Elegant espaliers


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This lecture was given in December, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Elegant espaliers

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Elegant Espaliers:CA Natives in a Craftsman Style Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve December 4 & 7, 2010 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Last May we visited the Victorian Era http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Henry_Treffry_Dunn_Rossetti_and_Dunton_at_16_Cheyne_Walk.jpgIncreased wealth, manufactured goods and exotic ‘stuff’ characterized theIndustrial Revolution/Victorian Era © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Edwardian Gardens were very much a revolt against the Victorian stylehttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3002/2930975253_e3036b0a45.jpg?v=0 Edwardian Style Garden – ‘Back to Nature & Country Gardens’ © Project SOUND
  5. 5. But there was an interesting revolutionary movement afoot in England in the mid/late 1800’s … http://designinspiration.typepad.com/design_inspiration_planet/books/ ... a direct revolt against many of the ‘bad aspects’ of the Industrial Revolution in England © Project SOUND
  6. 6. The Arts and Crafts Movement  Began in England in the 1860s as a reform movement.  John Ruskin (1819-1900)  Movement’s philosophical leader  Most influential Victorian writer on the arts and architecture  Member of the Pre-Raphaelite Movement/Brotherhood.  Believed the decorative arts affected the men who produced them. The machine dehumanized http://www.oldukphotos.com/london_famous_people.htm the worker and led to a loss of dignity because it removed him"all cast from the machine is from the artistic process and thus,bad, as work it is dishonest." from nature itself. © Project SOUND
  7. 7. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood  Founded in 1848; a loose movement of English painters, poets, and critics  In its time it was a revolutionary as the Impressionistic Movement  Mission was to reform art by rejecting ‘the mechanistic approach adopted by artists after Raphael and Michelangelo’.  Believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael had been a corrupting influence on the teaching of art. Hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite".  Best known painters:  Edward Burne-Jones http://preraphaelitepaintings.blogspot.com/2009/01/edward-burne-jones-le-chant-damour.html  Dante Gabriel Rossetti  John Everett MillaisDante Gabriel Rossetti: - La Ghirlandata  Henry Le Jeune © Project SOUND
  8. 8. The Brotherhoods early doctrines were expressed in four declarations:  to have genuine ideas to express;  to study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them;  to sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parodying and learned by rote;  and, most indispensable of all, Henry Le Jeune to produce thoroughly goodA Young Lady Sketching in a Landscape pictures and statues © Project SOUND
  9. 9. The Pre-Raphaelite Movement  Ruskins book The Stones of Venice (1853) had a great impact on the intellectuals of Victorian England.  In it, he made a direct connection between art, nature, and morality - good moral art was nature expressed through man.  The English Arts & Crafts Movement developed from this ideahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stones_of_Venice_(book) © Project SOUND
  10. 10. The Arts and Crafts  William Morris (1834-1896)Movement  English textile designer, artist, writer and socialist  Associated with both the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement.  Took Ruskins ideas about nature, art, morality and the degradation of human labor and translated them into a unified theory of design. By doing so, Morris successfully wedded aesthetics and social reform into the Arts and Crafts Movement.  Chief contribution to the arts was as a designer of repeating patterns for wallpapers and textiles, many based on a close observation of nature.William Morris -La Belle Iseult  He was also a major contributor to1858 the resurgence of traditional textile arts and methods of production. © Project SOUND
