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How to create a front yard butterfly garden using a classical parterre design. Features California native plants. Talk is part of the series 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden'

How to create a front yard butterfly garden using a classical parterre design. Features California native plants. Talk is part of the series 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden'

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Beautiful butterflies   2013 Beautiful butterflies 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • 7/6/2013 1 © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year)
  • 7/6/2013 2 © Project SOUND Beautiful Butterflies: food and habitat for our prettiest pollinators (in the context of a formal garden) C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve July 6 & 9, 2013
  • 7/6/2013 3 You’ve just bought your dream home… © Project SOUND … or it’s time to redo your old front yard http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm
  • 7/6/2013 4 There’s much that’s good about the home © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm  Classic CA Bungalow/ Craftsman style; formal lines  Nice colors??  Nice picket fence, gate and arbor  Good sized front yard  Brick walkways; infiltrate water  Seating possible in front yard
  • 7/6/2013 5 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm …but you’d like to make better use of the front yard
  • 7/6/2013 6 You dream of creating a butterfly garden © Project SOUND http://www.harvardcommonpress.com/the- butterfly-garden/ http://www.lindenplantationgardens.com/gardens.htm But want a garden that is formal enough to fit with your tastes, home style and neighborhood
  • 7/6/2013 7 Why use formal/semi-formal design?  Some house designs need a more formal garden design  Some classical/historical home designs  Very modern, geometric designs  Some situations require more formal look  Front yards  Public gardens  Some plants benefit from a more formal treatment  Herbs and vegetables  Some ornamental grasses, succulents  ? Native plants © Project SOUND http://egardens.blogspot.com/2011/07/im-published.html
  • 7/6/2013 8 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm What do we want in the front yard? Seating area
  • 7/6/2013 9 Is it possible to have it all in a small front yard (semi-formal design; butterflies; seating)? © Project SOUND First we need to draw a rough map of the front yard
  • 7/6/2013 10 © Project SOUND 22 ft 9 ft 26ft 19ft Front yard - dimensions 8ft
  • 7/6/2013 11 What makes a formal garden formal?  Ancient origins.  Formal gardens found in many cultures: Western, Middle Eastern, and Eastern Cultures  Order, neatness, geometry, and symmetry are the defining characteristics  Formal gardens create a sense of peace and stability  Hardscape often plays an important role in defining a ‘formal’ look © Project SOUND http://www.cotonmanor.co.uk/images/herb_garden_potting_shed_nov_09.jpg
  • 7/6/2013 12 The Parterre garden  Formal garden constructed on a level surface  Planting beds arranged to form a pleasing, usually symmetrical pattern  Gravel (sometimes stone) paths; beds edged in stone, brick or tightly clipped hedging.  Developed by Claude Mollet in France ~ 1600; classic examples at Versaille, Kensington Palace  In and out of style ever since  Ideas now often used to give a more formal look to gardens that may include some ‘informal/unruly’ plants:  Herb gardens  Kitchen gardens  ?? Native plant/habitat gardens © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parterre
  • 7/6/2013 13 Contemporary Parterre gardens: less formidable  Symmetric patterns look neat and orderly – work well with more formal architecture  Can be adapted to any size; good for even small front yards  Can be very formal to semi-formal, depending on hardscape & plant choices  Tightly clipped shrubbery and gravel pathways were the two main requirements of the first parterres; contemporary parterre gardens:  Use a wider range of path materials: brick, DG, symmetric pavers/stone, even mulch  Edging is more likely brick/stone – even concrete or benderboard  Plants include a wide range of flowering plants, edibles, etc. © Project SOUND http://www.shootgardening.co.uk/article/traditional-garden-and-parterre http://www.blueplanetgardenblog.com/2008/08/lawn-substitutes-part-3-- -kickin-it-french-style.html
  • 7/6/2013 14 How formal do we want the garden to be? © Project SOUND http://carex.tumblr.com/post/29766039352/the-knot-garden-at-the-garden-museum- in-london http://rockoakdeer.blogspot.com/2012/06/gardening-on-rocks-new-backyard- garden.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/victorygarden/grow/primers_projects/annuals.html http://www.homelife.com.au/gardening/features/inner+city+vegie+garden,15345
  • 7/6/2013 15 What do we like?  Simple geometric design  Gravel/crushed rock pathways  Beds lined with red brick – fits with existing brick pathways  Seating included in garden design  Focal point around which garden is constructed (classical element) ; ? Water feature © Project SOUND http://www.homelife.com.au/gardening/features/inner+city+vegie+garden,15345 http://www.motherearthliving.com/in-the-garden/herbal-travels-visiting- gardens-during-herbal-vacation.aspx#axzz2VpoD2J1e http://goodfoodshops.blogspot.com/2011/09/incredible-edible-todmorden.html
  • 7/6/2013 16 © Project SOUND 22 ft 9 ft 26ft 19ft Let’s try some possibilities using our garden’s layout 8ft
  • 7/6/2013 17 © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 18 © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 19 © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 20 © Project SOUND Now, that’s more like it!
  • 7/6/2013 21 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm Reality check – what will it look like?
