern.html © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Family Dryopteridaceae (Woodfern Family)  Genus Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)  Wood ferns, male ferns, and buckler ferns  ~250 species; temperate Northern Hemisphere (highest species diversity in eastern Asia).  Hybridization common within this group; many species formed by hybridization.J. William Thompson  Dryopteris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Coastal Wood Fern – Dryopteris argutaJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Coastal Wood Fern – Dryopteris arguta  Most commonly near coast & in coastal ravines from British Columbia to central CA – tho’ south to Baja, Sierra foothills  Locally on Catalina & San Clemente Isl, Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns.  N. slopes/shady creeks: oak woodland, chaparral, coastal sage scrub up to 5000’ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500589 http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/dryopteris-arguta © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?19,27,28
  33. 33. Coastal Wood Fern is adaptable Coastal forests, WA state In the Santa Monica Mtns © Ed Alverson© 2004 Brent Miller © Project SOUND http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Dryopteris_arguta.htm
  34. 34. Coastal Wood Fern: a medium-size fern  Size:  2-3 ft tall (largest in rainforests)  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Moderately spreading clump  Fronds usually upright/fairly straight http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/dryopteris-arguta  Foliage: Medium to dark green; prom. scales http://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Dryopterida.html   2 times pinnate - moderately complex structure  Foliage soft - not stiff  Quite variable – some types appear ruffled or lacy (leaflets turned at an angle  Drought-deciduous (S. CA Oakhttp://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto= Woodlands)3 © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Sori are showy  Sporulates: usually late spring/early summer in S. CA  Sori:  Rounded – look like a bagel prior to maturityCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Located in 2 parallel rows midway between midvein and margin of the segment  Spores:  Vegetative reproduction:  Via rhizomes  Moderate spreading © 2003 Keir Morse © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya
  36. 36.  Soils:Sword Ferns: adaptable  Texture: most  pH: slightly acidic (4.0-7.0) – under evergreens/oaks would be fine  Light:  Part-shade to full shade  This is truly a forest under-story fern; good even under dense trees  Water:  Winter: like plenty  Summer: quite adaptable  Zone 2-3 or 3 – will stay green  Zone 1-2 or 2 – drought deciduous  Fertilizer: ½ strength or none Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Other: likes a good leaf mulch layer © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Wood Ferns - lovely  Ferns always look nice in large containers  Great for shady slopes/banks – even growing in retaining walls  Give a woodsy or old-fashioned (Victorian) look to any garden  In food/medicinal garden© 2003 Michael Charters http://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=88976 © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Human uses of ferns  As source of fiber  For mats, bedding  For religious/spiritual purposes  As food: young fronds – usually cooked (note: somehttp://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=88976 mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds  As a source of medicines: © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Take your cues from Mother Nature  North slope, in shade of oaks, evergreens, Bay, even Toyon  With elderberries, snowberries,© 2004 Brent Miller yarrow, goldenrods http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Dryopteris-arguta/ © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Genus Woodwardia – the Chain Ferns http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501358 Large ferns of temperate climates in the family Blechnaceae © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Giant Chain Fern – Woodwardia fimbriataW. Carl Taylor @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Giant Chain Fern – Woodwardia fimbriata  Primarily found in CA Floristic Province (W. of Sierras) except the Great central Valley)  Occasional (?relict) populations elsewhere from WA to Baja  Locally in Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mtns.  Many plant communities but mostly inhttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501358 redwood, mixed conifer & mixed conifer-hardwood forests < 5000 ft  Always where moisture is present, such as stream banks or springs  Introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne. © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?11,14,15
  43. 43. Remarkable consistent lookinghttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Woodwardia_fimbriata.htm Santa Monica Mountains http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Woodwardia_fimbriata © Project SOUND
  44. 44. The name says it all…Giant Chain Fern  Size:  4-8 ft tall (usually 4-6 ft)  4-5 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright to vase-shaped clump  Moderate spread rate  Foliage:  Medium to dark green – evergreen  Petioles brown at base  Twice-pinnate leaves – large and somewhat coarse-looking  Fronds unfurl as fiddleneck  Rhizomes: stout © Project SOUND http://www.coestatepark.com/woodwardia_fimbriata_c oe.htm