  11. 11. William Morris founded Morris & Co. in 1875  The goal was to create design that was... " for the people and by the people, and a source of pleasure to the maker and the user."  Medieval Guilds were the model for the ideal craft production system – provide honorable work for the craftsman  The forms of Arts and Crafts style typically rectilinear/angular, with stylized decorative motifs reminiscent of medieval, Japanese and Islamic http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/furniture/25.html designhttp://barnyardgazette.blogspot.com/2009/04/william-morris-arts-and-crafts-movement.html © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Common themes of The Arts & Crafts Movement1880-1910.  Rejection of Classical/ Italianate architecture, and the revival of the Gothic Style.  Rebellion against industrialization and mass production by machines.  Leading figures believed http://www.ukmodernfurniture.co.uk/softfurnishi in a socialist or utopian society, striving for good ng/artsandcrafts.html quality of life for all, including art for the people, by the people. http://www.blog.designsquish.com/index.php?/site/2009/03/ © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Common themes of The Arts & Crafts Movement  Nostalgia for the medieval age - seen as the golden age of creativity and freedom.  Artists and craftsman were viewed as equals - art was no longer a separate or superior activity.  Revival of craftsmanship, honesty in construction, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.pattern/lesson8art.htmlBecause of the cost of hand and truth to materials – noproduction, the English Arts & fakes or cheap, gaudyCrafts style was only available to mass-produced itemsthe wealthy © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Not surprisingly, the Arts & Crafts Movement also influenced garden design Large or small, [a garden] should look both orderly and rich. It should be well fenced from the outside world. It should by no means imitate either the willfulness or the wildness of nature, but it should look like a thing never to seen except near a house. It should, in fact, look like part of the house. William Morris Hopes and Fears for Art 1882http://www.hewnandhammered.com/hewn_and_hammered/2006/03/book_review_gar.html © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Gertrude Jekyll: an influential Arts & Crafts garden designer  Wrote 14 influential books, and co-wrote many more.  Her writing included practical advice, but also had an almost poetic description of the enjoyment of gardening – as spiritual practice, not just manual labor. http://www.gertrudejekyllgarden.co.uk/The close alignment of work, beauty and meaning was a key principle ofthe Arts and Crafts movement, of which Jekyll was a central figure. © Project SOUND
  16. 16. The English Arts & Crafts garden  Famous architects of the day viewed house and garden as a unified whole. The distinctions between ‘indoors’ and ‘outdoors’ were blurred – gardens were a harmonious extension of the house.  Gardens were a venue for reform and innovation, an opportunity to express integrity and beauty, and a chance to move beyond the artificiality of the dominant Victorian paradigm.  Rejecting Victorian orderliness and ostentation in favor of naturalism and informality.While certainly not “simple”, the overall effect is an invitingone of comfort and ease rather than grandeur. © Project SOUND
  17. 17. But what happened when the Arts & Crafts Movement crossed the ocean?  Younger nation – less rigid social structure; ‘land of opportunity’  ‘Melting pot’ of many cultures – with their own distinct crafts traditions  Less industrialized/ urban than EnglandSo, the American Craftsman  Different materialsMovement was influenced bythe English Arts & Crafts (woods; native plants;Movement, but later (1900- etc.)1920’s) and distinctly American © Project SOUND
  18. 18. The Craftsman Movement: Arts & CraftsAmerican Style  Much influenced by Morris – key figures visited him/his colleagues  Was both a social & design/stylistic movement – but the components were uniquely American  Focus on architecture and home furnishing crafts: furniture, pottery, printing, other decorative arts – not so much textiles  ‘The Craftsman’ magazine played a key role in popularizing the Movement  Key figures:  Elbert Hubbard – Roycroft Studios  Gustav Stickley © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Craftsman Style furnishings are becoming popular again…? People furnishing their periodcottages – or parallels with our http://www.mydesignsecrets.com/2009/05/15/the-craftsman-style-home/times © Project SOUND
  20. 20. In America, the Arts & Crafts movement inspired some influential architects  American architects like the Greene brothers in Pasadena, Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago and many others drew inspiration from the Arts & Crafts/Craftsman Movements  Rediscovered the value in hand crafting buildings and their contentshttp://www.alpinestcraftsman.com/ using natural materials and creatingGreene & Greene - Pasadena a more holistic life style for their occupants – very Arts & Crafts  Designers often designed both the building/home and its contents – the two were seen as inseparable  Once again, the Craftsman style – with all of it’s handwork – was really a style for the well-to-doA. Tichenor house, Long Beach, 1904–05 © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Gambel House - Pasadena  Green & Green gardens freely combined elements from different sources, using stones in a Japanese manner, laying mission-style padre tiles in brick- edged terraces, and integrating existing orange groves. This synthesis of local and exotic traditions, of the naturalistic and the formal, remains a remarkable achievement in the history of the California garden © Project SOUND
