Attractive annuals 2013

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This lecture was given in April, 2013 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Attractive annuals 2013

  1. 1. 4/6/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 4/6/2013 Attractive Annuals our most attractive annualwildflowers & how to use them C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve October 8, 2013 © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 4/6/2013 My Gardening Philosophy – circa 2013 1. Knowledge is power 2. It’s better to understand how something works rather than to just follow rules 3. It’s easier to work with the physical conditions in a garden (soil characteristics, light, etc.) than to try to change them dramatically 4. California native plants from the local area are oftenhttp://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/ the best suited for local gardens 5. Look to Mother Nature and Native Californians for gardening advice 6. Make a garden plan – even tho’ it may change over time 7. Choose plants based on their suitability for your needs and garden conditions 8. Save ‘Heritage’ trees and large shrubs – unless there’s a good reason to remove them 9. Choose plants for their habitat value 10. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.) © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 4/6/2013 What are  Complete their entire life cycle in ‘Annual plants’? a year or less (one growing season)  Only the dormant seed bridges the gap between one generation and the next.  Because they only grow a short time, most have an economical form: short, herbaceous, just enough leaves, etc.  Some plants can behave as an http://www.whiteflowerfarm.com/87191-product.html#.UV4KJ1Pn9D8 annual or a perennial depending on local climatic and geographicIn the garden, annuals are growing conditions [examples:particularly useful for providing pepper plants; CA Poppies].seasonal color – and food © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 4/6/2013It all starts with Pollination and Fertilization 5
  6. 6. 4/6/2013 Schematic representation of Arabidopsis seed development and stages of the life cycle used Seed development: a complex process for GeneChip analysis. Le B H et al. PNAS 2010;107:8063-8070©2010 by National Academy of Sciences 6
  7. 7. 4/6/2013 Notice the last step of seed development Loss of water: up to 90- 95% of water is lost Important for:  Putting embryo into (and keeping it in) suspended animation  Keeping the seed protected – hard, protective coat That’s why important to let plants dry out after they set seeds © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 4/6/2013 The mighty seed: a time capsule into the future  Seed coat (testa) – protection  Embryo  Provisions:  Food (cotyledon)  Hormones  Other stored http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/hort604/lecturesupplmex07/anatomymorphology.htm chemicals (enzymes & other)Everything the seed needs in order to be ready for germination © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 4/6/2013 Germination: rapid re-animation  Uptake of water: imbibation  Turning on metabolism  Activating enzymes needed to break down food stores  All this involves many plant hormones; may also involve http://images.tutorvista.com/content/feed/tvcs/germination-process-voandzeia.jpeg outside signals (light; temp.) http://www.seedbiology.de/images/hormgerm1web.gif © Project SOUNDhttp://5e.plantphys.net/images/ch11/we1104a_s.jpg 9
  10. 10. 4/6/2013 The annual lifestyle is a good adaptation to our mediterranean climate  Plants are dormant during long dry period – they are in ‘suspended animation’ in the seed  The plants can weather particularly dry years – wait for more favorable rainfall conditions  Plants grow during the season ofhttp://prairierosesgarden.blogspot.com/2010_03_01_archive.html abundant soil moisture; fast growth, timed to rainfall  Set seed as the soil dries out © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 4/6/2013 Timing is everything…http://occnps.