Cuttings Garden - Notes

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Cuttings Garden - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden The Cuttings Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Madrona Marsh Preserve Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) April 2 & 5, 2011 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Do you like cut-flowers? Cut-flowers make our lives more colorful and interesting http://www.paintingmania.com/young-girl-hat- http://decor4you.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html decorated-wildflowers-9_6401.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 How do you want to use your cut- Should you have a cuttings garden? flowers  Light use  Occasional arrangements featuring plants that are currently blooming  To supplement non-native flowers  Won’t require as much planning  Heavy use  Regular (weekly) arrangements  Special occasions that require lots of flowers  ‘flower-laden’ bouquets  Will require you to think about supply requirementshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/atweed/4406640979/ http://botanicalgarden.berkeley.edu/waterwise/images/03_Allium-unifolium2.jpg http://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2010/05/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Advantages to creating a cuttings Cuttings gardens need not be unattractive… garden  …but it’s sensible to locate them in  Where flowers are used in large volume an area where they are not a focal in the home, their removal from borders point when not at their peak. and other landscaped areas may detract from the intended effect.  Old-time gardeners often included cut-flowers in the vegetable  By providing a special cut-flower garden, the gardener can plan for these needs garden where they could tend and without diminishing landscape plantings. harvest them easily.  The well-planned cutting garden also  Finer estates would sometimes offers another very practical advantage: have a separate area devoted to annuals and perennials may be conveniently and efficiently grown in rows producing the favorite cut-flowers or raised beds/containers where they are of the family. easily gathered and maintained. http://www.sunset.com/travel/outdoor- © Project SOUND adventure/bring-bainbridge-home-00400000016341/ © Project SOUND http://www.french-gardens.com/gardens/chateau-de-bosmelet.php 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 What makes a good cut-flower? The ‘traditional’ home grown cut- flowers span the seasons  Interesting flowers  Winter and early spring  Nice shape  Daffodils: October to April  Large size  Cymbidium orchids: January to June  Pretty or unusual colors  Late spring and summer  Other characteristics  Tulips: May to June  Scented flower or foliage Agapanthus: June to August  Interesting foliage Lilies: June to August Delphiniums: June to July  Good ‘holding power’ Roses: June to September Sweet peas: June to August  Look good for at least 3-4 Dahlias: July to September days if not longer  Autumn http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the-week/eschscholzia_californica.shtml  Chrysanthemums: Oct. to Decemberhttp://druidnetwork.org/ethical/articles/cutflowers http://thegarden-remodel.blogspot.com/2009/08/wildflower-bouquet.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND An early spring bouquet Woolyleaf Ceanothus – Ceanothus tomentosusInspiration from the past… © 2010 Barry Breckling http://www.righthealth.com/topic/ceanothus_americanus/Images © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1959198/lilac_bouq uets_the_scientific_method.html 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Woolyleaf Ceanothus – Ceanothus tomentosus Woolyleaf Ceanothus is a large shrub  Foothills and lower (< 3500 ft)  Size: elevations of Sierra Nevada,  6-12 ft tall South Coast, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges  6-10 ft wide  South into Baja  Growth form:  Dense, woody shrub  Scattered on dry, shrubby  Slender branches with slopes in chaparral reddish bark http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6586,6589,6649  Moderate growth rate  Introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne.  Foliage: © 2009 Thomas Stoughton  Leaves medium to gray-  ‘"A medium sized shrub 4 to 8 green; shiny above, hairy feet high, with rather slender beneath branches and reddish brown  Evergreen bark. “ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/codiferous/417993994/ Woolyleaf Ceanothus:  Soils: Flowers: Ceanothus Chaparral species  Texture: well-drained, rocky  pH: any local  Blooms:  Early spring - usually in  Light: Feb-Mar or Apr in western  Full sun L.A. Co.  