  22. 22. By the early 1900’s, many families wanted toown their own homes & gardens – and those homes needed to be close to work http://catalog1.lapl.org/cgi-bin/cw_cgi?fullRecord+5905+968+22179+20+0 © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Differences between the American Craftsman & English Arts & Crafts  Much more available to the mass market in America – even in the beginning.  Machines were used, but craftsmen were still able to assemble and finish the furniture, which lowered the cost and made it affordable to the common man.  The grain of the wood was much more emphasized, along with the forms of the pottery.  Walls had rich wood tones or earth- tone paints. Very little wallpaper was used, mostly just as borders. © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Today, we tend to think of ‘Craftsman’ as a design/aesthetic stylehttp://www.horizon-custom-homes.com/catalog/item/1584762/5216880.htm  The Arts and Crafts/Craftsman movement had more to do with the creation of the Art Object than with the Art object itself. © Project SOUND
  25. 25. In America, the goal of ‘good, honest craft for the common man’ became reality  Stickley’s ‘The Craftsman’ was an important vehicle  In 1909, he stated that his magazine "stands firmly for the development in the country of a national arts and a style of architecture which shall be a true expression of the character and needs of the American people, for a form of industrial education which will develop self-reliance and initiative and foster creative ability, so that men and women alike will be able to earn their own living under any and all circumstances, and to do the best work that is in them-a training which inevitably will make for more reasonable and healthful standards of life and work both for the individual and the nation."http://www.pdfclassicbooks.com/home-garden/home-design/stickley-39-s-the-craftsman-magazine-all-31-volumes/prod_24.html © Project SOUND
  26. 26. ‘The Craftsman’ supplied instructions for the ‘common man’  Designs for simple houses – bungalows -that could be built inexpensively by the homeowner or local builder  Home woodworking projects  Garden ideas  Think ‘Sunset Magazine’ with an artistic flair © Project SOUNDhttp://clermontstatehistoricsite.blogspot.com/2010/02/what-style-is-it.html
  27. 27. In America, the goal of ‘good, honest craft for the common man’ became reality – the ‘Craftsman Bungalow’ http://www.oldhouseweb.com/blog/opposite-coast-bungalows/ The success of the Craftsman bungalow was because it provided a solution to the desire of many families to own their own modest home. © Project SOUND
  28. 28. The ‘Craftsman Bungalow’ revolution  Once “kit” home manufacturers like Aladdin and Sears began to offer bungalows through their catalogs, their success was assured. Prospective homeowners could have an entire home shipped to their town by train.  With the help of a couple carpenters, the homeowner could build a practical, simple, attractive little home for a sum that was manageable by huge numbers of Americans.  Mass production, however, meant that the fine carpentry and detailing present in the Craftsman homes were modified and distilled into more generic equivalents. Nevertheless, kit homes were generally built of good quality materials that have held up extremely well over the last century.http://www.antiquehomestyle.com/plans/sears/1923sears/23sears-avalon.htmThe essential difference between the Craftsman "style" and the derivativebungalow is the level of fine detail and workmanship. © Project SOUND
  29. 29. ‘Mission’ vs ‘Craftsman Style’ bungalows  Craftsman Style: direct descendent of the English Arts & Crafts movement  Mission/Spanish style:  Architectural styling based on churches built when Spanish Missionaries moved into Californiahttp://anartisticabstraction.blogspot.com/2010/03/whats-difference- – but incorporate some Craftsmanmission-style-vs-arts.html elements too.  Featured thick adobe walls, stucco siding, parapets, and red tile roofs.  Ornamentation was detailed in geometric patterns, ornamental drainpipes, arched dormers, and other details reminiscent of these early churches. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.thevictorianhouse.com/freeplans/houseplanmonth0803.htm