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/front.jpg © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 4/6/2013The schedule of local Annual plants  Seed germination – Fall/Winter (after the first seasonal rains); some require spring warmth; generally quick (1-4 weeks)  Plant growth – Winter (some) Spring, Summer (some) – rapid in warm days of Spring  Flowering – Spring/Summer (a very few in early fall)  Seed production – Late Spring- Summer  Death – Spring (some), Summer (most), Fall (a few) © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 4/6/2013But how can I use annual wildflowers in my garden? http://www.gardensbygabriel.com/blog/2011/05/09/plant-of-the-month-lupine/ © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 4/6/2013 Annuals are often used to add a ‘spot of color’http://homeguides.sfgate.com/companion-plants-annual-flowers-43553.html http://garden-designs.org/2011/07/04/perennial-garden-design/ © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 4/6/2013 Dark background that’s gloomy (or boring) in spring – need something to liven it upA little bit of yellow might addsome cheerful ‘sunshine’ http://gardensofpetersonville.blogspot.com/2012/06/little-heat.html © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 4/6/2013Tidy-tips and Goldfields are old standbys © Project SOUND 16
  17. 17. 4/6/2013But maybe we want something a little bigger that is pure golden yellow © Project SOUND 17
  18. 18. 4/6/2013 The genus Coreopsis: the Tickseeds  Scientific name is derived from the Greek word koris, meaning Bedbug.  Flowers: usually yellow, toothed tips.  Primarily native to North America.  Many cultivars are available for gardens; used world-wide as ‘yellow daisies’.  Coreopsis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera speciesFamily: Asteraceae © Project SOUND 18
  19. 19. 4/6/2013 The Asteraceae: the sunflowers http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/angiosperm-families/family-asteraceae.php The flowers, also called florets, are nearly always clustered into heads, with each subtended by a whorl or whorls of modified leaves called bracts (the involucre). © Project SOUND 19
  20. 20. 4/6/2013 Asteraceae – two forms of flowers ©2006 Larry Blakelyhttp://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM  A disk flower, in its most complete form, has five petals fused into a tube, with a tube of five fused anthers inside the petal tube  A ray flower (a "petal" of a daisy) is similar, except that some of the fused petals extend on one side into a flat strap-like ligule.  Flower heads may have only ray flowers or disk flowers, or both. © Project SOUND 20
  21. 21. 4/6/2013 Asteraceae – reproduction & seeds http://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM Flowers may be ‘complete’, unisexual or sterile, lacking either or both "male" and "female" sexual parts. Each functionally "female" flower, whether ray or disk, has a single inferior ovary with a single ovule. If the ovule is fertilized, it will develop into a single seed in a special dry fruit called an achene. © Project SOUND 21
  22. 22. 4/6/2013Bigelow coreopsis – Coreopsis bigelovii ©2005 Brent Miller © Project SOUND 22
  23. 23. 4/6/2013 Bigelow coreopsis – Coreopsis bigelovii  Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica Mtns), Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Mojave Desert, n Sonoran Desert  Open woodlands, grasslands, deserts, dry gravelly hillsides to about 5000, creosote bush scrub, joshua tree woodland, chaparral, pinyon-juniper woodlandhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1008,1009 ©2006 Larry Blakely © Project SOUND 23
  24. 24. 4/6/2013 Bigelow Coreopsis: mostly flowers  Size:  12-18 inches tall  12-18 inches wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:  Leaves mostly in basal rosette  Leaves often divided into linear lobes – likely more substantial in garden  Color: varies with water/light availability  Leaves used extensively as raw/cooked vegetable by CA native desert tribes©2006 James M. Andre © Project SOUND 24
  25. 25. 4/6/2013 Flowers are glorious  Blooms:  In spring: usually Feb-Mar to May in our area  Flowers:  In typical ‘sunflower heads’ – usually one per stalk ©2006 Larry Blakely  Both ray & disk flowers yellow – disk often a little darker gold  Broad liguled ray flowers  Attract a wide range of insect pollinators  Seeds: dry achenes typical of sunflowers; wind distributed; edible (mostly by birds) © Project SOUNDhttp://www.hazmac.biz/050221/050221CoreopsisBigelovii.html 25
