Butterfly Gardening   2009
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Butterfly Gardening 2009

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This lecture was given in July, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

This lecture was given in July, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Butterfly Gardening   2009 Butterfly Gardening 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  • Butterfly Flights in Your Yard C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve July 7 & 11, 2009 © Project SOUND
  • Our assignment: get rid of lawn & create butterfly habitat © Project SOUND
  • First Question: What are our assets?  Well-draining loam soil – can plant most native plants  Already have some good ‘heritage plants’  Several small citrus trees  Catalina Island Cherry hedge/screen nearby  Dense non-native screen provides shelter, perches  Flexible watering system: grass area somewhat dry in summer © Project SOUND
  • Location is key for butterfly gardens  In a sunny protected area of your yard – we need to check the sun/shade patterns  Away from traffic - not a good choice for parking strips.  Out of heavy winds. Butterflies wont stay where they are being blown around. Dense screen is perfect for this. © Project SOUND
  • Winter sun & shade pattern – about 11:00 a.m. © Project SOUND
  • Summer sun & shade pattern – about 11:00 a.m. © Project SOUND
  • Citrus – Zone 2Roses & existing screenare Zone 3 Water Zones – the challenge of ‘heritage plants’ © Project SOUND
  • Zone 3 in winter/Zone 2/3 summer Zone 2/3 © Project SOUND
  • What do we need for a Butterfly Garden? Checkered Skipper © Project SOUND
  • Two important first questions  What butterfly species do I want to attract?  Are there particular butterflies we really want to attract?  What butterflies occur commonly in my area?  Do I want to just attract adult butterflies, or do I want to create true butterfly habitat (provide everything the butterflies need to live in my yard)? © Project SOUND
  • Participating in the annual July Butterfly Count is a great way to learn about butterflies © Project SOUND
  • The ‘S. Bay Butterflies & Their NativeFood Sources’ list is another place to start © Project SOUND
  • We’ll be e-mailing you some other resources  Nectar Sources list  Larval Food Sources list  List of good butterfly resources  Books focused on our area  Internet resources © Project SOUND
  • We decide we really want to attract the following butterflies – and we want them to stay  Swallowtails  Monarchs  Ladies  Blue Butterflies  Skippers (several species already found in the garden) © Project SOUND
  • First we need to understand the life cycle of butterflies  If we want to provide habitat, we’ll have to provide for all stages of the life cyclehttp://basrelief.org/NewFiles/lifecyc.html © Project SOUND
  • What butterflies need: keys to providing butterfly habitat  Adult food: nectar plants, fruit, sap  Larval food plants: often quite specific  Water  Minerals and salt (mud)  Perching/sunning places; protection from wind  Hiding places for larvae (caterpillars) & pupae (cocoons) © Project SOUND
  •  Butterflies need sunlight. They are cold-blooded, so they use the sun to warm up their bodies. Pick a sunny spot for your garden and place a few flat stones around so the butterflies can rest while warming up. © Project SOUND
  •  Butterflies need shelter from wind and rain, and a place to rest at night. Planting your garden near shrubs and trees will give them the shelter they need. © Project SOUND
  • Butterflies also need a source of water  Butterflies cannot drink from deep water sources such as a birdbath  Provide water as:  Damp or muddy areas of the garden – around the roses  A shallow dish filled with sand or gravel & refilled each morning – on a post or hung from a tree  A birdbath or fountain with gravel/rocks to provide shallow water © Project SOUND
  • Confusion about ‘butterfly plants’  Many ‘butterfly plants’ and ‘butterfly bushes’ are from http://butterflybush.net/blog/ other parts of the country:  May not grow so well here  May not be appropriate for our local butterflies http://www.soonerplantfarm.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantDetail&plant_id=158 © Project SOUNDhttp://www.evelynsgardens.net/Gardens/Garden_Hummingbird_Butterfly.htm
  • The delicate dance between food plantsand butterflies  Co-evolution of plants and insects  ‘food’ is specially formulated for our species – and for our climate  Some non-native ‘butterfly plants’ don’t provide all the requirements – native vs. non- native Milkweeds  Impact of non-native horticultural plants – all show and no nutrition  Impact of loss of habitat – our yards are important habitat © Project SOUND