  30. 30. ‘The Craftsman’ and other books andmagazines offered garden designs for theCraftsman Bungalow  Many are again available – as reprints or on-line  Useful guidelines for the homeowner who faced some challenges:  Lack of knowledge of gardening/plants  Limited budget  Small lot size/proximity of neighborshttp://www.buildersbooksource.com/cgi-bin/booksite/24032.html © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Craftsman style homes call for Craftsman style gardens Remember: the movement saw little distinction between indoors & outdoors – was viewed (and used) as a unified wholehttp://archometrend.blogspot.com/2009_03_01_archive.htmlThe design garden principles are useful for anyone with asmaller home & garden © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Guidelines for a Craftsman Style garden 1. Keep it simple 2. Keep it informal/comfortable – a garden to be used 3. Keep it in scale – don’t overwhelm the house 4. Use well-designed hardscape features consistent with the architectural style 5. Use fences & screens for http://www.violetcrownrealty.com/listings.html privacy8. Feature the gardener as 6. Use plants in a manner that craftsman – the importance respects their nature ‘creating’ the garden 7. Make the most of limited space © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Simple, informal & in scale  According to Stickley, informal gardens are “less expensive, better adapted to small spaces, and morehttp://laplaces.blogspot.com/ http://www.mygreenlake.com/2010/03/cr in harmony with our [America’s] somewhat aftsman-garden/ primitive landscape….”  “…In fact, a formal garden would be quite out of place with such simple, unpretentious houses as those we design. ” © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Use well-designed hardscape features consistent with the architectural style  Craftsman design prized architectural detail and a strong linking between house and site - so hardscaping elements define a Craftsman garden more than its plants.  Keep it simple: - Remember, the Arts and Crafts movement – progenitor of the Craftsman Bungalow style – valued simple materials honestly worked © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Use well-designed hardscape features consistent with the architectural style  A Craftsman-style wooden arbor or pergola, a distinctively designed slate or brick pathway, or a hand-forged gate ‘make’ a Craftsman garden – and within your budget.  You can craft your own – even from original plans – or purchase from available vendors/builders © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Use period designs, incorporate distinctive construction details and use Craftsman inspired hardware.  Wood:  Use materials which blend with the surroundings.  Use woods stained medium to dark brown to match the wood used inside the home and in other garden structures.  Construction Techniques: Simple, elegant joints to highlight the superior craftsmanship; distinctive shapes of the period.  Metalwork: The style is enhanced with simple authentic looking hardware, such as iron strapping, copper accents and strong simple gate pulls.  Lighting: Outdoor Craftsman porch and patio lights can create an elegant nighttime ambiance. © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Original design sources are readily available http://www.mygreenlake.com/2010/03/craftsman-garden/ © Project SOUNDhttp://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/DLDecArts/DLDecArts-idx?type=div&did=DLDECARTS.HDV22N06.I0024&isize=M
  38. 38. The right design elements can transform a Craftsman Bungalow’s front gardenhttp://www.sunset.com/garden/backyard-projects/outdoor-landscape-makeovers-00400000054442/page22.html © Project SOUND
  39. 39. But lets turn to a common predicament in bungalow (and other small) gardens  Narrow areas present unique challenges for the home gardener.  Fortunately, we can use some ideas from the Craftsman Bungalow garden to transform these difficult areashttp://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Craftsman bungalow gardens have fences  Fences (an almost ubiquitous facet of Craftsman gardens) should be selected to complement the house  This usually means some type of wooden fence – stained or painted medium/dark.http://craftsmanremodel.com/photofinish_exterior.html  Styles consisting of simple, handmade pickets, or ones with wide boards featuring cut-out designs or lattice were especially popular. © Project SOUND http://www.penick.net/digging/?cat=9&paged=46