  • 7/6/2013 22 Good points about our proposed design  Simple, geometric shapes  Retains the brick walkways and adds crushed rock paths;  Brick walkways are echoed by brick bed edging  Plenty of planting area  Deals with ‘awkward’ asymmetry of the site by:  Breaking area into three:  Near house area  Transition area  Two areas that are part of the parterre design  Having two focal points – one on either side of entry walk © Project SOUND http://www.motherearthliving.com/in-the-garden/herbal-travels-visiting- gardens-during-herbal-vacation.aspx#axzz2VpoD2J1e
  • 7/6/2013 23 © Project SOUND Final design: looks like a workable plan
  • 7/6/2013 24 © Project SOUND * Pink Fairy Duster – Calliandra eriophylla http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CAER http://www.graniteseed.com/seeds/seed.php?id=Calliandra_eriophylla http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/i_and_i/flowers/fairy_duster/fairy_duster.html  Sonoran Desert from CA & Baja to W. Texas  Dry, gravelly slopes & mesas ; often in beds of intermittent streams, bajadas, washes, etc. - rocky, sandy  In Spanish, Cabeza de angel refers to an angel's head or angel's hair
  • 7/6/2013 25 © Project SOUND Pink Fairyduster is a nice sized accent shrub  Size:  3-5+ ft tall (depends on water)  4-6+ ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub  Mounded/upright to sprawling; can grow around existing shrubs  Light-colored bark  Foliage:  Bright to medium green  Binnately pinnate – small pinna (like Acacia)  Roots: nitrogen-fixing bacteria; rhizomatous – will slowly spread http://www.public.asu.edu/~camartin/plants/Plant%20html%20files/calliandraeriophylla.html http://www.fourdir.com/p_fairy_duster.htm © 2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy
  • 7/6/2013 26 Shaping Fairydusters  Have a good natural shape – can leave as is  Tip-prune during growing season to produce fuller shrub  Lightly prune to shape in late spring © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/36517976@N06/4307505066/ http://www.avondale.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=1346&return=b_aC http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/caleri.htm
  • 7/6/2013 27 © Project SOUND Flowers: ooh-la-la!!  Blooms:  Just after the rains - usually Jan-Apr in Western L.A. Co.  Will bloom off and on depending on watering schedule  Flowers:  Pink: bright to very pale  The long, pink filaments of the stamens that make the showy display  Plant has a fluffy pink appearance in full bloom  Big attraction for large butterflies & hummingbirds! http://www.sagebud.com/fairyduster-calliandra-eriophylla/ http://www.calflora.net/losangelesarboretum/whatsbloomingmay07C.html
  • 7/6/2013 28 Marine Blue - Leptotes marina  Caterpillar Hosts:  Local : Astragalus spp., Lotus scoparius  S. CA desert: Amorpha californica, Acacia greggii, Calliandra callifornica, Calliandra eriophylla, Marina (Dalea) parryi , mesquite (Prosopis spp.).  Non-native: Plumbago and many legumes including alfalfa (Medicago sativa), garden beans, Sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus), Wisteria .  Adult Food: Flower nectar. © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 29 Elements of a butterfly habitat garden  Nectar sources (food for adult butterflies;  Often generalist; good nectar sources attract many species  Often the same as good pollinator habitat plants – garden serves many species  Larval (caterpillar) food sources – may be quite specific  Water  Sunning/perching spots  Protected areas © Project SOUND http://www.axsoris.com/butterfly-garden-plan-with-full-sun-plants-for-a.html Of course you’ll also want to design some seating so you can enjoy the butterfly visitors
  • 7/6/2013 30 We decide to focus on several less common species… © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/nymph/buckeye.htm Common Buckeye http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AD2009Aug01_Vanessa_atalanta_01.jpg Red Admiral http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_(butterfly) Queen http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/hesper/checker.htm Western Checkered Skipper Sleepy Orange http://www.carolinanature.com/butterflies/sleepyorange.html
  • 7/6/2013 31 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm Can we provide habitat for all of these species?
