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Extraordinary scents 2012


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  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  • 2. Extraordinary Scents Native Plant Scents for Potpourri and More C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve May 5 & 8, 2012 © Project SOUND
  • 3. Do you ever wish you knew more about how to use your native plants? © Project SOUND
  • 4. http://www.sepulvedaba ge.htmlSmell is a potent wizard that transports us across athousand miles and all the years we have lived. - Helen Keller © Project SOUND
  • 5. Smell is our most primitive sense  Memories recalled by smells often feel more vivid and emotional than those associated with sights, sounds and tastes.  Unlike the other sense organs, the nose sends information directly to the limbic system, a primitive part of the brain concerned with memory and emotion. © Project SOUND
  • 6. Floral scent is often the most powerfully sensual experience in the garden  The scent-sensing part of the brain is very ancient  Floral memories can last a lifetime – and are among the strongest memories  Not all people experience the same scent in the same way:  Biologic differences – different receptors  The memories that particular scents evoke © Project SOUND
  • 7. Despite their complexity, plant scents can be as recognizable as their other attributes  The human nose is capable of recognizing 10,000 scents.  Scent in plants comes from volatile oils found in the glands of flowers, leaves, branches, seeds, bark, and, in some cases, roots.  More than 3,000 chemically different oils have been identified from at least eighty-seven families of plants. © Project SOUND
  • 8. The experience of scent is individualistic  Yet some scents have been purported to cause certain effects for a long time – and in many different cultures:  Lavender – calming  Mint – energizing  Sage can reduce mental fatigue, stress and mental exhaustion.  Is there a chemical basis for these effects? © Project SOUND
  • 9. Practitioners of aromatherapy say ‘yes’ An aromatherapy garden focuses on the scents of the plants and flowers in it. The scents are the basis for the essential oils used in aromatherapy. Essential oils are volatile (from the Latin volare, meaning to fly), which means they evaporate at or above room temperature. Heat releases the fragrance of the oils (essentially the plants perfume or flavor), hence the more noticeable fragrances generated by a walk through a summer garden. In the winter these fragrances are less noticeable as the cooler air prevents easy evaporation of the oils from plants. A scentless garden would have amazed the ancient Greeks, Romans, Persians – even the Victorians! © Project SOUND
  • 10. Traditional  Simple Hanging herbsmethods of using   Simmering herbs scented foliage  Scented wood for drawers  Bath ‘teas’  Hand rubs  Slightly more complex  Smudge sticks  Sachets/scent pillows  Bath salts  Potpourri/infusers  Infused oils for massage  Scents/flavors/oils  Hydrosols and essential oils  Soaps  Candles  Perfumes © Project SOUND
  • 11. CA native essential oils and other products – commonly available for purchase  Salvia apiana  Salvia mellifera  Achillea millefolia  Balsam fir  Juniper  Bay Laurel  Monterey Cypress  Incense Cedar © Project SOUND
  • 12. * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrensJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • 13. * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens  Montane forests from Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, Mexico and east to western Nevada  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns.  On mesic sites including riparian habitats in mixed-,158,159 evergreen, yellow-pine forests, 2000-7000 feet © 2005 Steven Perkins © Project SOUND
  • 14. Incense Cedar: a true N. American Cedar  Size:  Commonly 40 to 70 ft. with age – may be much taller  10-25+ ft wide  Growth rate fast up to 20 ft.  Growth form:  Woody tree  Can live 500+ years J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Bark thick, furrowed, cinnamon- brown –later gray  Foliage:  Bright green; in flattened sprays of scale-like leaves  Very aromatic  Roots: taproots and shallow laterals © Project SOUNDSusan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 15. Flowers are unusual  Blooms: winter/spring  Flowers:  Separate male an female cones (on same tree)  Female cones urn-shaped – small but noticeable  Seeds:  Take 1 year to develop  Female cones split open (decorative) releasing seeds  Vegetative reproduction:  Tip-propagate from current year’s growth in fallCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  • 16. Incense Cedar:  Soils: not demanding  Texture: likes a deep, well-drained loam – takes most  pH: any local – wide range (5.5-8.0)  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: good, deep water  Summer: amazingly drought tolerant; good in Water Zone 2 once established  Fertilizer: very tolerant  Other: likes an organic mulch  Does well in a wide range of conditions© 2010 Ryan Gilmore © Project SOUND
  • 17. Incense Cedar is a magnificent tree  Good choice for evergreen tree in large yards, parks, business parks, schools & other large areas  Used as a large screen © Project SOUND
  • 18. Human uses of Incense Cedar  Flavoring  Leaves used to flavor acorn meal  Medicinal  Leaves decocted to treat stomach ailments  Foliage steamed to treat nasal congestion and colds  Other  Wood used for shelters by native Californians  Wood still used as insect-resistant lumber, fence posts, railroad ties, venetian blinds, greenhouse benches, siding, decking, cedar chests, pencils© 2012 Daniel Passarini and shingles.  Roots and bark used for basket-making © Project SOUND
  • 19. Monterey Cypress-Cupressus macrocarpa Citriodora © Project SOUND
  • 20. Why do cedars & junipers have unique, earthy or ‘woodsy’ scents  Cedar oil (cedarwood oil; Cypress oil) is an essential oil derived from the foliage, and sometimes the wood and roots, of various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families.  The most important cedar oils are produced from distilling wood of junipers and cypresses (Juniperus and Cupressus spp. - family Cupressaceae), rather than true cedars (Cedrus spp., of the family Pinaceae).  Similar oils are distilled, pressed or chemically extracted in small quantities from wood, roots and leaves from plants of the genera Calocedrus. © Project SOUND
  • 21. What makes up the ‘scent of Cedar’?  The main components of cypress oil are a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, d-3carene, myrcene, a- terpinene, terpinolene, linalool, bornyl acetate, cedrol and cadinene  The main components of Incense Cedar oil are: δ-3- carene, limonene, α-pinene, terpinolene, α-fenchyl acetate, with some cedrol. © Project SOUND