  41. 41. Several other guidelines relate to design for small spaces 6. Use plants in a manner that respects their nature 7. Make the most of limited space 8. Feature the gardener as craftsman – the importance of ‘creating’ the garden in a manner that enhances the http://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm gardeners creativityAnd that’s where the ideal of espalier/narrow screens comes in © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Vines & Climbers provided beauty and practicality in small Craftsman gardens http://www.ironaccents.com/49-gar262.htmlVines and climbers were often grown over arbors…but notalways © Project SOUND
  43. 43. They were also grown vertically for shade or to hide a bare wall  Espalier:  ‘The art of growing woodyhttp://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g148_f09/lecture_notes/craftsman_arch/sd_bungalow1.jpg shrubs/trees in 2 dimensions’  Plants are pruned & trained to grow in a very narrow space  Narrow screen:  Plants are hedge-pruned to form a very narrow (and often tall) hedge http://www.allposters.com/gallery.asp?aid=45319956&apnum=870360&LinkTypeID=2&PosterTypeID=1& © Project SOUND DestType=7&Referrer%20=http://www.artsparx.com/bungalowstyle.asp
  44. 44. Espalier can be formal or informal  Choice depends on the style of garden/house  Both require regular pruning and traininghttp://www.allposters.com/gallery.asp?aid=45319956&apnum=870360&LinkTypeID=2&PosterTypeID=1&  Both require choosingDestType=7&Referrer%20=http://www.artsparx.com/bungalowstyle.asp the correct plant species – not all woody shrubs/trees can be espaliered  Most of the CA natives that can be espaliered work best as informal espaliers http://www.gardendesignonline.com/gardendesignonline/design/ © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Why not just use native vines? http://freshdirt.sunset.com/places/  Espalier provides:  More variety of plant material  Larger sizehttp://bammorgan.blogspot.com/2008/04/payne-foundation-garden-tour.html © Project SOUND
  46. 46. What to do with that chain link fence? ‘Roger’s Red’ – Vitis californicus x ? Wine grape © Project SOUND
  47. 47. * Vine Maple – Acer circinatum© Clayton J. Antieau. © Project SOUND
  48. 48. * Vine Maple – Acer circinatum  SW AK & southwest British Columbia to northern California  In CA, in the Cascade and N. Sierra Ranges  common component of coniferoushttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?256,257,258 forest understory and along moist stream banks http://www.pennine.d emon.co.uk/Arboretu m/Acci.htm http://www.ippswr.org/home/ippsna/Denver/PPT-PDF/Buzzo.pdf © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Vine Maple is almost a vine in shadyforests  Size:  10-30+ ft tall  15-35 ft wide  Growth form:  Multi-trunk large shrub/tree or more vine-like – depends mostly on available light  Form of old plants often quite unique & beautiful  Moderate growth rate; long- lived  Foliage:  Typical Maple leaves – palmate  Winter deciduous© 2003, G. D. Carr  Roots: can crown-sprout http://www.pennine.demon.co.uk/Arboretum/Acci.htm © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  50. 50. Flowers: pretty, small  Blooms: spring (Mar-May)  Flowers:  Typical for Maples  Bright red & cream-colored  Quite small – it may bloom without your noticing  Seeds:  Typical samara of Maples  Bright orange-red color in summer-fall – really showy  Vegetative reproduction:  Natural layering (rooting of older branches that touch the ground) © Project SOUNDhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acer_circinatum_03684.JPG
  51. 51. Vine Maple grows  Soils: in moist forests  Texture: any well-drained  pH: slightly acidic (5.5 to 7.5)  Light:  Afternoon shade or even more shady  Great plant for under tall trees – pines, firs  Water: http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/acci1.htm  Winter: need good water  Summer: best watered weekly in warm weather – Zone 2-3  Fertilizer: likes a rich soil with plenty of organics; fine to fertilize (2/3 strength/dose)  Other: organic mulch a must © Project SOUNDhttp://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/acci1.htm
  52. 52. Vine Maples brighten dark places  As an attractive accent plant – green foliage, red samaras & fall foliage color (maybe)  Along stream banks – for a woodsy look  In large pots – can even bonsai  As a tall informal or semi-formal screen  As a narrow tree in shady areas (like side-yards)  Espaliered along a wall, fence or large trellisSusan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © 2003, G. D. Carr
  53. 53. ‘Monroe’  Very deeply dissected leaves  Looks like Japanese Maples – good for Asian-themed garden © Project SOUNDhttp://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/forums/showthread.php?t=7254