  • 7/6/2013 32 Common Buckeye - Junonia (Precis) coenia © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/nymph/buckeye.htm
  • 7/6/2013 33 Common Buckeye Junonia (Precis) coenia  Family Nymphalidae (brushfoot butterfies)  Medium-sized butterfly  Background color primarily brown with two large multicolored eyespots on dorsal hindwing and one large eyespot on dorsal forewing. © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junonia_coenia http://biology.duke.edu/dukeinsects/Junonia_coenia.php http://biology.duke.edu/dukeinsects/Junonia_coenia.php
  • 7/6/2013 34  Range: s. Canada, U.S. except northwest; nearly all of Mexico except s. Baja California  Habitat:  Open areas such as fields, parks, pastures, meadows, and coastal dunes.  Usually encountered in the undisturbed or semi-disturbed foothills and lowlands; also occasionally seen in vacant lots of cities and towns.  Often found near their food plants, and may also feed or drink around mud puddles © Project SOUND Common Buckeye - Junonia (Precis) coenia Becoming more scarce in lowland L.A. County with the destruction of suitable habitats. http://www.gardenswithwings.com/butterfly/Common%20Buckeye/index.html
  • 7/6/2013 35 Buckeye life cycle  Adults live about ten days; most common in June, Sept.  Female buckeyes lay eggs individually on buds and leaves of host plants.  The larvae (caterpillars) feed and grow on the host plant, molting several times.  Larvae transform into pupae; metamorphosis is completed in the pupal case, and fully developed adult butterflies emerge. They can take flight after their wings dry.  Larvae and adults may overwinter in warm climates (California lowlands, and regions with similar climate). © Project SOUND http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/bfly/common_buckeye.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junonia_coenia
  • 7/6/2013 36 Recognizing the Buckeye larva  Caterpillar is highly variable in color, but usually mostly black above and white and/or orange along sides with metallic blue- black dorsal spines.  Spines along sides arise from orange wart-like bases.  Head orange above; black & white speckled © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junonia_coenia http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/gallery?page=46
  • 7/6/2013 37 Adult food: easy to supply  Males perch on bare ground or low plants, occasionally patrolling in search of females, but they are not territorial.  Adults feed on nectar and also take fluids from mud and damp sand.  Favorite nectar sources are composites including aster, chickory, gumweed, knapweed, tar plant; dogbane, mints, and other flowers also visited © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/nymph/buckeye.htm
  • 7/6/2013 38 Larval foods: require planning  Plantains  Plantago erecta  Plantago lanceolata (Eurasian)  Purple Owl’s Clover (Castilleja exserta)  Monkey flowers (Mimulus spp.)  Blue Toadflax – Nuttallanthus/ Linaria canadensis  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora)  Garden snapdragon (Antirrhinum sp.). © Project SOUND By incorporating toxins (iridoid glycosides) from these plants, the caterpillars deter predatory ants
  • 7/6/2013 39 We’ll need a place for annuals in our garden © Project SOUND Dotseed Plantain – Plantago erecta Purple Owl’s Clover - Castilleja exserta
  • 7/6/2013 40 We’ll also need to consider including  Lower herbaceous perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Mints/Salvias  Taller perennials – placement  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Perennial Vines?  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora) © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 41 Red Admiral - Vanessa atalanta © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AD2009Aug01_Vanessa_atalanta_01.jpg
  • 7/6/2013 42 Red Admiral - Vanessa atalanta  Nymphalidae family (Brush- footed butterflies)  Medium-size - 1 3/4 - 3 inches  Striking dark brown, red, and black wing pattern on upper side  Dark wings possess orange bands that cross the fore wings and on the outer edge of the hind wings;  White spots on the dorsal fore wings near the front margin;  Undersides of hindwings delicately patterned in shades brown; provides excellent camouflage when perch on tree trunks © Project SOUND Summer form http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Va
  • 7/6/2013 43 Red Admiral - Vanessa atalanta  Range: Guatemala north through Mexico and the United States to northern Canada; also Europe  Habitat: Moist woods, yards, parks, marshes, seeps, moist fields. © Project SOUNDhttp://bugguide.net/node/view/566577/bgimage  Note: will need to provide ‘puddles’ since Red Admirals and others drink from moist soil.
  • 7/6/2013 44 Red Admiral - Vanessa atalanta  Flight: Two broods from March- October in the north; winters from October-March in warm climates.  Very erratic, rapid flight.  Females lay eggs singly on the tops of host plant leaves.  Caterpillars make a larval shelter, either tying up the leaves of a shoot tip, or usually later in the life cycle rolling a leaf. They live and eat in the shelter  Adults hibernate in cold weather. © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 45 Red Admiral  Caterpillar Hosts:  Plants of the nettle family (Urticaceae) including stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), tall wild nettle (U. gracilis), wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), pellitory (Parietoria pennsylvanica)  Babytears (Soleirolia soleirolii)  Adult Food:  Prefer sap flows on trees, fermenting fruit, and bird droppings; visit flowers only when these are not available.  Will nectar at plants in Sunflower family (asters), milkweed, clovers and alfalfa, among others. © Project SOUND http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Vanessa