  • 22.  Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex What are compounds characterized by a strong odor and are formed by aromatic plants as‘essential oils’? secondary metabolites.  Chemically, essential oils are very complex natural mixtures which can contain about 20–60 components at quite different concentrations. They are characterized by 2–3 major components at fairly high concentrations (20–70%), compared to other components present in trace amounts.  Generally, these major components determine the biological properties of the essential oil. The components include two groups with different biosynthetical origins: the main group is composed of terpenes, and the other of aromatic and aliphatic constituents, all characterized by their low molecular weight. © Project SOUND
  • 23.  Various essential oils have been used medicinally atEssential oils different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.  Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense. © Project SOUND
  • 24. The distillation process: the most common method for extracting essential oils © Project SOUND
  • 25. Hydrosols and ‘Floral Waters’  Made by distilling the whole plant; contain not only essential oils, but many other water soluble components  More true to the essence of the plant and a more complete representation of it, chemically.  Contain the same medicinal properties as the essential oils, but not as concentrated, so it can be used in more applications.  Can be used as a facial toner/cleanser, perfume, deodorant or room freshener - or incorporate into lotions/ homemade soap. © Project SOUND
  • 26.  An organic compound (a monoterpene) alpha-Pinene  Contains a reactive four-membered ring; very reactive.  Found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis  Known for its growth-inhibitory activity. α-pinene inhibits early root growth and causes oxidative damage in root tissue through enhanced generation of ROS, as indicated by disruption of membrane integrity and(%E2%88%92)-alpha-pinene-from-xtal-3D-balls.png elevated antioxidant enzyme levels.  In the atmosphere alpha-pinene undergoes reactions with ozone, the OH radical or the NO3 radical © Project SOUND
  • 27.  Large/diverse class of organic compounds, The terpenes produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers though also by some insects (termites; swallowtail butterflies)  The major components of resin, and of turpentine produced from resin  Often strong smelling; may have a protective function.  Terpenes/terpenoids are primary constituents of the essential oils of many plants/flowers; used widely as natural flavor additives for food, as fragrances in perfumery, and in traditional and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy.Derived from isoprene  Emitted in substantial amounts by vegetation,( C5H8 ) The basic molecular and these emissions are affected byformulae of terpenes are temperature, light intensity.multiples of that, (C5H8)n © Project SOUND
  • 28.  Have been known for several centuriesMonoterpenes as components of the fragrant oils obtained from leaves, flowers and fruits.  Monoterpenes, with sesquiterpenes, are the main constituents of essential oils. α-pinene is one of the principal species  While a few, such as camphor, occur in a near pure form, most occur asMono-cyclic monoterpenes complex mixtures, often of isomers difficult to separate.  Have numerous basic actions in plants:  Allelochemical functions between plants and between plants and predators.  A role in wound healing.  As anti-oxidants  Many monoterpenes possess antitumor activity in animal and cell models. bi-cyclic monoterpenes © Project SOUND
  • 29.  A sesquiterpenoid (C15H26O) Cedrol  Isolated from cedarwood oil extracts  A fragrant compound with demonstrated effects on animals:  Autonomic NS effects in many animal species: decreases heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate in humans.  Anti-microbial: human skin microbial flora Staphylococcus  Anti-tumor: (+)-Cedrol was identified as one of the terpene compounds showing activity against human renal adenocarcinoma and The ancient Egyptians amelanotic melanoma cell proliferation. actually used cedar oil in one form of embalming  Whats fascinating about the studies on cedrol is that it seems that we dont need to actually be able to smell it to be affected by it! The reaction isnt necessarily about smelling it! © Project SOUND
  • 30. Why is so little known about the actual effects of many plant compounds?  Many compounds; we’re just beginning to understand their functions in plants  Less $$ for plant than animal research  Current skepticism about ‘herbal medicine;  Volatile & reactive – many break- down compounds which may be the active forms  Some information is proprietary – pharmaceutical industry © Project SOUND
  • 31. Cedar oil – actually does kill insects  Cedar oil has an overwhelming effect on insects – in an unusual way.  The aroma of cedar oil breathed in by an insect causes a respiratory blockage; the insect cannot continue to breathe, therefore it suffocates.  This is why many research studies show the quick and high mortality rate of insects when they come in contact with cedar oil. Unlike pesticides that have to be digested or touched, cedar oil only needs to permeate in order to eliminate an insect.  This works very well with pheromone-driven insects that need to follow a "chemical trail" in order to complete tasks.  Insects like bees, wasps, butterflies and other non-pheromone-driven insects will simply stay away from this aroma. © Project SOUND
  • 32. Traditional delivery modes made use of the nature of essential oils  As teas or infusions  Scent inhaled (like aroma therapy)  In baths  Smudging - French hospitals, which use much more aromatherapy than ours, used a rosemary/juniper smudge as a disinfectant until fairly recently.  Incense Cedar (as well as juniper and cypress) traditionally used in sweat lodge ceremonies as spiritual purifiers and for the attraction of good energy, while eliminating negative energies. © Project SOUND
  • 33. Commercially available products with CA native scented materials  Dried herbs or flowers  Teas  Wood  Essential Oils  Hydrosols/Floral Waters essential-oil.html  Scented soaps, bathhp?id=2874 products, lotions, candles using CA native plant materials © Project SOUND