Water:  Flowers:  Winter: needs good winter  Color ranges from very light rains; supplement if needed © 2009 Thomas Stoughton blue to bright blue – see it in  Summer: best with occasional bloom before purchasing © 2008 Chris Winchell water (Zone 1-2; maybe 2 in  Typical small Ceanothus very well-drained soils) flowers in dense clusters – make a wonderful bouquet  Fertilizer: use an organic mulch to  Sweet scent supply additional nutrients  Attracts bees  Other: prune after blooming  Seeds: in sticky capsule that period if needed/desired; can be opens, releasing seeds trained to tree or hedge-sheared© 2001 Michelle Cloud-Hughes http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/plants/cean-tom.html © Project SOUND http://www.worldbotanical.com/ceanothus.htm © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Many ways to use Ceanothus is striking with other spring bloomers  As a large evergreen accent shrub  Trained as a small tree  Espaliered along a wall  In a hedge or hedgerow  Etc. http://mostlymedicinals.blogspot.com/© 2010 Barry Breckling http://www.westernhort.org/plant_notes200804%20.html http://flowerbrained.com/2009/12 © 2001 George W. Hartwell /05/man-flowers/ http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Ceanothus_tomentosus_var._olivaceus © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/nSqhmSsqrKnvy1WCu96HnQ The same color tricks we learned in garden design also apply to Purples theme floral arrangements – late spring  Eriogonum fasciculatum (or any white-flowered buckwheat)  Eriogonum grandehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/dballentine/3655531259/ rubescens  Salvia clevelandii (or any Salvia) http://www.soenyun.com/Blog/tag/cut-flowers/ http://iometro.blogspot.com/2010/11/color-spotlight.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://decor4you.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013Common perennials have long been Bluedicks – Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum popular as cut flowers  Achillea millefolia  Aster species  Allium species  Aquilegia  Ascepias species  Coreopsis species  Dryopteris & other ferns  Helianthus species  Iris species  Lilium species  Penstemon species  Spring bulbs http://biology.csusb.edu/PlantGuideFolder/DichelostemmaCap/DichelostemmaCapPlant800.jpg © Project SOUND* Wild Hyacinth – Dichelostemma multiflorum * Wild Hyacinth – Dichelostemma multiflorum  NW California, n Sierra Nevada, uncommon in San Francisco Bay Area  Open woodlands, foothill grasslands, scrublands  Formerly Brodiaea multiflora ; AKA Wildtooth Snakelily http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1 &taxon_id=242101566 J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND http://www.csuchico.edu/biol/Herb/curator/bidwell_park_04-02-05/Maidu_Trail_4-2-05.htm © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8535,8541 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Wild Hyacinth is a typical Dichelostema Dichelostema are easy & reliable from corms  Size:  Plant bigger corms 3-4 inches  1-2 ft tall deep and smaller corms 1-2 inches  < 1 ft wide deep  Growth form:  Plant in  well-drained soil; garden or pot  Perennial from a corm  in full sun (plants can tolerate  Dies back to corn kin dry afternoon sun) summers; re-sprouts with the  in the autumn – just before the fall/winter rains © 2002 Christina Raving rains  Foliage:  Space the corms 1-6 inches apart.  Strap-like leaves  If gophers are a problem, dig a  Leaves start to die back before hole and line it with chicken wire spring flowering mesh or make a cage for corms.  Corm: can bed baked & eaten like  Water the plants (wet, not soggy) new potatoes and then wait for the winter rains. Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Image:Dichelostemma_multiflorum2.jpg http://www.serg.sdsu.edu/SERG/restorationproj/woodlandgrassland/pen can/penasquitos_final.htm Flowers: showier than Dichelostema are very easy to grow from seed Blue Dicks  Use seed collected from local sources  Blooms: in spring - usually Mar-  Best planted in fall – stratify (cold April (but may be as early as Feb & late as May) exposure) if other  Flowers:  Scatter seeds and rake them lightlyhttp://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/dichelostemma into well-drained soil ; full or partial  Typical small, trumpet-shaped flowers of Dichelostema sunlight.  Flowers in ball-like clusters at http://hazmac.biz/080421/080421DichelostemmaMultiflorum.html  Water the seeds after planting and ends of long stalks water again when the surface is dry to  Color: lavender or purple; may the touch. Water the seeds gently so be more pink you don’t exhume the seed.  Loved by Skipper butterflies  Light sweet scent  Protect the seeds from animals and cold, dry winds, and from weed competition Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Dichelostema (and other bulbs) can be started in pots Summer dry - required  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  Plant as usual; cover lightly  pH: any local  Water seedlings through the spring.  Light:  Full sun & warm; thrives on hot,  At the beginning of hot weather, when sunny conditions, can plant near leaves start to yellow, cease watering rocks, rock mulch  During summer:  Water:  Move pots to a darker area, such as a  Winter/spring: needs adequate carport, garage or dry shady spot outdoors water through blooming period;  Keep a screen on pots to keep out foraging taper off watering as blooms wane animals.  After blooming: Zone 1; must have  When the weather cools down again, move summer dry for corm health & the pots back outside and go through a good seed set full rain or watering cycle once again.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Will take several years (usually 3) to  Other: thin corms every 3 years (or reach flowering size when become crowded) in fall © 2008 Steve Matson © Project SOUND Dichelostema brighten CA native bulb  Feb-Mar the spring garden  Blue Dicks/Wild Hyacinth calendar  Local Oniona (Allium)  As an attractive pot plant  Sisyrinchium begins  Early Calochortus  Tucked around summer-dry shrubs  In prairie/grassland planting  Mar-April  Sisyrinchium  Be sure to include in spring bouquets  N. Coastal Onions  Meadow Onion  Coastal Onion  Goldenstars © 2004 Carol W. Witham  Calochortus  May-JuneCA native bulbs are perfect  Calochortusfor those difficult to water  Liliesareas of the garden http://www.flickr.com/photos/atweed/4406640979/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/clairewoods/3552292585/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Some onions make good cut flowers The Wild Onions – genus Allium  Over fifty species of Alliums growing in CA.  