  26. 26. 4/6/2013Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any – coarse in wilds  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter/spring: to establish  Summer: taper off after flowering ceases  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Gravel mulch or none if you want them to re-seed  Easy from seed – no pre- treatment©2006 Larry Blakely http://xasauantoday.com/category/diablo-range/ © Project SOUND 26
  27. 27. 4/6/2013 Uses for Coreopsis  In a desert garden or rock garden with other desert annuals, grasses, shrubs  As an attractive container plant  And much more©2010 Thomas Stoughton With desert plants http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3335/4606895484_8a18c3a140_z.jpg SOUND © Project http://www.delange.org/DesertCoreopsis/DesertCoreopsis.htm 27
  28. 28. 4/6/2013 Coreopsis: where ever a little spring sunlight is neededhttp://millernursery.com/image/plantPicFiles/SmallWebPics/coreopsisVerticillataMoonbeamS.jpg http://www.ehow.com/info_8306523_do-marigolds- keep-insects-away.html http://www.mahoneysgarden.com/perennial/tickseed- coreopsis-little-sundialhttp://www.gardennj.com/images/zagreb1.JPG http://www.robsplants.com/plants/CoreoAuric © Project SOUND 28
  29. 29. 4/6/2013 * Common Madia – Madia elegans Summer bloomer© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND 29
  30. 30. 4/6/2013 Yellow Coreopsis combine well with other bright spring colorshttp://wwwrockrose.blogspot.com/2010/05/they-have-to-go.html http://www.flickriver.com/photos/scs_in_nj/sets/72157604353309858/ © Project SOUND 30
  31. 31. 4/6/2013 We’ve often hyped the ‘blue & gold’ color scheme © Project SOUNDhttp://www.resimsite.com/img144.htm 31
  32. 32. 4/6/2013 Mother Nature’s CA wildflower gardens abound with complementary color schemes  Blue/purple with yellow/gold schemes are the most common  Probably because our flowers evolved along with their insect pollinators – many of whom ‘see’ yellows & blueshttp://www.humanflowerproject.com/index.php/weblog/comments/feral_flowers_cultured_eyes/ © Project SOUND 32
  33. 33. 4/6/2013 Phacelias provide a wide range of purples & blues Sticky Phacelia – Phacelia viscida Parry’s Phacelia – Phacelia parryi Tansey-leaf Phacelia – Phacelia tanecetifoliaCaterpillar Phacelia – Phacelia cicutaria © Project SOUND 33
  34. 34. 4/6/2013 * California Bluebell – Phacelia minor©2003 Guy Bruyea © Project SOUND 34
  35. 35. 4/6/2013 * California Bluebell – Phacelia minor  S. CA from Santa Monica Mts. to edge of desert  Dry disturbed places like burns and road-sides below 5000, coastal sage scrub, chaparral  AKA: Wild Canterbury Bells; Whitlaviahttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4659 © Project SOUND ©2009 Robert Steers 35
  36. 36. 4/6/2013 CA Bluebell: surprisingly large leaves  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual  Low, dense clump of blue-green, scalloped leaves with branched flower stalks above©2004 Larry Blakely  Foliage:  Most leaves in basal rosette  Leaves large – to 4-5 inches  Leaves toothed, crinkly, oval or rounded blades borne on long petioles (leaf stem)  Stiff glandular trichomes (hairs) – cause skin rash in some ©2009 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND 36
  37. 37. 4/6/2013 Flowers are velvety purple-blue  Blooms: in spring; usually Mar- May in S. Bay  Flowers:  Fantastic rich blue-purple; generally no white on petals  Relatively large – to 1 ½ inches  Petals fused into a bell-shaped corolla (petal) tube; fairly broad for Phacelia – may have a narrower ‘neck’  Really beautiful  Seeds: many small, hard seeds©2010 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND 37
  38. 38. 4/6/2013 Delicate-looking – but tough in fact  Soils:  Texture: likes a coarse, well- drained soil – can take others  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun  Water:  Winter/spring: keep moist while developing  Summer: dry after flowering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch – like in the photograph© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND 38
  39. 39. 4/6/2013 CA Bluebell: color & more  Wonderful massed – alone or with contrasting yellow or white flowers  As an attractive pot plant  On dry slopes or water-wise gardens – let it naturalize©2010 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND http://blog.anniesannuals.com/tag/phacelia-minor/ http://biology.csusb.edu/PlantGuideFolder/PhaceliaMinor/PhaceliaMinorStand.jpg 39