  • If you were a butterfly, what kind of plant would you like?  Lots of little flowers filled with nectar  Sunflower family (Asteraceae)  Buckwheat genus (Eriogonum )  Milkweed genus (Asclepias )  Fiddleneck genus (Phacelia)  Pea family (Fabaceae)  Grasses © Project SOUND
  • Caterpillars are born to eat…. It takes a huge amount of energy (food) to grow & metamorphose into a butterfly © Project SOUND
  •  Decide what your gardening philosophy is Remember that providing larval food is more important (for survival of a species) than providing nectar plants © Project SOUND
  • If you were a caterpillar what would youlike to eat?  Readily accessible  Succulent  Easy to digest  Non-toxic  Not too protected: hairs, secretions, etc. Larval (caterpillar) food plants are often very specific – you need to plant the larval food plants for the species you want to attract © Project SOUND
  • You become fascinated with the FatalMetalmark Butterfly - Calephelis nemesis  Habitat: brushy or weedy areas along roadsides, washes, ditches, and streams  Adult food – any nectar plant  Larval food – very specific  Mule Fat – Baccharis salicifolia  ? Virgin’s Bower – native Clematis species http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species?l=1637 © Project SOUND
  • First, draw a base map © Project SOUND
  • Then add the large plants © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat – Baccharis salicifolia © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat – Baccharis salicifolia  Western Hemisphere  Ca to S. America, Texas  Much of CA: Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Desert  Canyon bottoms, moisthttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,781,789 streamsides, irrigation ditches, often forming thickets  Common name: Mule Fat; Mulefat; Mule-fat; Mule’s Fat; Water-Willy; Sticky Baccharis © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat – a large bush sunflower!  Size:  8-10 ft tall  8-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Shrubby; many stems  Evergreen to drought deciduous  Can be pruned and shaped to fit needs  Foliage:  Shiny green leaves, becoming darker with age  Characteristic scent  Food for Fatal Metalmark larva  Roots:  Netlike – very good for erosion control © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat’s “Willow-like” Leaveshttp://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/shrubs_sewi.htm An example of “convergent evolution” Leaf shape helps protect riparian plants from water damage © Project SOUND
  • Flowers are definitely Sunflower Blooms:  Long bloom season  Year-round, but most heavy bloom periods spring and fall in western L.A. Co. Flowers:  Separate male & female plants  Nectar attracts many insects, including butterflies Seeds:  Small seeds with fluffy ‘parachute’ Vegetative reproduction: common and easy © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat flowers are clearly sunflowers – even without the ray flowers Willow “catkin” for comparison © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat provides important resources to the community  Habitat considerations  Butterfly and bee nectar plant  Browse for deer and elk  Shelter/nest site for birds, small mammals and reptiles  Human uses  Young shoots – famine food  Stem - charcoal (gun power and fire starting)  Stems – arrow shafts, paint brushes and building materialhttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/whites/white21.html (sturdy but bend) © Project SOUND
  •  Soils:Mule Fat is Adaptable  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: flooding to fairly dry  Summer:  Fine with Zone 1-3 once established (after first summer)  Will grow faster with more water  Fertilizer: adaptable; fine with an organic mulch, light fertilizer  Can be pruned – even radically – to shape or renew © Project SOUND
  • Mule Fat: one of our best habitat plants  Hedges & screens  Trained as a small tree  Espaliered along a wall  Always good habitat for insects, birds http://www.flickr.com/photo s/pcoin/99549969/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/73431753@N00/278039992
  • Inspiration from the pros: butterfly gardens  Provide easy access  Provide places to sit and enjoy the butterflies & other wildlife  The garden can be either formal or informal in style  The garden should look pretty – at least much of the year http://backtonatives.blogspot.com/2008/03/bird-of-prey-talk-hike.html © Project SOUNDhttp://img.groundspeak.com/waymarking/48550aea-257e-4adf-83e6-d2548e740dea.jpg
  • When you replace a lawn, access becomes an issue © Project SOUND
  • Additional inspiration  Mass plantings – pretty & affective  Provide some grass areas  ? Signage (if you wanted your garden to serve an educational role) ‘functional art’ – butterfly http://www.uky.edu/Arboretum/membership.html  water sourcehttp://www.yerbabuenagardens.com/features/gardens.html http://a2zhomeschool.com/homeschoolmouse/category/events/ © Project SOUND