  45. 45. Sori give the plant its common name  Sori mature: late spring summer  Sori:  Elongated  In double ‘chains’ along the pinna midrib  Visible from both surfaces of pinna© J. William Thompson © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Woodwardia : well-suited to some gardens  Soils:  Texture: most  pH: acidic (4.0-7.0) – ? amend  Light:  Part-shade to full shade  Good for dappled shade or N-facing exposures  Water:  Young plants: moist  Winter: supplement in drought winters  Summer: Zone 3 in part-shade; tolerates Zone 2 or 2-3 in shadeChain Ferns like an organic  Fertilizer: ½ OKmulch – like in their foresthomes © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Giant Chair Fern: a garden favorite  From California Native Plants, Theodore Paynes 1941 catalog: "The most useful of the native ferns, having long graceful fronds of a vivid shade of light green, often 4 to 5 feet in length. Creates a wonderful effect on a shady bank or under trees, and very striking when planted against a wall or building in a shady spot. Very hardy and easy to grow. Gallon cans, 50c; 5 gallon cans, $1.50." © Project SOUND
  48. 48.  As an attractive pot plant  Under pines and other evergreen trees – evokes the feeling of a woodland  In other shady places – near ponds or water features  As a big, dramatic accent plant  In Jurassic Parkhttp://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/crypto/msg112238042369.html © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Victorian ‘Pteridomania’  Pteridomania or Fern- Fever was a craze for ferns. Victorian decorative arts presented the fern motif in pottery, glass, metal, textiles, wood, printed paper, and sculpture, with ferns "appearing on everything from christening presents to gravestones and memorials."http://www.georgeglazer.com/prints/nathist/botanical/fern.html © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Victorian ‘Pteridomania’ (Fern Mania)  The interest in ferns began in the late 1830s when the British countryside attracted increasing numbers of amateur and professional botanists (male and female).  People of many different social backgrounds sought out the species and varieties describedhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pteridomania in the fern identification books to press the fronds in albums or to collect fern plants to grow in their gardens or homes.  Some ferns were, unfortunately, collected out of existence Wardian Case © Project SOUND
  51. 51. To learn more © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Caring for the larger ferns  Location is key to success: pay particular attention to light and water requirements  Well-placed ferns are pretty easyhttp://noseeds.blogspot.com/2010/05/woodwardia-fimbriata.html  Cut off oldest (dead or nearly so) fronds at time new ones are emerging  No need to cut all fronds back to the ground in winter – an old technique that’s better forgotten © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Many people think that all ferns require lots of water…..http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Dryopteris_arguta.htm © Project SOUND http://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=88976
  54. 54. Family Adiantaceae (Pteridaceae) Creeping or erect rhizomes Mostly terrestrial or epipetric (growing on rock) Fronds usually compound; linear sori - typically on the margins - protected by a false indusium formed from the reflexed margin of the leaf.  Adiantoid ferns;  Adiantum, the maidenhair ferns  Cheilanthoid ferns;  Argyrochosma  Aspidotis the lace ferns  Astrolepis  Cheilanthes, the lip ferns  Notholaena, the cloak ferns  Pellaea, the cliff brakes  Pteridoid ferns;  Pteris, the brakes © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Common Maidenhair Fern – Adiantum capillus-veneris © 2009 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Common Maidenhair Fern – Adiantum capillus-veneris  Grows in warmer-winter places throughout much of the Americas, Eurasia & Africa  In CA, many disjoint areas including Catalina Islandhttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200003518  ?? Native or naturalized  In CA, uncommon (or locally common). Shaded, rocky or moist banks, exposed sites or not © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Adiantum+capillus-veneris
  57. 57. The Maidenhair Ferns  ~ 200 species of ferns in the family Pteridaceae (though some researchers place it genus Adiantum in its own family, Adiantaceae)  Name comes from Greek, meaning "not wetting", referring to the fronds ability to shed water without becoming wet.  The highest species diversity is in the Andes in South America. Fairly high diversity also occurs in eastern Asia, with nearly 40 species in China.  Distinctive in appearance, with dark, often black stipes and rachises, and bright green, often delicately-cut leaf tissue.  The sori are borne submarginally, and are covered by reflexed flaps of leaf tissue which resemble indusia.  Generally prefer humus-rich, moist, well- drained sites. Many species are especially known for growing on rock walls around waterfalls and water seepage areas.USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS © 2001 Larry Blakely Many species common in horticultural trade for a long time © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Common Maidenhair – sweet & delicate  Size:  1-2 ft tall (may be < 1 ft)  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Open, mounded habit  Slow-growing – remains clumped  Evergreen or summer dormant  Foliage:  Light/bright green  Dark rachis many-branched  Pinnae small, very wide (fan- shaped to round)  Margins incised - ruffled-look  Refined and delicate appearancehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiantum_capillus-veneris © Project SOUND © 2009 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy
  59. 59. Sora are unusual  Sori marginal.  There is a flap of tissue known as an indusium covering the sporangia (where spores are located).  Indusia-like membranaceous flaps, formed from the reflexed margins of the frond, cover the sorahttp://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto=156 © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Easy to grow in the  Soils:  Texture: most – fine in sandy right place  pH: any local (4.0-8.0)  Light:  Part-shade to full shade – dappled shade favored  No full sun, but bright shade is great  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with regular water (2-3 or 3); Zone 2 is fine but will likely die back  Fertilizer: ½ strenght up to once a month – particularly if grown in container  Other: likes leaf mulch© 2004 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Maidenhair Fern: pot plant & more  Near a pond or other water feature  As a groundcover under trees  As a pretty, evergreen© 2009 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy accent plant  Pretty texture & color in shady mixed beds© 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson © Project SOUND http://www.jaycjayc.com/adiantum-capillus-veneris-maidenhairfern/
  62. 62. Cultivar ‘Banksianum’  Attractive color  Larger pinnae  Very ruffled appearance – super showyhttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=629  Available at the Grow Native (RSABG) nursery in Westwood & Theodore Payne Foundation © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Maidenhair (and other) ferns as medicine  Maidenhair fern has a long history of medicinal use – still used today  A tea/syrup used for coughs, throat afflictions and bronchitis.  Externally, it is used as a poultice on snake bites, bee stings etc.  In Brazilian herbal medicine today, frond/ leaf are employed for hair loss, coughs, bronchitis, laryngitis/throat dryness, and http://www.milagroherbs.com/images/hairsupportpills to improve appetite and digestion, stimulate renal function, regulate .jpgTo learn more about plant menstruation, and facilitate childbirth.compound come to ‘TalkingPlants; next Sat. (2/12 –  Has both anti-bacterial & anti-viral10:00 a.m.) (selective) properties © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Coville’s Lipfern – Cheilanthes covillei © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Coville’s Lipfern – Cheilanthes covillei  Southwestern U.S. into Baja  Locally in Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns  Rocky slopes, cliffs, and ledges, 1500- 9000‘http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500349  Chaparral, yellow pine forest, pinyon-juniper woodland, deserts © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?92,106,109
  66. 66. The Lipferns – genus Cheilanthes  ~ 150 species – about 1/2http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500349 in Mexico & SW U.S.  10 species endemic to CA  Small ferns of dry places  Have hairs of scales on frond underside – adaptation to hot, dry conditions  Very drought tolerant – curl up and go dormant © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Coville’s Lipfern – rather unique  Size:  ~ 1 ft tall  ~ 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright fronds from a short rhizome  Drought-deciduous  Foliage:  Medium green  Up to 4-pinnate – so, very sub- divided  Have a bumpy, cobbled appearance – quite unusual & decorative © Project SOUND
  68. 68. http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Cheilanthes_covillei © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Look for this fern in the Santa Monica Mtnshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/mobile/species/Cheilanthes_covillei.htm © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Lipferns and rocks  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils – often between rocks  pH: any local  Light:  Part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate rains  Summer: occasional water to dry ( Zone 1-2 to 2); will die back to ground in drought  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: easy to grow© 2003 Larry Blakely © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Mother Nature’s tips for gardening  Plant among rocks protected from afternoon sun.  A good understory plant for oaks and other evergreen trees http://arizonensis.org/sonoran/fieldguide/plantae/cheilanthes_covillei.ht  Well placed in a pot or a native rock garden, where its fine ml texture can be appreciated up close.  In a mixed groundcover with native grasses, bulbs  With its native companions: Wild Tarragon, Elderberry, Miner’s Lettuce, Brickelbush, Narrowleaf Willow & Californica Goldenrodhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/mobile/species/Cheilanthes_covillei.htm © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Goldenback/Silverback Ferns – Pentagramma triangularis© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Goldenback/Silverback Ferns – Pentagramma triangularis  Silverback Fern (ssp. triangularis)  Much of CA except desert  Shaded slopes, rocky areas, north-facing surfaces such as cliff faces and thin, rocky soils ssp. triangularis  Goldenback Fern (ssp. viscosa)  South Coast, Channel Islands from San Diego Co. to Santa Barbara Co. ssp. viscosa  Generally shaded, dry wooded or grassy lower slopes slopes; coastal sage scrub, chaparral, coastal habitats © Project SOUND