  • 34. Uses of Cedar (Cypress) oil Burners and vaporizers  Useful in vapor therapy for all breathing difficulty, such as asthma, emphysema, whooping cough and bronchitis. It also helps to calm the mind and dispel anger. Blended massageoil or in the bath  Cypress oil can be used as a massage oil or diluted in the bath for arthritis, asthma, cellulite, cramps, diarrhea, sweaty feet, rheumatism, varicose veins, heavy menstruation and menopause. Lotions and creams  In a cream base, cypress oil can be used for varicose and broken veins, as well as clearing an oily and congested skin. Cold compress  Used diluted on a cold compress, very effective for a nosebleed. Foot bath  If it is added to a footbath, it will help control perspiration with it astringent and deodorant properties. © Project SOUND
  • 35. The Mint Family - Lamiaceae  Aromatic herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or vines  Usually with stems square in cross-section, 4-sided, and Monardella linioides flowers in long clusters, heads, or interrupted whorls on theMentha arvensis stem.  ~ 180 genera and 3,500 species nearly worldwide.  The Mediterranean region, the chief area of diversity, has produced many spices and flavorings; various mints, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, and basil. Catnip and lavender are also in the family. © Project SOUND Salvia brandegeei
  • 36. * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum © 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND
  • 37. * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum  Foothills of mountina ranges from OR to Mexico  Locally in the San Gabriels  Moist sites of chaparral, oak woodland, and coniferous forests,4861,4862  The genus Pycnanthemum - in the mint family, Lamiaceae.  Most species are very strongly scented and pungent  Most are used in cooking and in making herbal tea – mints tend to be ‘safe’.  All species in this genus are native to North America. © Project SOUND
  • 38. CA Mountain Mint – a typical mint  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Spreading to 4+ ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Stems erect (for the most part)  Fast-growing (like Stachys)  Woodsy looking  Foliage:  Attractive gray-green color – may be fuzzy or not  Simple, lance-shaped leaves  Make a nice tea  Roots:  Spreading via rhizomes© 2006 Dean Wm. Taylor, Ph.D. © Project SOUND
  • 39. Flowers are tiny & sweet  Blooms:  Summer - usually June-Aug in our area  Flowers:  In ball-like cluster typical of Mint family  Flowers are small  White, usually with lavender spots  Very old-fashioned look© 2009 Neal Kramer  Butterfly plant  Seeds:  Many tiny seeds – can shake them out of dried clusters © Project SOUND © 2001 Jeff Abbas
  • 40. Easy to please  Soils:  Texture: any, very adaptable  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: takes seasonal flooding – good for wet parts of garden  Summer: needs regular water – Zone 2-3 to 3.  Fertilizer: would do best with some added humus or leaf mulch  Other: treat like other mints – take out parts that are growing where you don’t want it (pot up and give new plants away – or use them fresh or dried) © Project SOUND
  • 41. Use Mountain Mint in wet areas  Under a birdbath or fountain  Places where the neighbor’s water makes the soil damp  In bog gardens  In large, moist-soil containers  In the vegetable garden  Moist areas along walkways – smells wonderful when stepped on – and it doesn’t mind a bit!  Around ponds/pools© 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND
  • 42. Mountain Mint is good for cooking  Harvest mature leaves at the height of bloom – summer  Use fresh or dry (lower temp.) then store in airtight (glass is good) jar until used  Cool infusion tea with lime juice is excellent. Cold infused is best - put in quart jar of water and place in sun, or in refrigerator over night.  Also, use in cooking where you want a distinctive, strong mint scent and flavor – raw (salads; sandwiches) or cooked © Project SOUND
  • 43. It was also used medicinally  Native Californians used both the roots and leaves for medicine. A tea made with the leaves and an infusion of the tops were used to cure such conditions as chills and fever.  Was used for a variety of conditions: stomach upset, colds, sinus headache, sinusitis, fevers, tonic, stimulant, increases perspiration, relaxant (stomach), colic, breath freshener. © Project SOUND
  • 44. Why do plants make the ‘essential oils’ chemicals?  A wide range of reasons, many related to communication:  To attract pollinators – or the spreaders of seed (usually in flowers, fruits)  To repel herbivores – insect or other; either cue or toxin  As breakdown products from compounds used for other purposes  As protection against fungi, bacteria and viruses  To prevent other plants from growing too close ?  To communicate with other plants – via soil water or air © Project SOUND
  • 45. Plant chemistry is exceedingly complex  Different molecules in the same essential oil can exert different effects. Remember, essential oils are complex mixtures of chemicals  A single species of plant can have several different chemotypes based on its chemical composition. A plant grown in one area might produce an essential oil with a completely different chemistry than the same species grown in another location.The bottom line: low doses (of plant chemicals) will usually be safer thanhigher doses – so start slow. Inhaled or topical uses will usually besafer than ingestion. © Project SOUND
  • 46. Why do mints smell/taste ‘minty’  Composition of essential oils varies by species – even by individual plant – yet all are distinctly minty  Like fine blended perfumes: different key notes, but an underlying fragrance of mint  Principal components of most Pycnanthemums (incl. CA Mountain Mint) :  Pulegone  Menthone  Limonene © Project SOUND
  • 47.  A monoterpenePulegone  Has a pleasant odor similar to pennyroyal, peppermint and camphor.  Is used in flavoring agents, in perfumery, and in aromatherapy  A chemical similar to capsaicin that also has pain-relieving effects.  Toxic if ingested in large quantities; broken down if heated  Insect repellant; Pycnanthemums are less toxic to animals/humans than peppermint and other insect repellants © Project SOUND
  • 48. Menthone explains part of the ‘minty’ scent  Menthone is also a monoterpene and a ketone.  It is structurally related to menthol which has a secondary alcohol in place of the carbonyl.  Is a constituent of the essential oils of pennyroyal, peppermint, Pelargonium geraniums, and other scented species  Menthone is used in perfumery and cosmetics for its characteristic aromatic and minty odor. © Project SOUND
  • 49. d-Limonene  One of the most common terpenes in nature - produced by many plants  Some forms have distinct scent of citrus  Uses:  As a scent agent in food, cosmetics & perfumes  As a cleaner/de-greaser  As a solvent for paint removal, glue removal, clearing tissues for histology - can replace a wide variety of products, including mineral spirits, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, toluene, glycol ethers, and of course fluorinated and chlorinated organic solvents.  As it is combustible, limonene has also been considered as a biofuel  ? anti- cancer effects  As a botanical insecticide © Project SOUND