  • How to attract more Skippers  Several native species of Skippers we might attract – see the list  Need all the normal amenities:  Waterhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/9428166@N03/2687279040/  Perching places Sandhill Skipper  Etc.  Adult (nectar) sources:  Milkweeds  Clovers  Plants in Sunflower family (Yarrow; Asters; many others)  Buckwheats  Larval food sources:  Native and non-native grasses – no wonder we already have Skippers http://www.bixby.org/parkside/multimedia/butterflies/ Wandering Skipper © Project SOUND
  • Let’s add a little grass for Skippers… © Project SOUND
  • Saltgrass – Distichlis spicata © Project SOUND
  •  Widely distributed – western North America Found through much of CA in Coastal salt marshes Moist alkaline areas Vernal alkaline areas © Project SOUND
  • Saltgrass Stiff perennial grass with numerous long stems Warm-season grass Sod-forming – spreads by rhizomes May grow flat or more erect (4-16 inches tall) Looks somewhat like Bermuda Grass © Project SOUND
  • Pretty left to grow – or can be mowed © Project SOUND
  • Benefits of Saltgrass Can withstand harsh conditions – salt/alkali soils, seasonal flooding, seasonal drought Good habitat for birds (seeds and cover) and butterflies (Skippers) Good for controlling wind or water erosion Highly resistant to trampling – even for playing fields, golf courses Looks like Bermuda Grass – and can be treated like it © Project SOUND
  • Keys to a successful Saltgrass lawn  Lawns usually started from plugs or cut sections of rhizomes  Best done in winter  Bury rhizomes 1-2 inches  Keep ground moist until established  Needs full sun  Needs winter moisture; can water in summer to keep green  Mow infrequently  Needs no/little added fertilizer © Project SOUND
  • Saltgrass at end of dry season – no water © Project SOUND
  • Now let’s add a little color…  Flowering perennials and sub- shrubs make sense in a small garden  Choose wisely:  Some plants provide both adult and larval food  Some plants are showier than others  Some plants are better suited to our local conditions © Project SOUND
  • Sticky Monkeyflowers – like a little shade © Project SOUND
  • Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Mimulus/Diplacus aurantiacushttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Mimulus-aurantiacus/ © Project SOUND
  • Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Mimulus/Diplacus aurantiacus  Much debate about what genus it should belong to  Much debate about how many species – may just be a few with much variability  Much of western & southern CA to Bajahttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7177,7386,7390 © Project SOUND
  • Sticky Monkeyflower in the wild  rocky hillsides  cliffs  canyon slopes  disturbed areas  borders of coastal sage scrub, chaparral, open foresthttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/monkeyb2.htm Dry, open areas with poor soils http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/diplacus-aurantiacus © Project SOUND
  • Growth habit and other characteristics  Size: 2-4 ft tall and wide  Narrow glossy sticky dark green leaves  Summer-deciduous in hot climates/gardens  Attractive mounding to sprawling shape  Lives to 10 years – slightly less in gardens, particularly if given summer water  Young leaves can be eaten (a bit bitter, tho’) and were used as an antiseptic for cuts, rope burns, etc. © Project SOUND
  • Many uses for Sticky Monkeyflower inthe garden  On hillsides or banks  In rock gardens  In garden beds with other native plants that thrive on a dry period  In large pots or planters  As an accent plant – showy flowers  In a “hummingbird” or “butterfly garden” © Project SOUND
  • Succeeding with Sticky Monkeyflower  Does best in sandy or rocky soils – soil needs to be well-drained; too much water, particularly in winter leads to fungal disease, short life  Full sun to part-shade (best for most gardens)  Give plants a dormant period at the end of summer – no water; can give some summer water before that  Prune back each fall to 18 inches or so; or prune back to ground every third year. Can also prune after spring bloom to encourage fall blooms  Propagate new plants from cuttings tohttp://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/miau.htm replace old plants © Project SOUND
  • Fantastic flower colors  Blooms: year-round in S. Bay; most profuse in summer  Flowers:  Clusters of small tubular flowers© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College with the usual monkey face appearance.  Flower color range is salmon to brick-red to crimson.  Good nectar source:  Hummingbird pollinated; but also attracts bees, butterflies (esp. Checkerspots & Buckeyes)  Seeds:  many small, in dry capsuleYou can also grow ShrubbyMonkeyflowers from tip cuttings  Easy to grow from seed © Project SOUND
