Butterfly Gardening 2009


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This lecture was given in July, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Butterfly Gardening 2009

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Butterfly Flights in Your Yard C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve July 7 & 11, 2009 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Our assignment: get rid of lawn & create butterfly habitat © Project SOUND
  4. 4. First Question: What are our assets?  Well-draining loam soil – can plant most native plants  Already have some good ‘heritage plants’  Several small citrus trees  Catalina Island Cherry hedge/screen nearby  Dense non-native screen provides shelter, perches  Flexible watering system: grass area somewhat dry in summer © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Location is key for butterfly gardens  In a sunny protected area of your yard – we need to check the sun/shade patterns  Away from traffic - not a good choice for parking strips.  Out of heavy winds. Butterflies wont stay where they are being blown around. Dense screen is perfect for this. © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Winter sun & shade pattern – about 11:00 a.m. © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Summer sun & shade pattern – about 11:00 a.m. © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Citrus – Zone 2Roses & existing screenare Zone 3 Water Zones – the challenge of ‘heritage plants’ © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Zone 3 in winter/Zone 2/3 summer Zone 2/3 © Project SOUND
  10. 10. What do we need for a Butterfly Garden? Checkered Skipper © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Two important first questions  What butterfly species do I want to attract?  Are there particular butterflies we really want to attract?  What butterflies occur commonly in my area?  Do I want to just attract adult butterflies, or do I want to create true butterfly habitat (provide everything the butterflies need to live in my yard)? © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Participating in the annual July Butterfly Count is a great way to learn about butterflies © Project SOUND
  13. 13. The ‘S. Bay Butterflies & Their NativeFood Sources’ list is another place to start © Project SOUND
  14. 14. We’ll be e-mailing you some other resources  Nectar Sources list  Larval Food Sources list  List of good butterfly resources  Books focused on our area  Internet resources © Project SOUND
  15. 15. We decide we really want to attract the following butterflies – and we want them to stay  Swallowtails  Monarchs  Ladies  Blue Butterflies  Skippers (several species already found in the garden) © Project SOUND
  16. 16. First we need to understand the life cycle of butterflies  If we want to provide habitat, we’ll have to provide for all stages of the life cyclehttp://basrelief.org/NewFiles/lifecyc.html © Project SOUND
  17. 17. What butterflies need: keys to providing butterfly habitat  Adult food: nectar plants, fruit, sap  Larval food plants: often quite specific  Water  Minerals and salt (mud)  Perching/sunning places; protection from wind  Hiding places for larvae (caterpillars) & pupae (cocoons) © Project SOUND
  18. 18.  Butterflies need sunlight. They are cold-blooded, so they use the sun to warm up their bodies. Pick a sunny spot for your garden and place a few flat stones around so the butterflies can rest while warming up. © Project SOUND
  19. 19.  Butterflies need shelter from wind and rain, and a place to rest at night. Planting your garden near shrubs and trees will give them the shelter they need. © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Butterflies also need a source of water  Butterflies cannot drink from deep water sources such as a birdbath  Provide water as:  Damp or muddy areas of the garden – around the roses  A shallow dish filled with sand or gravel & refilled each morning – on a post or hung from a tree  A birdbath or fountain with gravel/rocks to provide shallow water © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Confusion about ‘butterfly plants’  Many ‘butterfly plants’ and ‘butterfly bushes’ are from http://butterflybush.net/blog/ other parts of the country:  May not grow so well here  May not be appropriate for our local butterflies http://www.soonerplantfarm.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantDetail&plant_id=158 © Project SOUNDhttp://www.evelynsgardens.net/Gardens/Garden_Hummingbird_Butterfly.htm
  22. 22. The delicate dance between food plantsand butterflies  Co-evolution of plants and insects  ‘food’ is specially formulated for our species – and for our climate  Some non-native ‘butterfly plants’ don’t provide all the requirements – native vs. non- native Milkweeds  Impact of non-native horticultural plants – all show and no nutrition  Impact of loss of habitat – our yards are important habitat © Project SOUND