  54. 54. ‘Pacific Fire’  Very red bark  Yellow-orange foliage in fall – may be some red leaves in cold climates.  Widely available fromhttp://www.portlandnursery.com/plants/nati commercial nurseriesvePicks/natives_acer_circinatum.shtml © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Espalier with Vine Maple  Note plant characteristics  Grows in shade – typical of shrubs/vines that can be espaliered  Open – almost vine-like – growth habit  Pruning:http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/acci1.htm  Start right away – good shape begins early  Selectively prune out branches that are ‘wrong’ for the design  Viney plants look best as informal espaliers  Vine-like shrubs may be woody enough to need little/no support © Project SOUNDhttp://humanhabitatrestoration.com/drive-byforestpark2.htm
  56. 56. Western Redbud - Cercis occidentalis http://www.flickr.com/photos/82479320@N00/2366664105/ Species with open and dramatic growth patterns can be trained into unique, informal espaliers © Project SOUNDhttp://www.californianativeflora.com/plants/western-redbud/introducing-cercis-occidentalis-western-redbud/
  57. 57. * Vine Hill Manzanita – Arctostaphylos densiflora© 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  58. 58. An adaptable Manzanita  Soils:  Texture: quite adaptable – more so than other Manzanitas – takes clay soils  pH: any local; slightly acidic is best  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: tolerates seasonal flooding  Summer: likes to be fairly dry – Zone 1-2 to 2 once established  Fertilizer: likes poor soils; fine with organic mulch © Project SOUND
  59. 59. ‘Sentinel’ cultivar  8-10 ft tall & ft wide; upright habit  Very ‘garden-tolerant’  One of the easiest Manzanitas to growhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-densiflora-sentinel-manzanita © Project SOUND
  60. 60. ‘Howard McMinn’ cultivar  5-8+ ft tall & wide  Readily available  Very tolerant or garden conditions; long-lived (50+ years)  Often trained as a small treehttp://www.elnativogrowers.com/images/Photos/arcdenhm_lsp_shrub.JPG  ‘White Lanterns’ is more dense http://www.nativeson.com/images/plants/arctohoward.jpghttp://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantprofiles/Arcto_HowardMcMinn.htm © Project SOUND
  61. 61. ‘Howard McMinn’ as an informal espalier  Species/cultivar should have a naturally open growth pattern  Choose your planthttp://www.plantsystematics.org/imgs/dws/r/Ericaceae_Arctostaphylos_densiflora_18888.html carefully – the basic structure is already be established by the time you purchase it  Time taken in the choosing will be amply rewarded © Project SOUND http://www.seasidegardencenter.com/natives.html
  62. 62. Selective pruning – removing all branches that don’t grow where you want them  Need to start the first year – literally once it’s safely in the ground  Remove entire unwanted branches above the collar  Poorly spaced brancheshttp://camissonia.blogspot.com/2010/02/more-manzanitas-in-bloom.html  Branches growing out or in wrong direction http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/home_blog/2010/0 6/emily-green-dry-garden-bark-trees-shedding.html © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Fremontodendrons make lovely espaliers  Often espaliered along dry walls in England and Pacific NW – the only way they can be successfully grown  Fremontodendron x ‘California Glory’ makes an excellent espalier.  Prune after flowering.  May want to provide supporthttp://www.seattlepi.com/nwgardens/75100_wingate20.shtml © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Espalier requires support – at least early on  Branches may be too thin to provide supporthttp://wildsuburbia.blogspot.com/2010/04/theodore-payne-foundation-annual-garden.html  Support structures can permit training the plant to a desired pattern – you attach the branch to the support so it grows in the desired direction http://www.answers.com/topic/espalier © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Many choices for support system  Should be sturdy & durable  Should be appropriate for the garden design  Should allow for future http://greenwalks.wordpress.com/2008/10/20/sidewalk-fig-espalier/ growth http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/victorygarden/grow/primers_projects/espalier/ © Project SOUNDhttp://blog.doleaf.com/2008/11/28/anise-espalier/
  66. 66. * Coast Silktassel – Garrya ellipticahttp://groups.ucanr.org/mbmg/Als_Corner/Garrya_elliptica_James_Roof.htm © Project SOUND
  67. 67. * Bearbrush/Fremont’s Silktassel – Garrya fremontii © Project SOUND