Most are easy to grow & multiply rapidly in the garden.  Species that are native to the mountains or moist meadows, such as Allium unifolium, prefer full sun and regular watering all season.  The majority of wild onions are from dry, rocky habitats and need good drainage with summer drought.  Most Alliums are well-suited to rock gardens, where they can be planted in colonies among http://www.flickr.com/photos/22744855@N08/fa vorites/page12/ short-growing Brodiaeas.  Their lovely pompom blooms can also be displayed to advantage when planted in groups towards the front of the mixed, dry perennial border.Unfortunately, our local Allium haematochiton is not one of them © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Meadow Onion – Allium unifolium Two types of Alliums  Allium species can be lumped into two types, those that have true bulbs, and those that grow from rhizomes with less-developed vestigial bulbs attached to them.  The bulbous alliums tend to grow and flower early, then go completely dormant afterwards.  The "rhizomatous" alliums tend to be season-long growers and flower much later in summer. © Project SOUND http://www.calfloranursery.com/images/pics/a_b/allium_unifolium.jpg © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Meadow Onion: looks like an ornamental Meadow Onion – Allium unifolium onion  Size:  Native to NW and western  1-2 ft tall; may need to stake < 2 ft wide central CA (down to Santa  Barbara co.) – lower  Growth form: herbaceous elevations perennial from a bulb  Foliage:  Grassy stream banks in pine Medium to gray-greenhttp://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=8237&flora_id=1  or mixed evergreen forest  Leaves strap-like; remain green in the coastal ranges through flowering (tips may yellow)  Sometimes on cliffs near http://drystonegarden.com/index.php/category/plants/california-natives-plants/bulbs/ the ocean  Bulbs: not what you usually think of as an onion; small & rounded – at ends of short rhizomes  Usually in moist clay or serpentine soils  Plant bulbs 2” deep in fall © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8354,8422 Flowers: ooh-la-la!! Easy even in  Soils: conventional gardens  Texture: well-drained  Blooms:  pH: any local  Spring-summer; usually May- June but varies with weather  Light: full sun to light shade; ½ day sun works just fine (heat; rains)  Blooms for ~ 3 weeks  Water:  Flowers:  Winter: needs good winter rains; supplement if needed  Super-showy; pink or lavender, pastel  Summer: takes some summer water  Typical for onions; small star- © 2007 Mike Ireland (Zone 2 or 2-3; let dry out in late shaped flowers in open cluster summer/fall); other bulb species for  Makes a lovely cut flower – summer water include Allium validum sweet fragrance (Pacific/ Swamp Onion) and Triteleia peduncularis (Marsh Triteleia)  Seeds:  Small, black seeds in papery  Fertilizer: fine with some fertilizer & capsule organic amendments  Easy to collect & grow  Other: may need to thin occasionally © 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.ecrater.com/product.php?pid=6093442 http://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2010/05/ 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 For garden or bouquet Tricks for maintaining CA native bulbs  As an showy container plant  With non-native bulbs or natives that require a little water  In rain garden, swale or veg. garden  Sunny edges in a woodland gardenhttp://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/04/allium-unifolium/  Will naturalize – lovely massed  Maintenance tip: In early summer, remove the dried stalks for neatness. Be sure to collect the seeds for propagation or for trading with fellow gardeners. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Harvesting & preparing your cut-flowers Keys to Keeping Cut Flowers Fresh  Harvest during the coolest time of day when they are crisp and turgid—early  Give them water. morning or late evening.  Remove lower foliage that would remain  Give them food. underwater in the storage container.  Protect them from  Cut stems with a sharp instrument, making the cuts underwater if possible. decay or infection. This prevents air bubbles from clogging http://www.finegardening.com/plants/articles/allur the stems.  Keep them cool and out of direct sunlight. e-of-lavender.aspx  Place the materials in clean containers of lukewarm water with preservative added (room temperature up to 100 degrees F.). http://www.fancypantsweddings.com/diy-wedding-flower-diaster-judy-hates- © Project SOUND it/wilted-flowers/ © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Cut-flower preservatives Making your own floral preservative – experiment to see what works with  Contain nutrients, preservatives different species & disinfectants  Can be purchased (probably  Cut Flower Preservative Recipe #1 better) or made at home  2 cups lemon-lime carbonated beverage (e.g., Sprite™ or 7-Up™) (cheaper & probably OK)  1/2 teaspoon household chlorine bleach  2 cups warm water  Mix the floral preservative using  Cut Flower Preservative Recipe #2 warm water (100-110°F or 38-  2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice or white vinegar 40°C) because it will move into  1 to 2 tablespoon sugar (use 2 with vinegar) the stems more effectively than  1/2 teaspoon household chlorine bleach cold water. Chlorine in tap water  1 quart warm waterhttp://www.hk94.com/B002SVJP5U.shtml is fine, since it acts as a natural disinfectant. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Managing your cut-flowers: cleanliness Designing flower arrangement is a course in itself  Always keep cut material in water while designing. This will prevent wilt due to the loss of water through transpiration.  Always design in clean containers that have been filled with preservative water.  After each use, clean storage containers, vases, liners, and needle point holders with a soapy Clorox http://www.sunset.com/garden/flowers-plants/how-to- design-hot-color-flower-garden- 00400000041320/page2.html solution, to kill all bacteria.  Use a floral preservative to provide nutrients and to prevent bacterial http://onecharmingparty.com/2009/12/02/what-im-reading-jane-packers-guide-to- http://treefalldesign.typepad.com/tree_fall/2006/04/flower_arrangin.html growth. flower-arranging/ © Project SOUND Good on-line resources, books and courses © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 A few simple tips from the pros A few simple tips from the pros  Four main components:  A standard, mixed floral arrangement will  Filler flowers: used to edge the have four main components: container or fill in any gaps in the  Focal flowers : usually tall, large or arrangement. These flowers unique flowers to grab your attention. solidify the color scheme and hide Generally use only a few of these – one to unattractive stems. Use as many as five, depending on the size of your necessary to complete the desired http://www.hnfflorist.com/howtomakelargeflowerarrangements.html container. shape and balance.  Intermediate flowers: one-third shorter  Filler plant materials: attractive than the focal flowers or have smaller foliage pieces, grasses or even flowers that fit the chosen color scheme. feather and bark pieces are used to Use approximately two times the number fill in any gaps and provide balance of these flowers in the arrangement. to the arrangement. http://wildsuburbia.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.html http://www.soenyun.com/Blog/2009/05/11/interpreting-history-through-plants/http://www.mauidriedflowers.com/silk_bamboo.html © Project SOUND What does this arrangement lack? © Project SOUND White Fairy-lantern – Calochortus albus *Diogenes lantern (Yellow globelily) – Calochortus amabilis http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CAAL2 © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calochortus_amabilis_2.jpg © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 *Diogenes lantern (Yellow globelily) – Diogenes lantern: typical globelily Calochortus amabilis  Size:  1-2 ft tall – usually ~ 1 ft  Native to mountains north of the San Francisco Bay Area - < 3000 ft. elevation  < 1 ft wide  Isolated pocket of survivors on Vulcan  Growth form: Peak in San Diego County.  Herbaceous perennial from a bulb  Common, grassy hillsides and in open oak  Dies back to bulb after flowering woodlands  Leaves grow back with winter rains http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora _id=1&taxon_id=242101453  Foliage:  A few strap-like leaves  Leaves persist through flowering  Bulbs:  Elongated to teardrop shape  Can be baked or boiled and eaten © 2002 George Jackson http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8461,8463 http://calochortus.blogspot.com/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers are super Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained (most local)  Blooms: in spring: April-  pH: any local except > 8.0 June in our area  Light:  Flowers:  Part-shade best; morning sun  Bright, clear yellow with or dappled shade ideal orange-red markings  Water:Jo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences  Shaped like a globelily;  Winter: needs adequate for globe with wings (looks growth like a lantern, hence the common name) - ~ 1 inch  Summer: needs summer dry after flowering – taper to  In loose clusters – very Zone 1 unique, showy  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils.  Seeds: in 4-chambered Organic mulches are fine. pod; more oval than most calochtus http://www.summitpost.org/diogenes-lantern-calochortus-amabilis/516123 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/CalochortusSpeciesOne 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Let Diogenes’ Lantern spread a little light.. Let’s create a spring/ early summer  In native prairie with summer-dry grasses, annual wildflowers bouquet to celebrate our CA heritage  Under oaks and other summer- dry trees  Lovely massed or naturalized  Suncups  As an attractive pot plant; may need support  Penstemons  Useful accent or filler flower  Clarkias  Globe Gilia  Monardellas http://www.flickr.com/photos/dballentine/3656336782/ Frithjof Holmboe © California Academy of Sciences © 2009 Barry Rice © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/xerantheum/3533104440/ *Willow Mint – Monardella linoides ssp. viminea Mountain Monardella – Monardella odoratissima J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences © 2005 Jasmine J. Watts © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15

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