  • 7/6/2013 46 We may want to consider adding  Larger Shrubs/sub-shrubs  Calliandra eriophylla  Taller perennials – placement  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Lower herbaceous perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Mints/Salvias  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Perennial Vines?  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora)  Groundcover  Babytears - (Soleirolia soleirolii) © Project SOUND http://www.clker.com/cliparts/h/H/1/a/j/l/check-list- outline-md.png
  • 7/6/2013 47 Striated Queen - Danaus gilippus strigosus © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 48 Recognizing the ‘large orange butterflies’ © Project SOUND Queen - Danaus gilippus (wing span: 2 5/8 - 3 7/8 inches) Gulf Fritillary Monarch
  • 7/6/2013 49 Queen - Danaus gilippus  Family: Nymphalidae (the brush-foots); subtropical relative of the Monarch  Habitat: Open, sunny areas including fields, deserts, roadsides, pastures, dunes, washes.  Range: from Brazil to Florida and the Gulf Coast. Also prevalent in California, Texas, Arizona, and s. New Mexico.  Local:  Sporadic records from many low elevation localities; flies April-November  Probably more common in desert areas © Project SOUND male female http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_(butterfly) http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/danaidae/queen.htm Adults roost communally. http://www.gardenswithwings.com/butterfly/Queen /index.html
  • 7/6/2013 50 Queen - Danaus gilippus  To find females, males patrol all day.  Courtship involves the use of scent cues  Females lay eggs singly on leaves, stems, and flower buds; which the caterpillars eat. © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_(butterfly) http://bugguide.net/node/view/717169/bgimage http://bugguide.net/node/view/562040
  • 7/6/2013 51 Queen - Danaus gilippus  Caterpillar Hosts:  Milkweeds and milkweed vines.  Some of the milkweeds contain cardiac glycosides which are stored in the bodies of both the caterpillar and adult. These poisons are distasteful and emetic to birds and other vertebrate predators.  Adult Food: nectar from flowers including :  Milkweeds (Asclepias)  Sunflowers (Cliff Aster; Encelia; Rabbitbush). © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 52 Our growing list of plants  Lower herbaceous perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Mints/Salvias  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa )  Taller perennials – placement  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis)  Perennial Vines?  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora)  Groundcover  Babytears - (Soleirolia soleirolii) © Project SOUND http://www.clker.com/cliparts/h/H/1/a/j/l/check-list- outline-md.png
  • 7/6/2013 53 Sleepy Orange – Abaeis (Eurema) nicippe © Project SOUND http://butterfliesofamerica.com/abaeis_nicippe_live3.htm
  • 7/6/2013 54 Sleepy Orange – Abaeis (Eurema) nicippe  Family: Pieridae (Whites & Sulphers)  Small-medium size: wing span: 1 3/8 - 2 1/4 inches (3.5 - 5.7 cm).  Upperside of wings orange in both sexes; orange-yellow form rare.  Forewing with small black cell spot.  Male with sharply defined black borders on outer and costal margins; female borders not so well-defined.  In winter form, underside of hindwing is brick red, brown, or tan; in summer form it is orange-yellow. © Project SOUND http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Abaeis-nicippe http://butterfliesofamerica.com/abaeis_nicippe.htm
  • 7/6/2013 55 Sleepy Orange – Abaeis (Eurema) nicippe  Range:  Central America north to along the United States-Mexico border;  Vagrant to non-mountainous parts of the eastern and central U. S. south of 40 latitude  Habitat: Low elevation areas including pine flats, fields, desert scrub, gardens, vacant lots, road edges, and washes. © Project SOUNDPuddling http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eurema_nicippe_clustering.jpg http://www.gardenswithwings.com/butterfly/Sleepy%20O range/index.html
  • 7/6/2013 56 Sleepy orange  Life History:  Males patrol flats and gullies for females.  Females lay eggs singly under host plant leaves.  Caterpillars eat leaves.  Dry season form overwinters and lays eggs in spring.  Flight: Four-five flights/all year long, in warm areas of S. CA. Mid- to late summer in cooler areas.  Often encountered passing through backyards. The butterfly is an erratic and often rapid flier when frightened. © Project SOUND http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Abaeis-nicippe
  • 7/6/2013 57 Attracting Sleepy Orange  Caterpillar Hosts: Cassia/Senna species in the pea family (Fabaceae). Non-native Cassia spp., are likely the most important food sources in S. CA.  Adult Food: nectar from many species of flowers © Project SOUND http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/72259 http://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_DLW/0001/640/
  • 7/6/2013 58 © Project SOUND *Coues' Cassia/Desert Senna – Senna covesii © 2005 Gene Wagner, RPh.
  • 7/6/2013 59 © Project SOUND Desert Senna is a shrubby Pea  Size:  4-6+ ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Upright, part-woody stems from a woody base  Stems gray/tan, hairy  Open appearance  Quick-growing  Foliage:  Bright green to gray green – depending on water/light  Pea-like leaves w/ large leaflets  Larval food for Cloudless Sulphur & Sleepy Orange butterflies © 2010 Steve Matson http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/2329/senna-covesii-coves-cassia/