  74. 74. © Project SOUNDhttp://groups.ucanr.org/slosson/documents/2005-200610654.pdf
  75. 75. Pentagramma ferns are quite petite…..  Size:  4-12 in. tall  4-12 in. wideCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences ssp. triangularis (Goldenback Fern)  Growth form:  Roughly triangular shaped  Several fronds per plant  Dry up completely in summer dry period  Foliage:  Typical for fern  Waxy gold or silver secretions on backCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences ssp. viscosa (Silverback Fern) © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Pentagramma ferns are well suited to dry shady places in the garden  Soils:  Texture: sandy or rocky best; must be well-drained  pH: lower pH better (true for most ferns)  Light: shade or filtered sun  Water:  Winter: moist soils  Summer: Zone 1 or 1-2; needs summer dormancy  Fertilizer: none © Project SOUND http://desertmuseum.org/programs/ifnm_ferngallery.htmhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/goldbackfern.html
  77. 77. http://www.csuchico.edu/biol/Herb/curator/bidwell_park_01-01-05/Bidwell_Park_1-1-05.htm © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Pentagramma ferns in the garden  Under oaks and other summer-dry trees & shrubs  On Zone 1-2 grassy slopes http://www.csuchico.edu/biol/Herb/curator/bidwell_park_01-01-05/Bidwell_Park_1-1-05.htm  In rock gardens and fern gardens  Would do well as a container plant  Native Californian’s used plant as a painkiller for toothachehttp://www.hillkeep.ca/ferns.htm © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Consider creative ways to use ferns with different water/light requirementshttp://www.andrewu.ca/?p=340 http://www.facebook.com/pages/Ferntastic-Nursery/426362080592 © Project SOUND
  80. 80. California Polypody- Polypodium californicum http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Polypodium-californicum/ © Project SOUND
  81. 81. California Polypody- Polypodium californicum  The Polypodiales:  The major lineage of polypod fern, which comprise more than 80% of todays fern species.  Often found growing on walls and tree trunks where it can catch more light.  Are found in many parts of the world including tropical, semitropical and temperate areas.  Are one of the most advanced orders of ferns, based on recent genetic analysis. They arose and diversified a mere 100 million years ago, probably subsequent to the flowering plantshttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500975  P. californicum is only found on the CA coastal region © Project SOUND
  82. 82. California Polypody in nature  Northern sea cliffs and coastal bluffs  Soil on rocky slopes  Shaded canyons  Streambanks  N-facing slopes  Shaded roadcuts  Rocks and rocky ledges, often granitic or volcanic  Moist banks and seepshttp://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/Ferns.htm © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Characteristics of CA Polypody  Size: 20” tall; individual plants ≈ 25” wide – but often grow in spreading clumps  Leaves:  Simple for fern – many leaflets with serrated edges  Drought deciduous – dies back in summer  No flowers: Sporangia are grouped in round sori on the underside of the leaflets.  Rhizomes (underground stems) – relatively slow- spreadinghttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiapolypody.html http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/s dpls/plants/Polypodium_californi © Project SOUND cum.html
  84. 84. Growth requirements: not your eastern fern  Sun: part-shade to full shade; can tolerate full sun only right along coast, with adequate water  Soils:  Any well-drained  Does not tolerate alkali soils  Water:  Moist in winter-spring – even tolerates flooding http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/Ferns.htm  Gradually reduce water for summer/fall dormancy – must haveProbably the easiest local dormant periodfern for the garden;  Nutrients: probably benefits fromlocation is everything organic mulch; not a “big eater” © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Polypody in the South Bay garden  Bank cover on North-facing slopes  On north sides of buildings  Delicate, small scale fern for foreground rock walls  In mossy (wet) rock gardens http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Polypodium-californicum/  Excellent under oaks  In shaded beds  In a “fern dell” – needs it’sEasy to propagate by divisions summer drought so place appropriately © Project SOUND