  23. 23. If you were a butterfly, what kind of plant would you like?  Lots of little flowers filled with nectar  Sunflower family (Asteraceae)  Buckwheat genus (Eriogonum )  Milkweed genus (Asclepias )  Fiddleneck genus (Phacelia)  Pea family (Fabaceae)  Grasses © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Caterpillars are born to eat…. It takes a huge amount of energy (food) to grow & metamorphose into a butterfly © Project SOUND
  25. 25.  Decide what your gardening philosophy is Remember that providing larval food is more important (for survival of a species) than providing nectar plants © Project SOUND
  26. 26. If you were a caterpillar what would youlike to eat?  Readily accessible  Succulent  Easy to digest  Non-toxic  Not too protected: hairs, secretions, etc. Larval (caterpillar) food plants are often very specific – you need to plant the larval food plants for the species you want to attract © Project SOUND
  27. 27. You become fascinated with the FatalMetalmark Butterfly - Calephelis nemesis  Habitat: brushy or weedy areas along roadsides, washes, ditches, and streams  Adult food – any nectar plant  Larval food – very specific  Mule Fat – Baccharis salicifolia  ? Virgin’s Bower – native Clematis species http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species?l=1637 © Project SOUND
  28. 28. First, draw a base map © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Then add the large plants © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Mule Fat – Baccharis salicifolia © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Mule Fat – Baccharis salicifolia  Western Hemisphere  Ca to S. America, Texas  Much of CA: Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Desert  Canyon bottoms, moisthttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,781,789 streamsides, irrigation ditches, often forming thickets  Common name: Mule Fat; Mulefat; Mule-fat; Mule’s Fat; Water-Willy; Sticky Baccharis © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Mule Fat – a large bush sunflower!  Size:  8-10 ft tall  8-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Shrubby; many stems  Evergreen to drought deciduous  Can be pruned and shaped to fit needs  Foliage:  Shiny green leaves, becoming darker with age  Characteristic scent  Food for Fatal Metalmark larva  Roots:  Netlike – very good for erosion control © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Mule Fat’s “Willow-like” Leaveshttp://wc.pima.edu/Bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/shrubs_sewi.htm An example of “convergent evolution” Leaf shape helps protect riparian plants from water damage © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Flowers are definitely Sunflower Blooms:  Long bloom season  Year-round, but most heavy bloom periods spring and fall in western L.A. Co. Flowers:  Separate male & female plants  Nectar attracts many insects, including butterflies Seeds:  Small seeds with fluffy ‘parachute’ Vegetative reproduction: common and easy © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Mule Fat flowers are clearly sunflowers – even without the ray flowers Willow “catkin” for comparison © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Mule Fat provides important resources to the community  Habitat considerations  Butterfly and bee nectar plant  Browse for deer and elk  Shelter/nest site for birds, small mammals and reptiles  Human uses  Young shoots – famine food  Stem - charcoal (gun power and fire starting)  Stems – arrow shafts, paint brushes and building materialhttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/whites/white21.html (sturdy but bend) © Project SOUND
  37. 37.  Soils:Mule Fat is Adaptable  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: flooding to fairly dry  Summer:  Fine with Zone 1-3 once established (after first summer)  Will grow faster with more water  Fertilizer: adaptable; fine with an organic mulch, light fertilizer  Can be pruned – even radically – to shape or renew © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Mule Fat: one of our best habitat plants  Hedges & screens  Trained as a small tree  Espaliered along a wall  Always good habitat for insects, birds http://www.flickr.com/photo s/pcoin/99549969/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/73431753@N00/278039992
  39. 39. Inspiration from the pros: butterfly gardens  Provide easy access  Provide places to sit and enjoy the butterflies & other wildlife  The garden can be either formal or informal in style  The garden should look pretty – at least much of the year http://backtonatives.blogspot.com/2008/03/bird-of-prey-talk-hike.html © Project SOUNDhttp://img.groundspeak.com/waymarking/48550aea-257e-4adf-83e6-d2548e740dea.jpg
  40. 40. When you replace a lawn, access becomes an issue © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Additional inspiration  Mass plantings – pretty & affective  Provide some grass areas  ? Signage (if you wanted your garden to serve an educational role) ‘functional art’ – butterfly http://www.uky.edu/Arboretum/membership.html  water sourcehttp://www.yerbabuenagardens.com/features/gardens.html http://a2zhomeschool.com/homeschoolmouse/category/events/ © Project SOUND