  • Buckwheats like sun – and are great habitat plants © Project SOUND
  • California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum © Project SOUND
  • California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum  Southwestern U.S.  to Utah, Arizona, nw Mexico  s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert  Common. Dry slopes, washes, canyons in scrub < 2300 m.var. fasciculatum  fasciculatum : derived from var. foliolosum a Latin word meaning "bundles" and describing the way the leaves are attached to the leaf stem in little bunches or fascicles http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/Syllab us2/factsheet.cfm?ID=639http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5936,5994,6045 © Project SOUND
  • Characteristics of California Buckwheat  Size: similar to Dune Buckwheat  2-5 ft tall  3-5 ft wide  Growth form:  low mounded semi-evergreenhttp://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.html shrub  Many-branched  Foliage:  Leave alternate, but densely clustered at nodes, evergreen, narrow lanceolate (nearly needle-like) © Project SOUND http://www.birdmom.net/wildflowerspink.html
  • http://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.htmlDune Buckwheat – E. parvifolium CA Buckwheat – E. fasciculatum © Project SOUND
  • CA Buckwheat:  Great for summer color: May-showy for months Nov. possible  As an alternative to the non- native Rosemary  In perennial beds  On parking strips & bordering paths and driveways  For erosion control  Larval foodsource for Morman Metalmark, Bramble Hairstreak, Common Hairstreak, Avalon Hairstreak Shrubby Buckwheats can even be sheared to shape for a more formal look © Project SOUND
  • CA Buckwheat cultivars make goodgroundcovers  ‘Dana Point’ - brighter green leaf, more mounding than species  Bruce Dickinson – good for groundcover; stays close to the ground, spreads nicely, and holds good form throughout the year. ‘Dana Point’ http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/erfabd.htm ‘Bruce Dickinson’ © Project SOUND
  • CA Buckwheat cultivars make good groundcovers  ‘Theodore Payne – low groundcover (1 ft high; 1-3 ft spread)  Warriner Lytle - A sprawling low growing California buckwheat; can grow to 2 feet tall but is often more prostrate, hugging the ground like ahttp://www.theodorepayne.org/gallery/pages/E/Eriogonum_fasciculatum_Th mateodorePayne.htm ‘Theodore Payne’ http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=3070 ‘Warriner Lytle’ ‘Warriner Lytle’ © Project SOUND
  • Cultivars & species: choose carefully.. ‘Warriner Lytle’ http://www.letsgoseeit.com/index/county/la/claremont/loc01/cultivar/cultivar.htm Buckwheats produce hybrids readily; plant only locally obtained plants if you live near natural stands © Project SOUND
  •  CA Buckwheat looks its best in full sun Occasional summer water to keep it looking good – but very drought tolerant © Project SOUND
  • Managing shrubby  Most are low maintenance  By fall, the flowers turn a buckwheats reddish-brown  Easily deadheaded, if desired  Or (better) retained for the change of color and for bird habitat.  Cut back in late fall to mid-winter to encourage herbaceous growth over woody look  Leave several inches of woody growth  Cutting it back to 6” in late fall keeps the woody growth to a minimum and the plant looking its best the year round.  When the shrub is becoming too leggy, it needs to be replaced. © Project SOUND
  • Make sure you can enjoy your butterfly garden  Comfortable seating, strategically placed  Plan your planting basedhttp://lobojosden.blogspot.com/2007/12/butterfly-garden.html on your most likely views © Project SOUND http://www.dunedingov.com/home.aspx?page=departments/library/library
  • Many butterflies use CA native Milkweeds http://www.laspilitas.com/butterfl_files/Acmon_bluehttp://www.gardeningwithnatives.com/articles/su _on_narrow-leaf_milkweed.jpgmmerplants.html  Tiger swallowtail  Acmon Blue  Monarch © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- california/plants/asclepias-fascicularis
  • Place milkweeds in a slightly shadier area Buckwheats grass © Project SOUND
  • The Milkweed family (Asclepidaceae)  Very large family - ~ 2,000 species  Includes perennial herbs, vines, shrubs  The common name "milkweed" refers to the milky, white sap produced when the stem is broken.  Many are poisonous if eaten by humans/animals  The term "weed" refers to the fact that milkweed grows in poor soil  The principal genus in California is Asclepias, of which there are 11 species. © Project SOUND