  68. 68. * Bearbrush/Fremont’s Silktassel – Garrya fremontii  In the Cascade Range & Sierra Nevada from OR to Madera & Monterrey Co.  A disjunct population occurs in the Transverse/Peninsular ranges in Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties, Californiahttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Garrya+fremontii  On rocky slopes, rolling hills, or steep canyons from 2,500 to 7,000 feet in chaparral, foothill woodland, montane forest © 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Flowers are glorious  Blooms: early spring - usually Jan-Mar in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  Dioecious (sep. male/female plants)  Flowers small & buff colored  On long, silky tassels – hence the common name  Nothing really looks like the Silktassels – super showy  Fruit: a small purple berry© 2008 Keir Morse with 1-4 seeds ; eaten by songbirds & small animals © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Bearbrush is primarily  Soils: a chaparral plant  Texture: well-drained – sandy or rocky best  pH: better with slightly acidic (5.5-6.5)  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer: fairly drought© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson tolerant once established – Zone 1-2, with some water in mid-summerThis is the best choice for a  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilsSilktassel in hotter inland gardens  Other: re-sprouts from the crown or root after severe pruning/burning © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Why are Garryas so good for espalier?  Evergreen  Good size – not too large  Interesting foliage and bark  Open growth pattern – natural growth is rangy  Will take the pruning and training required for espalierhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/4374971109/ © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Garryas can be formal or informal espaliers  Note the regular growth pattern  The choice is up to you © Project SOUNDhttp://eleanorathens.blogspot.com/2009/01/facade-greening-foundation-shrubs-and.html http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus2/facts heet.cfm?ID=836
  73. 73. Classical forms of formal espalier  Very formal, named patterns  History dates back to Islamic & medieval gardenshttp://www.livingwallart.com/living-walls/pleaching-and-espalier/  Most often used for fruit trees with regular growth patterns – apples, pears, pomegranates, etc.  Not difficult, but require regular maintenance and choice of proper species  Many good books and on-line resources http://www.edenwines.co.uk/Glossary_e.html © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Supporting a formal espalier http://www.espalierservices.com/parts.html © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Many Ceanothus look better as informal espaliers or screens  Many have growth pattern not suited to formal pruning  Good choices for informal espalier/ narrow screen:  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus – species & cultivars  Ceanothus ‘Concha’  Ceanothus Dark Star‘  Ceanothus Julia Phelps‘  Ceanothus ‘Skylark’http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_whatsnew/whatsnewmar07.html © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Those with more open habits can be trained more formally  Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’http://www.julieorrdesign.com/saratoga-landscape-design-makeover/kleckner-033 © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Lakeside/San Diego Ceanothus – Ceanothus cyaneus http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus_cyaneus © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Lakeside/San Diego Ceanothus – Ceanothus cyaneus  Endemic to south Peninsular Range (San Diego Co.), RARE  Dry shrubby slopes, chaparral to 1200  Typically, in a dense, almost impenetrable chaparral with a mix of Chamise and other shrubs such as manzanita.Kate Sessions first brought it tothe gardener’s attention © 2009 Anna Bennett © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Characteristics of San Diego Ceanothus  Size:  6-15 ft tall  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded large shrub to small, multi-trunk tree  More ‘open’ than some Ceanothushttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ceanothus-  Fast-growing; short-lived (tocyaneus?selected_image_name=Ceanothus_cyaneus-2 15 years in gardens)  Foliage:  Simple, opposite leaves – shiny green above & pale beneath  Evergreen; pleasant looking year-round http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ceanothus_cyaneus_2.jpg © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Flowers are particularly showy  Blooms:  Usually Apr-June in wild  Off & on from Apr-Nov in garden, with main bloom in Spring  Flowers:  Medium blue (start out darker)  Typical shape of Ceanothus  More showy than many Ceanothus:  Many, many flowers  Flowering stalks held above the foliagehttp://tchester.org/srp/plants/pix/lakeside_ceanothus.html  Cultivars take advantage of nice flower characteristics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:C © Project SOUND eanothus_cyaneus_2.jpg