  42. 42. How to attract more Skippers  Several native species of Skippers we might attract – see the list  Need all the normal amenities:  Waterhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/9428166@N03/2687279040/  Perching places Sandhill Skipper  Etc.  Adult (nectar) sources:  Milkweeds  Clovers  Plants in Sunflower family (Yarrow; Asters; many others)  Buckwheats  Larval food sources:  Native and non-native grasses – no wonder we already have Skippers http://www.bixby.org/parkside/multimedia/butterflies/ Wandering Skipper © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Let’s add a little grass for Skippers… © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Saltgrass – Distichlis spicata © Project SOUND
  45. 45.  Widely distributed – western North America Found through much of CA in Coastal salt marshes Moist alkaline areas Vernal alkaline areas © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Saltgrass Stiff perennial grass with numerous long stems Warm-season grass Sod-forming – spreads by rhizomes May grow flat or more erect (4-16 inches tall) Looks somewhat like Bermuda Grass © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Pretty left to grow – or can be mowed © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Benefits of Saltgrass Can withstand harsh conditions – salt/alkali soils, seasonal flooding, seasonal drought Good habitat for birds (seeds and cover) and butterflies (Skippers) Good for controlling wind or water erosion Highly resistant to trampling – even for playing fields, golf courses Looks like Bermuda Grass – and can be treated like it © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Keys to a successful Saltgrass lawn  Lawns usually started from plugs or cut sections of rhizomes  Best done in winter  Bury rhizomes 1-2 inches  Keep ground moist until established  Needs full sun  Needs winter moisture; can water in summer to keep green  Mow infrequently  Needs no/little added fertilizer © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Saltgrass at end of dry season – no water © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Now let’s add a little color…  Flowering perennials and sub- shrubs make sense in a small garden  Choose wisely:  Some plants provide both adult and larval food  Some plants are showier than others  Some plants are better suited to our local conditions © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Sticky Monkeyflowers – like a little shade © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Mimulus/Diplacus aurantiacushttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Mimulus-aurantiacus/ © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Mimulus/Diplacus aurantiacus  Much debate about what genus it should belong to  Much debate about how many species – may just be a few with much variability  Much of western & southern CA to Bajahttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7177,7386,7390 © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Sticky Monkeyflower in the wild  rocky hillsides  cliffs  canyon slopes  disturbed areas  borders of coastal sage scrub, chaparral, open foresthttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/monkeyb2.htm Dry, open areas with poor soils http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/diplacus-aurantiacus © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Growth habit and other characteristics  Size: 2-4 ft tall and wide  Narrow glossy sticky dark green leaves  Summer-deciduous in hot climates/gardens  Attractive mounding to sprawling shape  Lives to 10 years – slightly less in gardens, particularly if given summer water  Young leaves can be eaten (a bit bitter, tho’) and were used as an antiseptic for cuts, rope burns, etc. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Many uses for Sticky Monkeyflower inthe garden  On hillsides or banks  In rock gardens  In garden beds with other native plants that thrive on a dry period  In large pots or planters  As an accent plant – showy flowers  In a “hummingbird” or “butterfly garden” © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Succeeding with Sticky Monkeyflower  Does best in sandy or rocky soils – soil needs to be well-drained; too much water, particularly in winter leads to fungal disease, short life  Full sun to part-shade (best for most gardens)  Give plants a dormant period at the end of summer – no water; can give some summer water before that  Prune back each fall to 18 inches or so; or prune back to ground every third year. Can also prune after spring bloom to encourage fall blooms  Propagate new plants from cuttings tohttp://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/miau.htm replace old plants © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Fantastic flower colors  Blooms: year-round in S. Bay; most profuse in summer  Flowers:  Clusters of small tubular flowers© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College with the usual monkey face appearance.  Flower color range is salmon to brick-red to crimson.  Good nectar source:  Hummingbird pollinated; but also attracts bees, butterflies (esp. Checkerspots & Buckeyes)  Seeds:  many small, in dry capsuleYou can also grow ShrubbyMonkeyflowers from tip cuttings  Easy to grow from seed © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Buckwheats like sun – and are great habitat plants © Project SOUND