  • Narrow-leaf Milkweed - Asclepias fascicularis http://www.insectnet.com/photos/flora1/milkweed1.htm © Project SOUND
  • Showy Milkweed – Asclepias speciosa© 2004 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND
  • Milkweeds  Milkweeds are found in many areas of CA  In the South Bay, Narrow- leaf Milkweed found only Showy Milkweed in S. Channel Islands  Sites are typically  Winter wet/summer dry  Sunny to light shade  Barren soil (bare areas in chaparral/Oak woodlands; streambeds; alluvial areas)Narrow-leaf Milkweed © Project SOUND
  • Milkweed family has unusual flowers and seeds  The petals of the 5-parted flowers are reflexed and the anthers unite to the stigma in the form of a crown with 5 hood-like appendages.  The numerous seeds bear tufts of silky hairs at their tips for efficient wind dispersal. http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/pictures/a100.jpg © Project SOUND
  • Milkweed pods and seeds seedshttp://www.keiriosity.com/asclepiadaceae/asclepias_fascicularis02.jpg http://mamba.bio.uci.edu/~pjbryant/biodiv/PLANTS2/A sclepiadaceae/Asclepias_fascicularis.htm How do you think these seeds are dispersed? © Project SOUND
  • Consider Using Milkweeds  For butterfly gardens: nectar source for many species; larval food for Monarchs  For showy white-pink flowers in summer  Along paths and walkways  In mid-beds – would look nice with brighter pinks and purple flowers © Project SOUND
  • Tricks to gardening with Milkweeds  Easy to grow  Plant (seeds) in place if possible  Does best in well-drained soil – but can tolerate clay if not over-watered  Full to part sun  Average water needs – keep somewhat dry. Can tolerate winter flooding  Cut back to ground in winter (native Californians burned it to encourage healthy growth) © Project SOUND
  • Let’s add some other flowering plants for interest Perennials & annuals Buckwheats grass © Project SOUND
  • Common Sandaster - Corethrogyne filaginifolia vars. californica and filaginifoliahttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiaaster.html © Project SOUND
  • Common Sandaster - Corethrogyne filaginifolia vars. californica and filaginifolia  common and widespread plant in coastal sage scrub, southern oak woodlands and grasslands, and on dry, brushy chaparral slopes var. californica  Taxonomy is confusing:  Many still use the old name for the species: Lessingia filaginifolia  Highly variable species; now lumped them all together under variant filaginifolia - variants need further research  var. californica – adapted to slightly wetter, ocean-influenced habitats var. filaginifolia  var. filaginifolia – adapted to slightly drier habitats © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Lessingia+filaginifolia+var.+filaginifolia
  •  Common Sandaster varies greatly depending on thehttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiaaster.html amount of water it gets © Project SOUND
  • Common Sandaster is typical of plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae)  Compound floral heads  Ray flowers (outer)  Brightly colored (usually yellow (bee pollinated) or blue-purple  Serve to direct the pollinator to the nectar  Disk flowers (central)  Small; often yellow or dark- colored  Make nectar to attract pollinators  Form the seeds © Project SOUND
  • Growing native perennial sunflowers is usually easy  Choose a sunny location: most need full or near-full sun  Plant seed in place in fall  Prepare soil; lightly rake seed in  use fresh, locally-collected seed if possible  Insure adequate winter/spring rain  Withhold water after flowering to promote seed production  Many will self-seed; or collect and store the seed in a cool dry placehttp://www.coestatepark.com/lessingia_filaginifolia_coe.htm © Project SOUND
  • Many Sunflower species are “two-in-one plantshttp://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zeeb/butterflies/nocut.html  Sand Asters are good nectar producers:  Good food plant for native bees and other pollinators  Provide nectar for many butterflies from Skippers to Swallowtails  They are also good butterfly larval plants  Gabb’s Checkerspot – endangered  Moths http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/pictures/a1142.jpg © Project SOUND
  • Don’t like this look? http://mamba.bio.uci.edu/~pjbryant/biodiv/PLANTS2/Asteraceae/C orethrogyne%20filaginifolia%20v.htmThen how about this? http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/astercu3.htm © Project SOUND
  • ‘Silver Carpet’ Sandaster (var. californica) A Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Introduction From coastal bluffs exposed to ocean spray in Monterey County Attractive foliage  Silver-white; looks nice all year long  blends well with other plants Pretty flowers – late summer  summer blossoms provide welcome cool color in a season when warmer-toned natives prevail. © Project SOUND