  • 50. Dangers of distilled essential oils Highly concentrated  Should not be applied directly to the skin in their undiluted state  Dilute with passive carrier oils before ingestion or topical application. Common carrier oils include olive, almond, hazelnut and grapeseed. A common ratio of essential oil disbursed in a carrier oil is 0.5–3% (most under 10%).  Some can cause severe irritation, provoke an allergic reaction and, over time, prove hepatotoxic. Try low dose test on your skin to determine sensitivity.  Some essential oils, including many of the citrus peel oils, are photosensitizers.  Consult the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for hazards and handling requirements of particular oils. Handling  Can be aggressive toward rubbers/plastics  Are oils – spills will stain Use in Pregnancy  The use of essential oils in pregnancy is not recommended due to inadequate published evidence to demonstrate evidence of safety. © Project SOUND
  • 51. Other cautions about the use of purchased essential oils Ingesting essential oils  Used extensively as flavoring agents - according to strict Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and flavorist standards in low doses  Ingestion of essential oils for therapeutic purposes should never be done except under the supervision of someone licensed to prescribe such treatment.  Some common essential oils are toxic internally.  The internal use of essential oils can pose hazards to pregnant women and should not be used during pregnancy. Flammability  The flash point of each essential oil is different. Many of the common essential oils, such as lavender and citrus oils, are classed as a Class 3 Flammable Liquid, as they have a flash point of 50–60 °C. © Project SOUND
  • 52. Benefits of using your own fresh or dried herbal products  Lower cost  Guaranteed fresh; and you get to enjoy the harvesting  You know no pesticides have been used on them  You know that the product has not been treated or adulterated – and contains only the herb you want  Doses of chemicals are low in fresh/dry products compared to distilled essential oils  You’re limited to what your garden can produce – not as likely to overdo © Project SOUND
  • 53. Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 1. Cut healthy herb branches mid- morning from plant. The best time to cut herbs for drying is just before they flower—this is when they contain the most oil, which is what gives them their aroma and flavor. 2. Pull off any diseased/dry leaves; make sure there are no insects on leaves. 3. Pull off lower leaves from herb branches, so that you have space to tie them together. 4. If dirty, rinse herbs with cool water; gently pat dry with a paper towel. © Project SOUND
  • 54. Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 5. Combine 5-6 herb branches together then tie with string. 6. Label a paper bag with the name of the herb(s). Make several holes in the bag then place the herb bundle, leaves down, into the bag so that the stems are at the opening of the bag. Gather the open end of the bag around the stems and tie closed. Hang the bag in a well ventilated, warm room (70 to 80 degrees F). You can dry herbs without placing them in a paper bag, but the paper bag helps keep dust off of the herbs while they’re drying. 7. Check herbs in approximately two weeks then periodically until dried. The drying process should take approximately 2 to 4 weeks. © Project SOUND
  • 55. Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 8. Store your dried herbs in an air-tight container in a cool place away from direct sunlight 9. Use within 6-12 months; will lose their potency © Project SOUND
  • 56. Simple uses for your dried native herbs  Simmering herbs – to give a touch of fragrance to the whole house; great on cold winter days  Scented wands & wreaths  Potpourri jars © Project SOUND
  • 57. Simple native potpourri: your choice of scents  Use any combination of dried leaves and flowers – ‘blend your own perfume’  Store it in an air-tight jar – open when you need a little fragrance  Replenish the herbs as needed  A ‘fixative’ will keep the potpourri fresh longer – and you won’t need to hide it away © Project SOUND
  • 58.  The fixative absorbs and retainsFixatives for potpourri the volatile scented essences.  Some common fixatives (readily available on-line or at some craft or herbal/health food stores):  Chopped orris root (root of Florentine Iris) - has little scent so it is a good base. Use 1-2 tablespoons of dried orris root per cup dried potpourri mix.  Chopped calamus root  Oak moss, cellulose, ground gum benzoin or fiberfix  A cheap alternative is dried citrus peel – use lemon or whatever you have available  Some people also add a few drops of essential oils products_id=130&osCsid=v1pj9rcgirb1rsb2so3rdi8ga4 © Project SOUND
  • 59. Fruit and Herb Soaps  Relatively simple and straight forward in the home kitchen if you purchase ‘melt-and-pour’ soap bases – lots of sources online  You can use fresh, pureed materials (all fruits and herbs; whole berries, herb leaves, or citrus rinds, etc).  You can also use ground, dried materials: ground dried juniper berries; mint leaves; sage leaves, etc.  Follow the directions exactly  Warning: may become an addicting hobby © Project SOUND
  • 60. Purple Sage – Salvia leucophyllaPhoto by Amy Findlay © Project SOUND
  • 61. Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Central and southern coast and coastal mountains of CA to Baja  Dry open hills, usually in areas with coastal influence:  Chaparral  Coastal sage scrub  leucophylla: white-leaved  Many variants and hybrids - confusing,4865,4879 © Project SOUND
  • 62. Why choose Purple Sage? Lovely foliage: gray-green in spring, white-soft in summer – nice aroma Attractive flowers: often lavender to pinkish; lovely “pastel” look to entire plant Mounded growth habit Many horticultural cultivars and hybrids – with wide range of characteristics (flower color; height/size; scent) © Project SOUND
  • 63. Sages – long used in herbal therapy  Sage & sage oils have been used for many medical conditions – and for a long time  Calming/soothing properties; used to calm and induce sleep  The proven therapeutic properties of sage oil:  anti-spasmotic  anti-inflammatory  antibacterial, antiseptic; skin wounds, urinary tract and colon  © Project SOUND
  • 64. Salvia leucophylla: used like common sage  Used in soaps, perfumes and cosmetics  Sage stimulates skin. Used in skin lotions, massage oils.  In herbal baths it is mixed with lavender for stimulation.  In the foot bath it stimulates and relieves aches – used by Chumash (with Black & White Sages)  Used for herb wreaths and in potpourris and sachets. © Project SOUND