  61. 61. California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum © Project SOUND
  62. 62. California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum  Southwestern U.S.  to Utah, Arizona, nw Mexico  s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert  Common. Dry slopes, washes, canyons in scrub < 2300 m.var. fasciculatum  fasciculatum : derived from var. foliolosum a Latin word meaning "bundles" and describing the way the leaves are attached to the leaf stem in little bunches or fascicles http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/Syllab us2/factsheet.cfm?ID=639http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5936,5994,6045 © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Characteristics of California Buckwheat  Size: similar to Dune Buckwheat  2-5 ft tall  3-5 ft wide  Growth form:  low mounded semi-evergreenhttp://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.html shrub  Many-branched  Foliage:  Leave alternate, but densely clustered at nodes, evergreen, narrow lanceolate (nearly needle-like) © Project SOUND http://www.birdmom.net/wildflowerspink.html
  64. 64. http://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.htmlDune Buckwheat – E. parvifolium CA Buckwheat – E. fasciculatum © Project SOUND
  65. 65. CA Buckwheat:  Great for summer color: May-showy for months Nov. possible  As an alternative to the non- native Rosemary  In perennial beds  On parking strips & bordering paths and driveways  For erosion control  Larval foodsource for Morman Metalmark, Bramble Hairstreak, Common Hairstreak, Avalon Hairstreak Shrubby Buckwheats can even be sheared to shape for a more formal look © Project SOUND
  66. 66. CA Buckwheat cultivars make goodgroundcovers  ‘Dana Point’ - brighter green leaf, more mounding than species  Bruce Dickinson – good for groundcover; stays close to the ground, spreads nicely, and holds good form throughout the year. ‘Dana Point’ http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/erfabd.htm ‘Bruce Dickinson’ © Project SOUND
  67. 67. CA Buckwheat cultivars make good groundcovers  ‘Theodore Payne – low groundcover (1 ft high; 1-3 ft spread)  Warriner Lytle - A sprawling low growing California buckwheat; can grow to 2 feet tall but is often more prostrate, hugging the ground like ahttp://www.theodorepayne.org/gallery/pages/E/Eriogonum_fasciculatum_Th mateodorePayne.htm ‘Theodore Payne’ http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=3070 ‘Warriner Lytle’ ‘Warriner Lytle’ © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Cultivars & species: choose carefully.. ‘Warriner Lytle’ http://www.letsgoseeit.com/index/county/la/claremont/loc01/cultivar/cultivar.htm Buckwheats produce hybrids readily; plant only locally obtained plants if you live near natural stands © Project SOUND
  69. 69.  CA Buckwheat looks its best in full sun Occasional summer water to keep it looking good – but very drought tolerant © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Managing shrubby  Most are low maintenance  By fall, the flowers turn a buckwheats reddish-brown  Easily deadheaded, if desired  Or (better) retained for the change of color and for bird habitat.  Cut back in late fall to mid-winter to encourage herbaceous growth over woody look  Leave several inches of woody growth  Cutting it back to 6” in late fall keeps the woody growth to a minimum and the plant looking its best the year round.  When the shrub is becoming too leggy, it needs to be replaced. © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Make sure you can enjoy your butterfly garden  Comfortable seating, strategically placed  Plan your planting basedhttp://lobojosden.blogspot.com/2007/12/butterfly-garden.html on your most likely views © Project SOUND http://www.dunedingov.com/home.aspx?page=departments/library/library
  72. 72. Many butterflies use CA native Milkweeds http://www.laspilitas.com/butterfl_files/Acmon_bluehttp://www.gardeningwithnatives.com/articles/su _on_narrow-leaf_milkweed.jpgmmerplants.html  Tiger swallowtail  Acmon Blue  Monarch © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- california/plants/asclepias-fascicularis
  73. 73. Place milkweeds in a slightly shadier area Buckwheats grass © Project SOUND