  86. 86. 9 Easy (if you are patient) Steps:Growing Ferns: 1) You will need a clear plastic container (supermarkets cake container). This will ensure high humidity. 2) The potting soil must be good quality not a generic brand - very important. 3) After putting the soil in the container dampen it. It should feel like the humus soil you would feel in an oak forest. Not too damp not too dry. To kill bacteria and fungal spores place the container in a microwave oven and heat for 3-5 minutes (until it is steaming pretty good). Be careful, too long and the container will begin to melt. Then let the soil cool for about an hour. 4) Sprinkle the spores on top of the soil , just enough so that you can see some of the powdery spores wafting down and put the container near a window. Up close for a north facing window, back a foot or so for south facing window (reverse this in the Southern Hemisphere). 5) Wait. It will be 6-8 weeks until you see anything. Then you will see small flat leaflike plants, "prothallia" that will grow to about 3/8 inches across. If there are a lot growing close together they must be thinned out to about 1 or 2 per 3" area. If not they will only grow male organs. During this time make sure the potting soil in the container does not dry out.. You should check the soil every week or so. © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Nine Easy (if you are patient) Steps for Growing Ferns: 6) When the Prothallia get to 3/8" it will grow male and female organs. The male organ will make sperm which will swim to the female part and fertilize the egg. The egg will then grow into the fern plant that we see, called the "Sporophyte". During this time the prothallia should be sprinkled with water so that the sperm will be able to swim to the egg. 7) After another 6-8 weeks you will see little ferns come up; the first frond will be about 1/2" tall. Thin them out so they are about 3" apart. 8) In the spring give them a long time to adjust to the dry outside air by opening the top of your container a little bit each day. The open time should increase more and more for two weeks. If they look bad, close it up again until they recover, then try again. This is where I lose the most ferns; they have a hard time adjusting. 9) Plant them in a mostly shady spot, but not too shady. They are very fussy so keep an eye on them quite frequently for the first year. © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Bird’s Foot Cliffbrake – Pellaea mucronata© 2010 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Bird’s Foot Cliffbrake – Pellaea mucronata  Mostly foothills and mountain slopes in CA; also parts of OR, NV, AZ & Baja  Throughout cismontane http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&ta xon_id=233500883 California and ssp. mucronata occasional on the deserts mostly below 6000‘ – locally on Catalina & Sanhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?92,122,127 Clemente Isl. and in Santa Monica Mtns.  Grows in various types of dry & rocky places © Project SOUND W.L. Wagner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  90. 90. You might not recognize Pellea mucronata as being a fern  Size:  ~ 1 ft tall  1+ ft wide; creeping  Growth form:  Open and erect  Stipe rather thin, dark  Foliage:  Pinnae rounded to linear  Green to blue-green  Drought-deciduous (or age to brown)  Roots: relatively short rhizomeshttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pellaea-mucronata © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pellaea_mucronata
  91. 91. © 2008 Keir Morse© 2004 James M. Andre © Project SOUND© 2005 Michelle Cloud-Hughes
  92. 92. Ferns of dry places require unusual adaptations to accomplish reproduction  Sori: oblong or linearly joined, submarginal  Indusium: false, inrolled margins, covering the entire lower surface  Sporangia: pale brown, maturity.© 2005 James M. Andre © 2008 Keir Morse © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya
  93. 93. Pellea: one tough fern  Soils:  Texture: well-drained  pH: any local (pH to 8.0)  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Light shade probably optimal  Water:  Winter: good winter rains  Summer: Zone 2 or 2-3 the first summer – then quite drought tolerant (Zone 1 to 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: can be tricky to establish, but tough as nails after first yearhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pellaea-mucronata © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Mother Nature’s prescription: plenty of sun  Great for hot spots in the garden  Fine in a sunny rock garden/ rockery  In gravel; among rocks  On a hot, dry slope  In/in front of a sunny stone wall© 2010 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Coffee Fern – Pellaea andromedifoliahttp://www.coestatepark.com/pellaea_andromedifolia_coe.htm © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Coffee Fern is well suited to dry shade…  Soils:  Texture: well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Light shade to part shade  Does particularly well in bright shade under trees  Water:  Winter: good winter rains  Summer: moderate (Zone 2 or even 2-3)  Fertilizer: leaf mulch besthttp://www.coestatepark.com/pellaea_andromedifolia_coe.htm © Project SOUND
  97. 97. We end our journey to the fabulous world of ferns  History – longhttp://images.travelpod.com/users/vayacondios/1.1277902037.there-was-a-fabulous-fernery.jpg  Unique adaptations to life on dry land  How they reproduce  Their use in the garden  The unique ferns of CAhttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/_lSc5eUUfA64/TPCjnuhtelI/AAAAAAAAD_4/5WpKBlxbzVo/s400/IMG_3203.JPG © Project SOUND
  98. 98. http://easttexasgardening.tamu.edu/homegardens/Shade/p7hg_img_1/fullsize/holly_fern_fs.jpghttp://www.growingforyou.com/images/944_FernGarden.jpg http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=fern+garden+design&view=detail&id=0494E3842EB5549B0F0009658ED © Project SOUND http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_SURKoZUIukM/R_ZdXgG8w2I/AAAAAAAACA8/y7aDJtqSZn4/s640/ 4A3204039022E&first=1&FORM=IDFRIR Minnesota+2012.jpg
  99. 99. http://s0.geograph.org.uk/photos/17/67/176794_7793975d.jpgA glorious English fernery © Project SOUND