  • 65.  Waxy, white or transparent solid with a strong, aromatic odorCamphor  Found in wood of camphor & laurel trees – also in rosemary & Purple Sage  Used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly in India), for medicinal purposes, and in religious ceremonies  Modern uses:  as a moth repellent  as an antimicrobial substance  in embalming & fireworks  Solid camphor releases fumes that form a rust-preventative coating - stored in tool chests to protect tools against rust.  Camphor crystals used to prevent damage to insect collections by other small insects. © Project SOUND
  • 66.  Camphor is readily absorbed through Camphor the skin and produces a feeling of cooling similar to that of menthol, and acts as slight local anesthetic and antimicrobial substance.  There are anti-itch gels and cooling gels with camphor as the active ingredient.  Camphor is an active ingredient (along with menthol) in vapor-steam products, such as Vicks VapoRub. A recent publication in Pediatrics suggests the topical application of VapoRub may improve symptoms ofHigh doses of camphor are colds and sleep quality whentoxic – very high doses can compared to a controlkill; USDA limits to topicalpreparations © Project SOUND
  • 67.  AKA Eucalyptol; high concentrations in Eucalyptus species Cineole  Also found in camphor laurel, bay leaves, tea tree, mugwort, sweet basil, wormwood, rosemary, sage and other aromatic plant foliage.  Fresh camphor-like smell and a spicy, cooling taste  Used as a flavoring at low levels (0.002%) in various products, includingAlthough it can be used baked goods, confectionery, meatinternally as a flavoring and products and beverages.medicine ingredient at verylow doses, typical of many  Medical uses: for colds, runny nose;essential oils (volatile oils),eucalyptol is toxic if ingested also reduces pain & inflammation inat higher than normal doses topical applications; kills oral bacteria; may improve concentration abilities © Project SOUND
  • 68. Smudging: another way to use native herbs  An integral part of the Native American, Celt, and other ancient cultures as a way to cleanse, purify, clear, and release energy.  Used in many ceremonies and rituals, setting the mood, and preparing those involved emotionally, spiritually, and psychically.  Often employed before meditation, prayer, sweat lodge, when people are ill/depressed, or just to ‘create a new beginning’.  Smudging can be performed in ones environment, on the physical body, and personal possessions. © Project SOUND
  • 69. Using aromatic smoke  Commonly, smudging is done with a bundle or stick. Another method is to put the herbs into a pot.  Either way, the herbs are lit to form an ember that imparts a stream of smoke.  This smoke is fanned or moved around the area, person or items, generally in a clockwise direction. © Project SOUND
  • 70. Many aromatic herbs are used for making smudge sticks  Western Sages  Silver King Artemisia  Lavender  Mugwort  Yarrow  Hemlock Pine  Balsam  Cedar  Juniper  Angelica  Yerba Santa  Many others © Project SOUND
  • 71.  Gather small branches (ask the plant Making a for permission before cutting). smudge stick  Let herbs sit for several hours to a day until they become slightly limp.  Choose the twine for wrapping the smudge stick. Use a natural material like cotton or hemp. Take a length of string and measure three and a half times the length of the branches.  Lay out your cuttings and form an easy to wrap bundle.  Tie a loop on one end of the twine; make a slipknot. Place the slipknot loop around the bottom of the stems, pulling tight. © Project SOUND
  • 72.  Wrap the twine around the Making a smudge smudge stick until you have reached the top. Be sure to keep a stick moderate tension. If the twine is too tight the smudge stick will not burn well - if it is too loose your smudge stick will fall apart.  When you have reached the top, reverse the direction, wrap again to the bottom, and tie a knot.  Some people like to tie the twine in several places as they wrap  Dry the smudge stick for several weeks in a warm, dry place © Project SOUND
  • 73. How to Burn your Smudge Stick  Light the tip of the stick well. Make sure the sage has plenty of air for the flame to really get going. Allow the sage to smolder.  Use a feather or other fanning device (your hands work just as well) to direct the smoke where youd like it to travel. Inhale the smoke lightly as you visualize all negativity leaving your body and environment.  To easily put out the smudge, have a plate (or traditionally, an abalone shell) filled with a bit of sand nearby. When you are finished, put the sage out in the sand by lightly tamping it down until extinguished. Stored properly, a sage stick can last for years of use! © Project SOUND
  • 74. Smudging is not for everyone…  People with respiratory conditions (asthma; chronic bronchitis; etc.)  People with smoke allergies  Some people may be allergic to sage or other components when burned  Be sensible and respectful – start slowly and test individual plant parts for their effect on you © Project SOUND
  • 75. Herbal sachets are a milder way of using native aromatic plants  Sachets can be placed in drawers with sweaters, gloves, lingerie, and linens to give them a beautiful scent.  They can also be hung on hangers under dresses andto-make-a-moth-repellent-s-76949 shirts or even placed inside shoes, or put into suitcases or in the pockets of winter coats being stored through the summer. © Project SOUND
  • 76. Making an herbal sachet  Select or make a small bag with a somewhat open weave. Be sure to leave one side open, if you are making bags. Purchased re- useable tea or herb bags work fine  Mix together enough dried herbs to fill thelavender-sachet.html bag.  If you’d like to enhance the scent, a few drops of essential oil can be added; orris root powder can be used as a fixative.  Fill the bag with the flowers and herbs.  Either sew the bag closed, or tie the end tightly with ribbon or string.  Enjoy. Rubbing the bag gently will further crush the herbs and release their fragrance. © Project SOUND
  • 77. Customize your sachets  An insect repellent blend might include: lavender, rosemary, sage, mint, santolina, pennyroyal, tansy, mugwort, cedarwood chips…  A soothing potpourri if you want to know how to make poutpourri might include: lemon balm, lemon verbena, rose petals, lavender, calendula, meadowsweet, chamomile…  For sachets tucked in with clothes you might try rose and lavender mixes or a blend of citrus peel, spearmint, lemon verbena, and thyme, with a drop or two of pine essential oil. © Project SOUND
  • 78. California (Coastal) Sagebrush – Artemisia californica © Project SOUND