  • 7/6/2013 60 © Project SOUND Desert Senna in the garden  Often used as a ‘filler plant’ around other shrubs/trees and cacti in a desert-themed garden  For habitat: flowers, foliage and seeds  As a filler plant in water-wise hedgerows, paired with other Sonoran Desert plants http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Senna_covesii.jpg http://learningtolivehere.wordpress.com/2010/06/05/vegetation/ http://www.gardeningonthemoon.com/2011/09/14/a-gem-in-the-rough-senna-cassia-covesii/
  • 7/6/2013 61 Common garden Sennas  Winter Cassia/ Butterfly Bush - Cassia bicapsularis  Tropical Northern S. America  Widely available  Large shrub or small tree  Regular water  Lindheimer/Velvet-leaf Senna - Senna lindheimeriana  Native to TX, AZ  Available at Tree of Life Nursery  3-6 ft tall shrub  Low water use; sun or part-shade © Project SOUND http://butterflies.heuristron.net/plants/cassiabicapsularis.html http://www.backyardnature.net/n/w/vl-senna.htm
  • 7/6/2013 62 Our growing list of plants  Lower herbaceous perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Mints/Salvias  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Taller perennials – placement  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis)  Perennial Vines?  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora)  Groundcover  Babytears - (Soleirolia soleirolii)  Shrubs  Calliandra eriophylla  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  ? Cassia © Project SOUND http://www.clker.com/cliparts/h/H/1/a/j/l/check-list- outline-md.png
  • 7/6/2013 63 Western (Common) Checkered Skipper Pyrgus albescens © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/hesper/checker.htm
  • 7/6/2013 64 Western Checkered Skipper Pyrgus albescens  Hesperiidae (Skipper family)  Small-medium size; wing span: 1 - 1 1/2 inches (2.5 - 3.8 cm).  Upperside of male is blue-gray; female is black. Mostly gray-brown.  Both sexes have large white spots which form median bands across both wings. Patterns can be quite variable.  Underside is dull white with dark gray bands. © Project SOUND http://socalbutterflies.com/hesperiidae_html/white_checkered.htm
  • 7/6/2013 65 Western Checkered Skipper Pyrgus albescens  Range: Low altitudes in southern California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, west and South Texas; Florida, and Mexico. A rare stray to southwest Utah, and central Texas.  Habitat: Open, sunny places with low vegetation and some bare soil including prairies, fields, roadsides, yards, gardens, and low deserts. © Project SOUND http://www.abirdshome.com/resource/usa/655.htm
  • 7/6/2013 66 Pyrgus albescens  Life History:  Egg is laid singly on the foodplant (Malvaceae ).  Larva is translucent bluish- green with fine whitish lateral and dorsal stripes.  Larva makes flimsy shelter constructed by folding over a leaf and fastening it with a few strands of silk.  After each moult it moves and builds another shelter.  Flight: All year in warm climates; most of the year elsewhere. © Project SOUND http://www.butterfliesofamerica.com/pyrgus_albescens.htm
  • 7/6/2013 67 How will we judge success? Adults & larva  Adults:  Nectaring  Puddling/drinking  Courtship/Egg-laying  Larva  Evidence of larva of many sizes; look for their shelters  Larval food being consumed  Pupae (chrysalis/cocoon)  Adults emerging © Project SOUNDhttp://www.thedauphins.net/common_white_checkered_skipper_life_cycle.html Butterfly habitat gardens support the entire life cycle
  • 7/6/2013 68 Western Checkered Skipper Pyrgus albescens  Caterpillar Hosts: Not reliably reported for L.A. Co. Probably several plants in the mallow family (Malvaceae) including globemallows (Sphaeralcea), velvet-leaf (Abutilon), and poppy mallow (Callirhoe).  Adult Food: Nectar from a variety of plants. © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 69 Our list has grown to two columns: can we meet the challenge?  Shrubs  Calliandra eriophylla  ? Cassia  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  Mallow  ?Abutilon palmeri  ?Sphaeralcea ambigua  Perennial Vines?  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora)  Groundcover  Babytears - (Soleirolia soleirolii)  Lower herbaceous perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Mints/Salvias  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Taller perennials – placement  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis) © Project SOUND http://www.clker.com/cliparts/h/H/1/a/j/l/check-list- outline-md.png
  • 7/6/2013 70 We also need some good nectar plants  Larger Shrubs  Calliandra eriophylla  ? Cassia  Abutilon palmeri or Sphaeralcea ambigua  Perennial Vines?  Roving Sailor (Maurandella/ Maurandya antirrhiniflora)  Groundcover  Babytears - (Soleirolia soleirolii)  Heliotropium curassavicum  Lower herbaceous perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense  Yarrow – Achillea millefolia  Mints/Salvias  Buckwheats  Eriogonum parvifolium  Eriogonum cinerium  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  Taller perennials/subshrubs  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis)  Mints/Salvias  Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Cleveland Sage – Salvia clevelandii © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 71 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla First place the large shrubs ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora
  • 7/6/2013 72 © Project SOUND * Roving Sailor/Climbing Snapdragon – Maurandella antirrhiniflora Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  • 7/6/2013 73 © Project SOUND Roving Sailor is a nice, refined little vine  Size:  4-10 ft long & wide  Growth form:  Semi-woody vine/sprawling shrub in our area – grown as an annual in cold-winter areas – fast growth  Sprawls and twines through/over other plants (or trellises, etc.)  Foliage:  Fresh, medium to dark green (woodsy looking with water) – to gray-green (in hot, dry conditions)  Dainty – leaves somewhat ivy-like but more attractive shape  Dies back almost to ground in winter (or cut back if needed) G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=maan9
  • 7/6/2013 74 © Project SOUND Roving Sailor is surprising well suited to garden conditions…  Soils:  Texture: likes a well-drained soil; sandy soils are great, as are well- drained clays  pH: good for alkali soils  Light: full sun to part-shade; probably does best in dappled shade (under trees or climbing up a trellis)  Water:  Winter: rainwater often sufficient  Summer: some supplemental water (Zone 2 or even 2-3) will extend bloom season; drought tolerant  Fertilizer: not needed, but won’t harm http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/htop_1211484777_460.jpg Roving Sailor can hide a multitude of ‘sins’
  • 7/6/2013 75 © Project SOUND English gardeners have known for years…  Nice petite vines to climb up poles, fences, trellises  Use it to hide those ugly chain-link fences  Excellent (period- appropriate) climber for an Edwardian/ Craftsman Garden  Use to attract Buckeye butterflies http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- california/plants/maurandya-antirrhiniflora
  • 7/6/2013 76 © Project SOUND Available through traditional seed companies as Climbing Snapdragon - Asarina antirrhiniflora  ‘Mixed’ - available through several specialty seed sources online  ‘Red’ – available through Summerhill seeds and several others http://www.thompson-morgan.com/seeds1/product/7506/1.html
  • 7/6/2013 77 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Let’s use a Mallow in the transition zone ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora
  • 7/6/2013 78 Which Mallow would work best? © Project SOUND Spheralcea ambigua
  • 7/6/2013 79 © Project SOUND * Indian Mallow – Abutilon palmeri
  • 7/6/2013 80 © Project SOUND * Indian Mallow – Abutilon palmeri http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Abutilon+palmeri  Native to the low desert of S. California, on the eastern slopes of the peninsular range  Riverside, Orange & San Diego Co.  Sonoran Desert  Colorado Desert  San Jacinto Mtns  Dry east-facing mountain slopes, creosote bush scrub, elevation: 1800-2400'
  • 7/6/2013 81 © Project SOUND Indian Mallow is grown for it’s foliage  Size:  4-8 ft tall  3-5 ft wide  Growth form: sub-shrub  Woody base; portion of branches are herbaceous  Rounded shrub  Foliage:  Light green/silvery white  Velvety-soft to the touch  Leaves have attractive, rounded shape  Will die back with very low temperatures, but will recover
  • 7/6/2013 82 © Project SOUND is well suited to the water-wise garden  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained, but partial to coarser textures  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun best: keeps nice, rounded shape  Tolerates some shade/ afternoon shape  Tolerates reflected heat  Water:  Winter: needs winter rains; plant next to a rock to hold moisture  Summer: Zone 2 (best); tolerates 1-2 to 2-3  Fertilizer: none
  • 7/6/2013 83 © Project SOUND Desert Mallow – Sphaeralcea ambigua
  • 7/6/2013 84 © Project SOUND Desert Mallow is really an attractive sub-shrub  Size:  to 3 ft tall (to 5 ft. w/water)  to 3 ft wide  Growth form:  Sub-shrub – partly woody  Mounded to slightly sprawling form – many thin, wand-like branches  Short-lived – but will reseed  Foliage:  Gray-green; velvety soft  Leaf shape is typical mallow.  Many people are allergic to the Desert Mallow; often called "Hierba Muy Mala" in Spanishhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/36764294@N00/13295740 Foliage is good Desert Tortoise food
  • 7/6/2013 85 © Project SOUND Flowers remind one of Hollyhocks  Blooms:  Spring is usual bloom season (Mar-May), following rains  May bloom off and on throughout year in garden  Flowers:  Showy mallow blooms along the stems  Color- usually ‘apricot’ (another name is Apricot Mallow), but differs with variety  Nectar & pollen attract butterflies, hummingbirds, any other insects http://farm1.static.flickr.com/149/430082786_0b30a88eee.jpg?v=0
  • 7/6/2013 86 © Project SOUND Flowers of many colors…. http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/reds/red05.html http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Sphaeralcea_ambigua_11.jpg var. rosacea vars ambigua & monticola
  • 7/6/2013 87 © Project SOUND Desert Mallow is versatile in the garden  Lovely addition to mixed beds – place appropriate for size  Excellent for water-wise garden, particularly in sandy/rocky soils; most drought-tolerant Sphaeralcea  Good for desert-themed gardens  Good choice for containers  Great on dry slopes, hot gardens; not for very foggy areas  Protect roots from gophers (cage) if present http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/sphaeralcea-ambigua http://www.bridgerlandaudubon.org/wildaboututah/090407xeri-garden.htm
  • 7/6/2013 88 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Hopefully we’ve enough mallow for Checkered Skippers ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua
  • 7/6/2013 89 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm Time for a reality check
  • 7/6/2013 90 Seaside Heliotrope Heliotropium curassavicum
  • 7/6/2013 91 Growth and other characteristics  Fleshy perennial  10-20 inches tall  Color: blue-green to yellow-green  2-10 ft stems branch from base  Spreading, prostrate (low-lying) form with ascending tips  Drought-deciduous