  74. 74. The Milkweed family (Asclepidaceae)  Very large family - ~ 2,000 species  Includes perennial herbs, vines, shrubs  The common name "milkweed" refers to the milky, white sap produced when the stem is broken.  Many are poisonous if eaten by humans/animals  The term "weed" refers to the fact that milkweed grows in poor soil  The principal genus in California is Asclepias, of which there are 11 species. © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Narrow-leaf Milkweed - Asclepias fascicularis http://www.insectnet.com/photos/flora1/milkweed1.htm © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Showy Milkweed – Asclepias speciosa© 2004 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Milkweeds  Milkweeds are found in many areas of CA  In the South Bay, Narrow- leaf Milkweed found only Showy Milkweed in S. Channel Islands  Sites are typically  Winter wet/summer dry  Sunny to light shade  Barren soil (bare areas in chaparral/Oak woodlands; streambeds; alluvial areas)Narrow-leaf Milkweed © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Milkweed family has unusual flowers and seeds  The petals of the 5-parted flowers are reflexed and the anthers unite to the stigma in the form of a crown with 5 hood-like appendages.  The numerous seeds bear tufts of silky hairs at their tips for efficient wind dispersal. http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/pictures/a100.jpg © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Milkweed pods and seeds seedshttp://www.keiriosity.com/asclepiadaceae/asclepias_fascicularis02.jpg http://mamba.bio.uci.edu/~pjbryant/biodiv/PLANTS2/A sclepiadaceae/Asclepias_fascicularis.htm How do you think these seeds are dispersed? © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Consider Using Milkweeds  For butterfly gardens: nectar source for many species; larval food for Monarchs  For showy white-pink flowers in summer  Along paths and walkways  In mid-beds – would look nice with brighter pinks and purple flowers © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Tricks to gardening with Milkweeds  Easy to grow  Plant (seeds) in place if possible  Does best in well-drained soil – but can tolerate clay if not over-watered  Full to part sun  Average water needs – keep somewhat dry. Can tolerate winter flooding  Cut back to ground in winter (native Californians burned it to encourage healthy growth) © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Let’s add some other flowering plants for interest Perennials & annuals Buckwheats grass © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Common Sandaster - Corethrogyne filaginifolia vars. californica and filaginifoliahttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiaaster.html © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Common Sandaster - Corethrogyne filaginifolia vars. californica and filaginifolia  common and widespread plant in coastal sage scrub, southern oak woodlands and grasslands, and on dry, brushy chaparral slopes var. californica  Taxonomy is confusing:  Many still use the old name for the species: Lessingia filaginifolia  Highly variable species; now lumped them all together under variant filaginifolia - variants need further research  var. californica – adapted to slightly wetter, ocean-influenced habitats var. filaginifolia  var. filaginifolia – adapted to slightly drier habitats © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Lessingia+filaginifolia+var.+filaginifolia
  85. 85.  Common Sandaster varies greatly depending on thehttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiaaster.html amount of water it gets © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Common Sandaster is typical of plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae)  Compound floral heads  Ray flowers (outer)  Brightly colored (usually yellow (bee pollinated) or blue-purple  Serve to direct the pollinator to the nectar  Disk flowers (central)  Small; often yellow or dark- colored  Make nectar to attract pollinators  Form the seeds © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Growing native perennial sunflowers is usually easy  Choose a sunny location: most need full or near-full sun  Plant seed in place in fall  Prepare soil; lightly rake seed in  use fresh, locally-collected seed if possible  Insure adequate winter/spring rain  Withhold water after flowering to promote seed production  Many will self-seed; or collect and store the seed in a cool dry placehttp://www.coestatepark.com/lessingia_filaginifolia_coe.htm © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Many Sunflower species are “two-in-one plantshttp://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zeeb/butterflies/nocut.html  Sand Asters are good nectar producers:  Good food plant for native bees and other pollinators  Provide nectar for many butterflies from Skippers to Swallowtails  They are also good butterfly larval plants  Gabb’s Checkerspot – endangered  Moths http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/pictures/a1142.jpg © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Don’t like this look? http://mamba.bio.uci.edu/~pjbryant/biodiv/PLANTS2/Asteraceae/C orethrogyne%20filaginifolia%20v.htmThen how about this? http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/astercu3.htm © Project SOUND
  90. 90. ‘Silver Carpet’ Sandaster (var. californica) A Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Introduction From coastal bluffs exposed to ocean spray in Monterey County Attractive foliage  Silver-white; looks nice all year long  blends well with other plants Pretty flowers – late summer  summer blossoms provide welcome cool color in a season when warmer-toned natives prevail. © Project SOUND