  • 79. California (Coastal) Sagebrush – Artemisia californica  Coastal CA from Marin County and Napa County south to San Diego County & Baja – a ‘CA endemic’  Coastal scrub, chaparral, dry foothills, especially near coast, < 800 m.  May even be found on Coastal Prairie/strand  Artemisia: referring to the Greek goddess Artemis who so benefited from a plant of this family that she gave it her own name,719,726 © Project SOUND
  • 80. Adaptations to mediterranean climate  Shrub form – not large  Re-sprouts from crown when damaged (by fire or eating)  Leaves:  Small  Silvery  Seasonally dimorphic  Roots:  Shallow, net-like  Forms adventitious roots when stems touch soil  Interesting chemicals:  Scented foliage – to repel herbivores  Burns readily © Project SOUND
  • 81. Ca Sagebrush is great  Use in rock gardens, herb gardens, and in flower beds for local gardens and borders.  The silvery gray foliage makes an excellent backdrop or separator for bright-colored or delicate flowers.  Especially attractive massed in sunny areas  Include in a fragrance garden: very aromatic; fills the air around it with its lovely scent  Useful for erosion control  An interesting ‘cut flower’Important habitat plant: • Fall bee-food  Can make a tea from the leaves – was used by Native • Birds: important for roosting, cover Californians for colds • Lizards: important cover plant  Can be a fire hazard © Project SOUND
  • 82. Artemisia: scents function to protect thevulnerable parts of the plant  Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones - an adaptation to discourage herbivory  Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of:  bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis);  yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans);  and dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger © Project SOUND
  • 83. California Sagebrush: medicines & memories  Native peoples used artemisia for the treatment of coughs and colds. It is said to help alleviate menstrual cramps in women and to ease labor. The Cahuilla Indian word for this plant is hulvel. Like many sages, California sagebrush can be used in cooking as a spice.  The smell of Californian sagebrush reminds many Californians of the smell of grandmothers house. A pleasant smell, like Californian sagebrush, can help the patient remember long-lost memories. Aromatherapy is a very powerful way of bringing back pleasant memories. © Project SOUND
  • 84. Native California uses suggest ways we might use sagebrush The Luiseño and Cahuilla tribes used coastal sagebrush in girl’s puberty rights; smoke from the leaves purified and perfumed the skin and clothes of the young girls in the ceremony. A tea of the stems and leaves was also used by women at the beginning of each menstrual period and after giving birth. For respiratory ailments, a decoction of the leaves and stems was used externally for the relief of colds, cough, and asthma, and a decoction was taken internally for bronchitis. Some tribes used a decoction of the plant as a bath for rheumatism. The scents and warmth added to the soothing effect Some Indians of the California coast used the leaves to relieve tooth aches and as a poultice for wounds, and the Cahuilla chewed and smoked the leaves mixed with wild tobacco. The pungent smell of the coastal sagebrush makes it effective as an insect repellent © Project SOUND
  • 85. California Sagebrush Tea: easy to prepare They say that the tea can  12 cups water be drunk safely, in 2 Tbsp dried California moderation, and that it will sagebrush (loosely packed) bring back pleasant memories.  Bring water to a boil and remove from heat. Add Used also for irregular sagebrush and let steep for periods at least 4 hours. It’s best to let it steep overnight, strain You could also use this as a out the sagebrush, and refrigerate the remaining room freshener or insect amount. repellant © Project SOUND
  • 86. Simple Ways to Use Herbs in your Bath  Make an herbal infusion (basically a strong tea), using a handful of herbs and a quart of boiling water. Let it steep for half an hour to an hour, then strain and add to the drawn bath.  Soak a handful of herbs in a quart of warm milk for several hours. Strain and add the milk to the drawn bath. © Project SOUND
  • 87. Simple Ways to Use Herbs in your Bath  Place herbs in a muslin bag or tea strainer. Than place the bag or strainer under the water as you run your bath (use hot water). When the bath is drawn, place the bag or strainer in the tub. Let the water cool, then enjoy your bath. Squeeze the herbal bath sachet gently to extract the remainder of the herbs essence. You can either leave the herbal bath sachet in the water during the bath or remove it.  To make your bath more emollient (skin softening), add almond meal or skim milk powder. Or soak finely ground oatmeal or barley in warm water, strain, and add the water to your herbal bath. © Project SOUND
  • 88. Herbal body scrub 1 cup sea salt, kosher salt or epsom salts 1/2 cup sunflower oil (or other oil – almond is nice) 1/2 teaspoon vitamin E oil (optional) 1 tablespoon dried herbs ground very fine (parsley, mint, lavender, sagebrush or a combination) 1 drops lavender essential oil (optional)1. Mix together all ingredients and pour into clean jar with tight-fitting lid.2. To use: While standing in the tub or shower, take a handful of the scrub and gently massage into skin. Massage salt all over body, rinse with warm water and pat dry. Do not use soap or other cleansers, to preserve the moisturizing effect.3. Store any leftover scrub in a cool, dry place or refrigerator. © Project SOUND
  • 89. CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana
  • 90. CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana  Much of non-desert CA: WA to Baja  Many Plant Communities including Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral, Freshwater Marsh, Mountain Meadow, Mixed-evergreen Forest, Southern Oak Woodland  A plant of moist/riparian places  Named for David Douglas (1798-1834), Scottish botanist who made several journeys to America. Douglas provided the material from which some 300 species of California plants were to be described  ‘Mugwort’ from use of this species in mugs to flavor beer prior to hops
  • 91. CA Mugwort in the wild  Usually in damp places in drier surroundings - a ‘facultative wetland indicator species’  grows vigorously in the late winter through the middle of spring  When the sun is shining it inverts its leaves so the pale undersides face the sun, reflecting most of the rays and keeping the plant from losing valuable moisture  Loses it’s leaves in summer drought
  • 92. Uses for CA Mugwort Ground cover on naturally landscaped slopes, hillsides Under trees/shrubs like Mule Fat In planters & pots – contained situations For erosion controlThis is an important medicine plantfor Native Californians. Used as apurifying plant in ceremonies.Also good for treating stomach &other gastrointestinal illnesses