  • ‘Silver Carpet’ Sandaster  Low-growing – makes a nice low groundcover  spilling down a slope or over a low wall.http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantphotos/SilvCarp_ws_400dm.jpg  Even in native grasses  Fast-growing (3-5 ft/yr) but not invasive  More tolerant of average garden watering regimens  Hardy  Readily available Nectar plant only – but a good one! © Project SOUND
  • Other good generalist perennials to add  Achillea – Yarrow  Eriophyllum – Wallflowers  Sidalcea – Checkermallow  Vetches & Lotus  Lupines  Add other perennials, annuals & grasses depending on butterfly species © Project SOUND
  • S. CA Ladies – how to attract themAmerican Lady Painted Lady West Coast Lady © Project SOUND
  • Food fit for a Lady……  Adult food – many native (and non- native) flowering plants  Larval food  Sunflower family  Thistles – Cirsium species [Painted Lady]  Others  Everlastings - Pseudognaphalium (Gnaphalium) [American Lady]  Borage Family Cirsium occidentale  Amsinckia  Cryptantha  Nettle Family - Urtica species  Bedstraws – Galium species  Mallow Family [Painted & West Coast Ladies]  Lavatera  Malacothamnus  Sidalcea Sidalcea © Project SOUND
  • Finally, add some low species at the front… Perennials & annuals Buckwheats grass © Project SOUND
  • Some possible low species  Evergreen  Carex species – sedges  Seasonal  Smaller grasses  Clovers (Trifolium)  Checkerbloom  Annual wildflowers © Project SOUND
  • Bull clover/ Sour Clover – Trifolium fucatum© 2004 Carol W. Witham © Project SOUND
  • Bull clover – Trifolium fucatum  West coast of N. America from OR to Baja  In CA either:  Foothills of Sierras and other ranges  Coastally-influenced areas < 3000 ft. elevation  Locally abundant. Moist, open grassland, ditches, marshes, roadsides, sometimes saline or serpentine soils  fucatum: painted, dyed© 2005 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND
  • Bull Clover is a fairly typical native annual clover  Size:  < 1 ft tall  1-3 ft wide; slightly spreading  Growth form:  Mounded; low-lying  Typical for clovers  Foliage:  Leaves typical ‘clover-leaf’ – often white-patterned  Stems robust, hollow  Roots:  Have symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria  Leave roots in soil to improve soil fertility © Project SOUND
  • Flowers are among the prettier clover flowers  Blooms:  Usually Apr-June in S. CA ; after weather warms up  Long bloom period with supplemental water  Flowers:  Typical for clover; small pea-type flowers in a ball-like head  Cream-colored tinged with pink/mauve  Edible  Seeds:  Small  Edible fresh © Project SOUND
  • Clovers – not hard to grow once you know the trick  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any, including alkali  Even takes salty soils  Light: full sun to part-shade; good under deciduous trees  Water:  Winter: needs moist soils  Summer: needs regular water until flowering ceases – then cut back  Fertilizer: not needed, but probably won’t hurt  Other: to start seeds give them a© 2007 Aaron Schusteff hot-water treatment © Project SOUND
  • Foothill Clover – Trifolium ciliolatumhttp://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/FabaceaeClover/FabaceaeCloverKey.htm © Project SOUND
  • Pin-point Clover – Trifolium gracilentum© 2006 Doreen L. Smith © Project SOUND
  • Rancheria Clover – Trifolium albopurpureum http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/clovera.htm © Project SOUND
  • Now we’ve got a plan for what we’ll plant next fall Perennials & annuals Buckwheats grass Low Low © Project SOUND
  • What butterflies might visit our garden? Swallowtails: Anise, Western Tiger, Giant Cabbage White Orange Sulphur Gray Hairstreak Blues: Acmon, Marine, Western Pygmy Fatal Metalmark Mourning Cloak Ladies: American, West Coast Common Buckeye Red Admiral Monarch Funereal Duskywing Skippers: Western Checkered, Sandhill, Fiery, Umber + others And some of these species might raise their families! © Project SOUND
  • Suggestions for creating a butterfly- friendly garden  Include important nectar and larval food plants; when possible from local sources  Mass/group plants  Include plants that bloom at different times  Consider including some good non- native food plants  Use safe methods of insect control – no pesticides  Encourage others in yourResearch & experiment neighborhood to plant butterfly- friendly plants © Project SOUND
  • Visit local butterfly gardenshttp://www.visitusa.com/california/photos/orangecounty-beaches/dohenystatebeach.htm Doheny State Beach http://www.latimes.com/travel/la-tr-butterflies18nov18-pg,0,4856731.photogallery?index=12 © Project SOUND Shipley Nature Center
  • Let’s go look at some butterfly plants © Project SOUND