  91. 91. ‘Silver Carpet’ Sandaster  Low-growing – makes a nice low groundcover  spilling down a slope or over a low wall.http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantphotos/SilvCarp_ws_400dm.jpg  Even in native grasses  Fast-growing (3-5 ft/yr) but not invasive  More tolerant of average garden watering regimens  Hardy  Readily available Nectar plant only – but a good one! © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Other good generalist perennials to add  Achillea – Yarrow  Eriophyllum – Wallflowers  Sidalcea – Checkermallow  Vetches & Lotus  Lupines  Add other perennials, annuals & grasses depending on butterfly species © Project SOUND
  93. 93. S. CA Ladies – how to attract themAmerican Lady Painted Lady West Coast Lady © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Food fit for a Lady……  Adult food – many native (and non- native) flowering plants  Larval food  Sunflower family  Thistles – Cirsium species [Painted Lady]  Others  Everlastings - Pseudognaphalium (Gnaphalium) [American Lady]  Borage Family Cirsium occidentale  Amsinckia  Cryptantha  Nettle Family - Urtica species  Bedstraws – Galium species  Mallow Family [Painted & West Coast Ladies]  Lavatera  Malacothamnus  Sidalcea Sidalcea © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Finally, add some low species at the front… Perennials & annuals Buckwheats grass © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Some possible low species  Evergreen  Carex species – sedges  Seasonal  Smaller grasses  Clovers (Trifolium)  Checkerbloom  Annual wildflowers © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Bull clover/ Sour Clover – Trifolium fucatum© 2004 Carol W. Witham © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Bull clover – Trifolium fucatum  West coast of N. America from OR to Baja  In CA either:  Foothills of Sierras and other ranges  Coastally-influenced areas < 3000 ft. elevation  Locally abundant. Moist, open grassland, ditches, marshes, roadsides, sometimes saline or serpentine soils  fucatum: painted, dyed© 2005 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND
  99. 99. Bull Clover is a fairly typical native annual clover  Size:  < 1 ft tall  1-3 ft wide; slightly spreading  Growth form:  Mounded; low-lying  Typical for clovers  Foliage:  Leaves typical ‘clover-leaf’ – often white-patterned  Stems robust, hollow  Roots:  Have symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria  Leave roots in soil to improve soil fertility © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Flowers are among the prettier clover flowers  Blooms:  Usually Apr-June in S. CA ; after weather warms up  Long bloom period with supplemental water  Flowers:  Typical for clover; small pea-type flowers in a ball-like head  Cream-colored tinged with pink/mauve  Edible  Seeds:  Small  Edible fresh © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Clovers – not hard to grow once you know the trick  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any, including alkali  Even takes salty soils  Light: full sun to part-shade; good under deciduous trees  Water:  Winter: needs moist soils  Summer: needs regular water until flowering ceases – then cut back  Fertilizer: not needed, but probably won’t hurt  Other: to start seeds give them a© 2007 Aaron Schusteff hot-water treatment © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Foothill Clover – Trifolium ciliolatumhttp://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/FabaceaeClover/FabaceaeCloverKey.htm © Project SOUND
  103. 103. Pin-point Clover – Trifolium gracilentum© 2006 Doreen L. Smith © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Rancheria Clover – Trifolium albopurpureum http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/clovera.htm © Project SOUND
  105. 105. Now we’ve got a plan for what we’ll plant next fall Perennials & annuals Buckwheats grass Low Low © Project SOUND
  106. 106. What butterflies might visit our garden? Swallowtails: Anise, Western Tiger, Giant Cabbage White Orange Sulphur Gray Hairstreak Blues: Acmon, Marine, Western Pygmy Fatal Metalmark Mourning Cloak Ladies: American, West Coast Common Buckeye Red Admiral Monarch Funereal Duskywing Skippers: Western Checkered, Sandhill, Fiery, Umber + others And some of these species might raise their families! © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Suggestions for creating a butterfly- friendly garden  Include important nectar and larval food plants; when possible from local sources  Mass/group plants  Include plants that bloom at different times  Consider including some good non- native food plants  Use safe methods of insect control – no pesticides  Encourage others in yourResearch & experiment neighborhood to plant butterfly- friendly plants © Project SOUND
  108. 108. Visit local butterfly gardenshttp://www.visitusa.com/california/photos/orangecounty-beaches/dohenystatebeach.htm Doheny State Beach http://www.latimes.com/travel/la-tr-butterflies18nov18-pg,0,4856731.photogallery?index=12 © Project SOUND Shipley Nature Center
  109. 109. Let’s go look at some butterfly plants © Project SOUND