  • 93. Some traditional uses of Mugwort  It was used for flavoring beer before the introduction of hops. The plant was gathered when in flower and dried. Malt liquor was then boiled with it so as to form a strong decoction, and the liquid thus prepared was added to the beer.  Mugwort is occasionally employed as an aromatic culinary herb, being one of the green herbs with which poultry are often stuffed during roasting.  The leaves used to be steeped in baths, to communicate an invigorating property to the water.  Placed among woolen cloths it prevents and destroys the moths. © Project SOUND
  • 94. Vulnerable Mugwort produces a huge variety of chemicals  Secreted by trichomes and secretory glands (mostly leaves)  Produces a staggering variety of chemicals: camphor (29%), artemisia ketone (26%), artemisia alcohol (13%), alpha- thujone (10%), 1,8-cineole (8%), and hexanal © Project SOUND
  • 95. Demonstrated effects of Mugwort Molluscicidal; antifungal Cytotoxic – breast cancer cells Anti-stomach ulcer – promotes body defenses (mucous production; anti-inflammatory (anti-mast-cell))  Anti-bacterial against helicobacter pylori – may be promising new treatment for resistant strains Anti-oxidant activity Good at keeping moths out of clothes and areas When rubbed on the skin, the leaves have a natural moisturizing effect © Project SOUND
  • 96. If you grow Mugwort (or mints) you likely have plenty to harvest Infused-Oil/Scent-infused oils can be used for massage oils, bath oils or body oils © Project SOUND
  • 97. Scent infused oils: Artemisia or other aromatic species  Cold-infused Mugwort Massage Oil 1 cup olive oil (or almond, sunflower, grape seed or other oils) 1/2 cup finely chopped mugwort leaf (or other aromatic leaves)  Chop mugwort finely and put oil and mugwort into a sterilized glass jar.  Store in a cool, dry place for one month. Check your jar regularly to make sure the plant is completely covered with oil (or it will mold).  Strain out the plant material & discard  Store the oil in a cool, dark place. Shelf life of the oil is about one year.  This is a terrific massage oil for sore joints or an achy back. © Project SOUND
  • 98. Mugwort is also a plant with lots ofaromatherapy hype – ‘Dream Sage’  Mugwort ‘helps to direct the psychic life into its proper sphere, gradually opening the soul to expanded consciousness’.  ‘Mugwort is used to promote lucid dreaming. Mugwort intensifies the dreaming process. It may cause nightmares or restless dreams. Some say it causes a specific type of dream’  Chumash, Paiute, and other California Indian tribes burned or inhaled smoke from the leaves to promote healthy sleep, sacred dreams, and to ward of ghosts or evil spirits.  Mugwort contains thujone a compound which is said to induce hallucinations and convulsions. When mugwort is smoked or taken as a tea, or used in oils or dream pillows very little thujone is present. Extracts of mugwort made with alcohol are (generally) not recommended, as they can be too concentrated and potentially dangerous. © Project SOUND
  • 99. Dream sage is used by Traditional Healers to promote good dreams  To use dream sage, collect the stalks, leaves and seeds, dry them and sew them into a small pillow.  Place the small pillow under the normal pillow to promote dreaming. Dream sage contains camphor, linalool, cineole and other pleasant-smelling compounds.  The pleasant, sage smell of the dream sage induces aromatherapy that will help promote dreaming. This de-dream-pillow/ helps heal the spirit. When the spirit remembers to be normal, the body can heal.  One of the most romantic things a young man can doTry a small sachet first for his girlfriend is to make her a small pillow ofto see if this works for dream sage. This shows her that he cares about heryou and her dreams. Hopefully, she will dream pleasant dreams about him. © Project SOUND
  • 100. Dream Pillows Dream pillows are for those who want to enhance their dreaming or wish to remember their dreams. To create a blend that encourages dreaming, blend any of the following: Catnip: Relaxing, helps bring deep sleep. Chamomile: Calming, relaxing, and said to keep bad dreams away. Cloves: Brings warmth/exotic feeling to dreams, add only 2-4. Hops: Relaxing and brings peacefulness. Lavender: Soothing, relaxing and eases headaches. Lemon Verbena: Uplifting, used to add “lightness” to dream blends. Mugwort: Greatly enhances lucid dreaming and helps with remembering of dreams. Peppermint or Spearmint: Enhances clarity and vividness in dreams. Rose petals: Brings warmth and love, may be used to evoke romantic dreams. Rosemary: Traditionally used to bring deep sleep and keep away bad dreams. © Project SOUND
  • 101. *Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi© 2004 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  • 102. *Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi  Southwestern N. America from S. CA to AZ & NV, N. Mexico  Plant of S. Mojave & Sonoran Deserts  Common in gravelly or sandy washes and canyons below 3000,  Creosote bush scrub  In colder areas, plant prefers rock and boulder strewn foothills where it receives extra sustaining warmth. © Project SOUND
  • 103. Flowers are dainty  Blooms: off and on throughout the year, but most heavily in spring  Flowers:  Tiny; in clusters  Lavender to purple; typical shape for Mint family  Scented of lavender  A bee, butterfly & hummingbird magnet!!  Seeds: small; plant in spring – no treatment © 2004 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  • 104. Desert Lavender is popular with desert gardeners  As an attractive accent shrub near patios and walks  In a habitat garden; try it as an informal or sheared hedge  As a delightful addition to the ‘Evening Garden’ – color & scent make it attractive day & night © Project SOUND
  • 105. Desert Lavender is important for desert peoples – to this day  Dried foliage used to make a calming tea, season foods  Infusions of flowers and leaves used for inflammatory and infectious conditions  A poultice of crushed leaves makes an antibacterial dressing for wounds  ‘Fragrant natural cleansing bar, with the healing qualities of Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi) and organic jojoba oil extracted from the seeds of Simmondsia—both native to the desert Southwest--partner here with the best French lavender essence to achieve moisturizing aromatherapy as you bathe.’  Dried foliage has been used instead ofLike Lavender, essential oils mothballs - fragrance is said to repel mothsare a complex mixture © Project SOUND