  • 7/6/2013 92 Gardening requirements: Seaside Heleotrope  Full sun to afternoon shade (in hot gardens)  Fine-medium soils (including sandy soils)  Low nutrient requirements  Fine for alkali (high pH) soils and salty soils  Note: may be modestly invasive in very most soils Goes well with CA Verbena (Verbena lasiostachys) – might mix the two as a seasonal groundcover
  • 7/6/2013 93 Attracts a variety of butterflies and other insects  Skippers – including state endangered Wandering Skipper  Fritillaries  Blues – Acmon Blue  Ladies  Others  Other insects  Bees  Lygus bugs
  • 7/6/2013 94 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Place the low-water groundcover plants ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua
  • 7/6/2013 95 Several shrubs/perennials not yet included Medium shrubs/sub-shrubs  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Cleveland Sage – Salvia clevelandii  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  Coastal Buckwheat - Eriogonum parvifolium  Ashyleaf Buckwheat - Eriogonum cinerium  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis) Smaller sub-shrubs/perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Yarrow – Achillea millefolia  Mints © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 96 © Project SOUND California Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica ssp. floribunda © 2006 Steve Matson
  • 7/6/2013 97 © Project SOUND CA Bee Plant  Size:  Foliage: 1-2 ft. tall & wide (slowly spreading to 3-4 ft. wide)  Flowering stalk – 2-4 ft tall  Growth form: mounded herbaceous perennial  Foliage:  Leaves simple, toothed, bright to dark green – attractive  Stems: square & red with some sun; even dried stems are interesting  In colder areas (or summer drought) foliage dies back each year ; emerges with winter rains
  • 7/6/2013 98 © Project SOUND Bee Plant is well suited to garden conditions…  Soils:  Texture: any; best in well-drained  pH: neutral to slightly acidic best (5- 7); use a bark mulch  Light:  full sun (coastal) to nearly full shade  Water:  Winter: moist soils  Summer:  Fairly dry to regular watering (well- drained soils only)  Will spread with summer water – not really invasive  Fertilizer: bark mulch  Other: quite easy to grow; few pests other than deer (who like the foliage) http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Baird-Harper/Baird- Harper_Pages/index.html
  • 7/6/2013 99 © Project SOUND Bee Plant is an excellent filler……  In narrow beds with other water-lovers  In mixed beds with annuals  As quick-growing herbaceous hedge – like along the driveway  Gives a ‘woodland’ feel to the garden  Foliage provides interesting contrast  Attracts Buckeye butterflies http://norenes5percent.blogspot.com/2006/03/native-plants-of-california.html
  • 7/6/2013 100 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla CA Bee Plant will serve as a nice screen ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Scrophulariacalifornica
  • 7/6/2013 101 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Now for some medium-size shrubs ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Scrophulariacalifornica
  • 7/6/2013 102 Shrubs/perennials not yet placed Medium shrubs/sub-shrubs  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Cleveland Sage – Salvia clevelandii  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  Coastal Buckwheat - Eriogonum parvifolium  Ashyleaf Buckwheat - Eriogonum cinerium  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis) Smaller sub-shrubs/perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia)  Asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster chilense)  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Yarrow – Achillea millefolia  Mints © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 103 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Proposed layout: medium-size shrubs ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Purple Sage Cleveland Sage Ashy Buckwheat Coast Buckwheat Rabbitbush Scrophulariacalifornica
  • 7/6/2013 104 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm Time for another reality check A more mounded form might look better
  • 7/6/2013 105 © Project SOUND Ashy-leaf Buckwheat – Eriogonum cinereum
  • 7/6/2013 106 © Project SOUND Special features of Ashy-leaf Buckwheat  Size:  2-4 ft tall  to 6 ft wide  Growth form:  Many-branched perennial shrub  Mounding or cascading form  Medium to fast growth (depends on water availability)  Foliage:  Large gray-green to white leaves  Nice color year-round
  • 7/6/2013 107 © Project SOUND Ashy-leaf Buckwheat adds a touch of class…  Excellent plant for the natural, wildlife garden.  Interesting ground cover  Blends well with other gray- leaved natives  Good for erosion control on slopes  Excellent for seaside/ coastal areas http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/ashyleafbuckwheat.html Although the species has long been in cultivation, it is only infrequently found in the garden today
  • 7/6/2013 108 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Final placement: medium-size shrubs ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Purple Sage Cleveland Sage Ashy Buckwheat CA Buckwheat ‘Dana Point’ Rabbitbush Scrophulariacalifornica
  • 7/6/2013 109 © Project SOUND Managing shrubby buckwheats  Most are low maintenance  By fall, the flowers turn a reddish-brown  Easily deadheaded, if desired  Or (better) retained for the change of color and for bird habitat.  Cut back in late fall to mid-winter to encourage herbaceous growth over woody look  Leave several inches of woody growth  Cutting it back to 6” in late fall keeps the woody growth to a minimum and the plant looking its best the year round.  When the shrub is becoming too leggy, it needs to be replaced.