  81. 81. San Diego Ceanothus:  Soils:a plant of the S. Chaparral  Texture: well-drained – rocky or sandy is best. Will take some clays  pH: any local except pH > 8.0; fine with mildly acidic (5.5- 6.0)  Light: full sun to partial shade  Water:  Winter: supplement in low- rainfall years  Summer: occasional water © 2009 Anna Bennett once established – Zone 1-2 – give some water in AugOther: tolerates heat better than (you’re the summer monsoon)most Ceanothus  Fertilizer: likes organic mulch © Project SOUND
  82. 82. San Diego Ceanothus  As a foundation plant  In back-bed area – as an evergreen background  As a quick-growing (but http://tchester.org/srp/plants/pix/lakeside_ceanothus.html short-lived) informal screen or hedge  To espalier along a wall or fence – has good characteristicshttp://ohric.ucdavis.edu/photos/ornament2.htm © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Cultivar ‘Sierra Blue’  Ceanothus cyaneus X C. ?  Fast growing to 15 ft. tall & wide  Fine in sandy or clay soilshttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ceanothus-cyaneus-x-sierra-blue-ceanothus  Longer lived in garden than straight species  Pretty much looks like C. cyaneus in terms of growth characteristics, flowers  Good choice for espalier http://www.yerbabuenanursery. com/viewplant.php?pid=0641 © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Cultivar ‘Cal-Poly’  Hybrid w/ C. cyaneus parent  Many of the best attributes of C. cyaneus  Fast growthhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ceanothuscalpoly.jpg  Needs pruning/training – good choice for espalier © Project SOUND http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Ceanothus_cyaneus_Cal_Poly&redirect=no
  85. 85. English & French gardeners must grow Ceanothus against warm, dry walls  So Ceanothus can be shaped – informally or formally – into a hedge, screen or espalierhttp://www.gardenaction.co.uk/plantfinder/ceanothus-california-lilac_1.asp http://bonsaitreesforsaleonline.com/grow- bonsai-ceanothusblue-frost-for-shohin- bonsai-tree-unique ‘Blue Frost’ Ceanothus http://www.qualitycottages.co.uk/sup915.php © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Espalier with  Choose species or cultivars with more open growth habit – except for informal Ceanothus espalier, which can be dense  Choose species that can take shaping  For a formal espalier, choose a plant with even branches  Start shaping right away – 1st yearhttp://www.gardenersworld.com/plant-detail/PL00001245/158/california-lilac http://casaconiglio.blogspot.com/2010/04/ruth.html © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Training Ceanothus to narrow screen or formal espalierhttp://www.keith-allen.co.uk/garden/c.htm http://bammorgan.blogspot.com/2008/04/payne-foundation-garden-tour.html Ceanothus "Ray Hartmann" and Cercis Occidentalis © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Lemonadeberry – Rhus integrifolia http://www.sanelijo.org/about/images/lemonadeberry.jpg © Project SOUND
  89. 89. The Lemonadeberry hedge  Hedges or narrow screens require regular hedge pruning - © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Cuts that increase the number of new outer branches: Tip-pruning and shearing  Tip-pruning (pinching) involves removal of the growing tip; stimulating the growth of lateral branches  Shearing (hedging)  A form of heading that makes no attempt to cut back to a bud.  Because plants chosen for shearing typically have many lateral buds close together, youll usually end up cutting near a bud.  Shearing stimulates many buds to produce new growth - so youll be repeating the job regularly after you start.http://www.lowes.com/lowes/lkn?action=howTo&p=LawnGarden/PruningPlants © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Both Lemonadeberry & Toyoncan also be espaliered http://tmousecmouse.b logspot.com/2009/12/n ative-plant-of-month- toyon.html © Project SOUND
  92. 92. One last situation that could use an espalier – the ugly wall  We need a better backdrop  And an espalier plant that:  Is not too big (or can be kept small)  Evergreen  Good flowers and/or fruits  Can be trained to ahttp://www.mymodremod.com/?tag=landscaping&paged=2 formal espalier © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Rhamnus species are appropriate for smaller formal espaliershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/59782114@N00/247282539 http://www.ecnca.org/plants/Rhamnus_ilicifolia.htm Rhamnus crocea Rhamnus ilicifolia © Project SOUND