  • 106. Use dried Desert lavender to make a body powder  Start with a base like arrowroot, cornstarch, or fuller’s earth. (You may even want to try sifted rice flour, which was used for body and face powder for centuries.)  Add herbs that you’ve pulverized with a mortar and pestle or in a spice grinder— lavender or rose petals for example—and a bit of orris root to fix or hold the scent (if desired).  Use about equal parts base and herbs.  Store your powder where it won’t get damp, in a covered container. © Project SOUND
  • 107. Herbal pillows: a pleasant alternative to sleep-inducing chemicals  Design the pillow to make it easy to change the herb stuffing often. Enclose the herbs in an inner case made of a double thickness of cambric, muslin, or other tough lining material.  For extra comfort enfold the herbs in a layer of cotton or polyester batting, cut to fit inside the lining and sewn up on three sides.  Fill with any preferred mix of dried herbs and potpourri flowers (avoiding anything too lumpy or hard) until comfortably firm, then hand-sew the remaining side.  Any pretty pillow or cushion cover, perhaps antique or home-made, can serve as the outer case for a dream pillow. © Project SOUND
  • 108. Soporific Sprays – also easy Scenting your bedroom with sleep-inducing aroma is a wonderful way to make the transition to sleep. Lavender is a favorite for room or linen spritzers, but try other aromas, too, like lemon verbena, jasmine, or rose, for example. To make your own spray, simply steep about a tablespoon of herbs in one cup of boiling water for 15 to 30 minutes, then strain through a fine strainer or cheesecloth. Once cooled, place in a spray bottle and store in the refrigerator. Spritz your bedroom just before it’s time to turn in. To scent your linens, squirt your spray on your sheets and pillowcases before you put them in the dryer, or make your own dryer sheet with a small, clean cloth that’s been soaked in the spray and then tossed in the dryer with the linens. © Project SOUND
  • 109. Good choices for herbal pillows & sprays:Traditional herbs CA native herbs  Angelica  Desert Lavender  Chamomile  Rose Petals  Hops  Clover  Jasmine  Sage (esp. Purple Sage)  Lavender  Strawberry leaves  Lemon Balm  Yarrow  Lemon verbena  Marjoram  Rosemary © Project SOUND
  • 110. * Creeping Wild Ginger – Asarum caudatum © 2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND
  • 111. * Creeping Wild Ginger – Asarum caudatum  San Francisco Bay to British Columbia, Montana  Understory of deep, redwood or yellow pine forests below 5000 ft.  Usually in mesic or wet places © 2004, Tim Hagan © Project SOUND
  • 112. Creeping Wild Ginger: herbaceousgroundcover  Size:  < 1 ft tall  3-5+ ft wide, spreading via short rhizomes  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; evergreen in our climate  Mat-like groundcover  Foliage:  Dark green, heart-shaped leathery leaves – exotic looking  Aromatic (ginger) when crushed  All parts produce a toxin – handle with care© 2011 Margo Bors © Project SOUND
  • 113. Flowers are unique  Blooms: in spring-summer  Flowers:  Single flowers on stalk  Maroon with yellow  Flowers are long-lived,© 2009 Jim Maloney but are increasingly covered by growing leaves  Seeds:  In fleshy capsule that explodes open  Seeds distributed by ants © Project SOUND
  • 114. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: sandy to clay  pH: any local except very alkali  Light:  Dappled sun to deep shade; this is a forest-floor plant  Water:© 2012 Jean Pawek  Winter: plenty of rain  Summer: regular water – Water Zone 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer: likes leaf mulch; fine with compost  Other: protect from slugs © Project SOUND
  • 115. Garden uses for Wild Ginger  Very attractive in containers  As a groundcover in shady places  Any other shady, moist area © Project SOUND
  • 116. Native Californians used Wild Ginger in several ways  Various California Indian tribes used the warmed fresh leaves as a poultice to bring boils to a head.  Similarly, a poultice could be used to relieve toothaches.  Wild ginger was among the various plants that California Indians used as a sedative for nervousness, insomnia, and hysteria, and stems were placed in a baby’s bed to promote calming and to relieve illness.  A tea made from the leaves was used as a wash for sores and a tea made from the roots was drunk for© 2004, Ben Legler indigestion, colds and constipation. © Project SOUND
  • 117. Aristolochic acids  A family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compounds commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, including Aristolochia and Asarum, which are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine.  Have been linked to several recent outbreaks of kidney damage (including kidney failure). In addition, some patients have developed certain types of cancers, most often occurring in the urinary tract.  The fact that this plant contains aristolochic acid means it is best to not consume this plant, even if it was used in the past © Project SOUND
  • 118. Stronger doses and longer use can be harmful, even for plants routinely used in the past  Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises consumers of Aristolochic acid to discontinue use.  Gardeners, landscapers, or nursery workers who handle or transplant Aristolochia or Asarum plants could potentially be exposed to aristolochic acids. Handling Aristolochia or Asarum plants could result in dermal exposure, which, as of 2010, has been associated only with dermatitis. To reduce the likelihood of accidental ingestion, workers should wash their hands before eating, drinking, or smoking. © Project SOUND
  • 119. We hope you’ve learned a lot today There are many ways to use the scented foliage grown in your garden Using your own plant materials have many advantages – including the safety of lower doses of plant chemicals More scented products using CA native scents are becoming available – surf the web CA native plants will almost certainly be a source of new medicinal & other useful products in the future A plant’s ‘scent’ is a complex bouquet of chemicals You need to understand which plants/materials are toxic – and how to handle them © Project SOUND
  • 120. We hope you’ve learned a lot today Plant scent chemicals can have medicinal effects; they can also affect our mood and bring back pleasant memories. We should probably consider using them more in our daily lives. Plant materials can be used in a simple manner – or you can experiment with more complex ‘scent crafts’ like soap- making or candle-making; the choice is yours Lots of great advice, recipes, etc. on the internet – just remember to use your common sense Enjoy – and create! Scented projects offer a wide range of possibilities that can keep you busy for a long while. © Project SOUND
  • 121. See and smell some simple projects © Project SOUND