  • 7/6/2013 110 Shrubs/perennials not yet placed Medium shrubs/sub-shrubs  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Cleveland Sage – Salvia clevelandii  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  Coastal Buckwheat - Eriogonum parvifolium  Ashyleaf Buckwheat - Eriogonum cinerium  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis) Smaller sub-shrubs/perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia hirsutula)  Pacific Aster (Symphyotrichum/ Aster chilense)  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Yarrow – Achillea millefolia  Mints (Stachys bullata) © Project SOUND Smaller sub-shrubs/perennials  Babytears - (Soleirolia soleirolii) - needs regular water
  • 7/6/2013 111 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Fill in with perennials for color and habitat ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Purple Sage Cleveland Sage Ashy Buckwheat CA Buckwheat ‘Dana Point’ Rabbitbush Scrophulariacalifornica Baby Tears Stachys bullata Stachys bullata Yarrow Yarrow Water Zone 2-3 to 3 Pellitory
  • 7/6/2013 112 Achieving adequate floral coverage in each season: it takes some thought if space is limited  Flower patches: at least 3 ft x 3 ft per species – the bigger the better  A few well-chosen plant species might be better than many  Most bang for buck: shrubs vs. annual wildflowers (depends on situation)  Likely will need to use vertical space  Some shrubs and trees are quite adaptable to small/narrow spaces  Lots of ‘flowering area’ with a small footprint  One yard/garden can’t do it all - “it takes a neighborhood” © Project SOUND http://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm
  • 7/6/2013 113 How are we doing for seasonal coverage? Medium shrubs/sub-shrubs  CA Bee Plant - Scrophularia californica  Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Cleveland Sage – Salvia clevelandii  Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa)  CA Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum  Ashyleaf Buckwheat - Eriogonum cinerium  Cliff Aster – (Malacothrix saxatilis) Smaller sub-shrubs/perennials  Gumplants (Grindelia hirsutula)  Pacific Aster (Symphyotrichum/ Aster chilense)  Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)  Yarrow – Achillea millefolia  Mints (Stachys bullata) © Project SOUND
  • 7/6/2013 114 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Mass perennials for color and habitat ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Purple Sage Cleveland Sage Ashy Buckwheat CA Buckwheat ‘Dana Point’ Rabbitbush Scrophulariacalifornica Baby Tears Stachys bullata Stachys bullata Coast Gumplant Yarrow Pacific Aster Narrowleaf Milkweed Yarrow Yarrow pellitory
  • 7/6/2013 115 © Project SOUND Hairy (Coastal) Gumplant – Grindelia hirsutula Grindelia hirsutula var. maritima © 2008 Jorg Fleige http://www.coestatepark.com/grindelia_hirsutula.htm © 2008 Jorg Fleige
  • 7/6/2013 116 © Project SOUND Hairy Gumplant - an herbaceous perennial  Size:  1-3 ft tall (v. maritima 1-2 ft)  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; dies back in fall  Many slender stems from woody rootstock  May be upright or more leaning (maritima)  Foliage:  Blue-green, tinged with red, purple or yellow  More refined-looking than other Grindelia species © 2000 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org
  • 7/6/2013 117 © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: sandy is best, but really tolerant  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun (or at least 4-6 hrs in summer)  Water:  Winter: fine with winter rains – takes some flooding  Summer: does well in very little to occasional water ( Zone 1-2 to 2 or 2-3); very adaptable  Fertilizer: none needed, but fine with organic mulches  Other: deadhead to keep it looking nice. http://www.coestatepark.com/grindelia_hirsutula.htm http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2478/3719674868_1148dc805b.jpg?v=0
  • 7/6/2013 118 © Project SOUND Hairy Gumplant – a natural for the perennial bed http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/grindella-hirsutula  At back of mixed flowers beds  Along walls, fences  Fine on slopes  Easy, adaptable & hardy http://sfcompact.blogspot.com/2009/06/mmmmm-food.html
  • 7/6/2013 119 © Project SOUND Coastal Groundcover Gum Plant - Grindelia stricta venulosa  A.K.A Grindelia arenicola, G.a. pachyphylla, G.s. procumbens  Coastal bluff plant from the bay area.  Low growing - < 1 ft.  Spreads nicely as a ground cover  Likes some summer water – Zone 2 to 2-3 http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/grindelia-stricta-venulosa
  • 7/6/2013 120 © Project SOUND http://www.movoto.com/real-estate/homes-for-sale/CA/Redondo-Beach/510-S-Guadalupe-Ave-202_PW13104255.htm Though simple, it’s not half bad – let’s go with it!
  • 7/6/2013 121 © Project SOUND Calliandra eriophylla Final plan: provides color and habitat ? Cassia N Maurandya antirrhiniflora Maurandya antirrhiniflora Heliotropium curassavicum + ? Verbena lasiostachys Sphaeralcea ambigua Sphaeralcea ambigua Purple Sage Cleveland Sage Ashy Buckwheat CA Buckwheat ‘Dana Point’ Rabbitbush Scrophulariacalifornica Baby Tears Stachys bullata Stachys bullata Coast Gumplant Yarrow Pacific Aster Narrowleaf Milkweed Yarrow Where can we plant some annuals? moist pellitory
  • 7/6/2013 122 In summary: yes we can have (most) of it!  Formal gardens are appropriate in certain situations  Formal gardens can be simple/small; they just need to have the basic elements: order, neatness, geometry, and symmetry  Hardscape plays an important role in formal garden design – in contemporary gardens, it may be the most important element in making a garden look ‘formal’ © Project SOUND http://www.allaboutmygarden.com/2012/08/an-herb-garden-to-die-for/
  • 7/6/2013 123 In summary: yes we can have (most) of it!  Butterfly habitat gardens must supply adult & larval food, water as well as perching and sheltered places  Adult food is often the same as the ‘pollinator magnet’ plants we discussed last month  Larval food is often specific; need to choose plants based on specific butterflies and their needs  Size and bloom duration matter when providing butterfly food © Project SOUND It takes a neighborhood to provide butterfly habitat; get out and spread the news
  • 7/6/2013 124 Get out and observe butterflies and other insects in local gardens this month © Project SOUND Funereal Duskywing - Erynnis funeralis
  • 7/6/2013 125 Participate in special butterfly events © Project SOUND