  40. 40. 4/6/2013 Choose native annuals for double duty as ‘pollinator plants’ All other things being equal 1. Choose plants for their habitat value 2. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.)http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Boraginaceae/Phacelia%20minor.htm © Project SOUND 40
  41. 41. 4/6/2013 Why are Phacelias such good pollinator plants?  Many flowers per plant; long bloom period  Make it worthwhile for the pollinators to visit  Open flower structure (some):  Nectar accessible to many types of pollinators  Abundant nectar production  Evolved with insect pollinator species  Note: many have markings to attract pollinators to the nectar (‘nectar lines’)©2003 Kristin Szabo © Project SOUND 41
  42. 42. 4/6/2013 The tale of two Phaceliashttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phaceliaminor.jpg © Project SOUND 42
  43. 43. 4/6/2013 Parry’s Phacelia – Phacelia parryi  Waterleaf family (like Baby Blue-eyes)  Named for Charles C. Parry (1832-1890) – botanist with the Pacific Railway Survey  Grows in S. CA south to Baja CAhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4673 © Project SOUND 43
  44. 44. 4/6/2013 Flowers are lovely…  Blooms Apr-June in South Bay  Flowers bell-shaped, with very open, http://www.gardengates.info/Phac.%20par.close.jpg spreading petals, borne on erect stems  Color: rich purple-blue with five pure-white spots, white anthershttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/phacpar4.htm © Project SOUND 44
  45. 45. 4/6/2013 Some CA Bluebell plants appear to have characteristics of both Phacelias  Phacelia minor  Uniform color – no white spots or streaks  Long cylindric corolla tube  Phacelia parryi  White spots  Very short/no corolla tube  Often more blue than purple  ‘unusual’ P. minor  Occur w/in 10 mi. of P. parryi populations  Always within P. minor populations  White spots/streaks  Shorter tubehttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html © Project SOUND 45
  46. 46. 4/6/2013 Conclusion?  Introgression with P. parryi; i.e., some specimens are hybrids with P. parryi, whereas other specimens are "pure" P. minor.  It is also possible that this simply represents intrinsic variation within P. minor.  rDNA evidence : either hybridization or a recent divergence between P. parryihttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html and P. minor  Take home message:  Evolution is still occurring  Role of humans in plant evolution  Responsibility of gardeners © Project SOUND 46
  47. 47. 4/6/2013* Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia © Project SOUND 47
  48. 48. 4/6/2013 * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia  Mojave Desert & N. and W. Sonoran Desert of California  Open dry, sandy or gravelly places below 4000 ft.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4601 © Project SOUNDGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 48
  49. 49. 4/6/2013Desert Bluebells – an annual desert wildflower  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2+ ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Mounded to somewhat sprawling shape - attractive  Stems often red-purple in color  Foliage:  Rounded, coarsely-toothed leaves – somewhat like Heuchera  Whole plant hairy/sticky – may cause mild skin allergies, so wear gloves to handlehttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1886/phacelia-campanularia-desertbells/ © Project SOUND 49
  50. 50. 4/6/2013 Flowers are a bright, pure blue  Blooms: in spring - usually Feb-Apr. in our area, but may be later  Flowers:  Small-medium size (to 1 inch)  Bell-shaped – typical for Phacelia  Bright, intense true blue – iridescent http://www.hortmag.com/article/desertbluebells/ – difficult to photograph  Seeds:  In dry capsules  Relatively easy – no pre-treatment; just plant in place in fall/winter – germinate in spring  Serial sow for longer bloom season  Will reseed – but not extensively –http://www.delange.org/BlueBells/BlueBells.htm usually must re-seed © Project SOUND 50
  51. 51. 4/6/2013  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any well-drained; sandy & gravelly soils great  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun (best) to light shade  Water:  Winter/spring: need plenty of water during active growth  Summer: occasional deep water extends blooming; taper off as flowering ends  Fertilizer: fine in poor soils, OK with light fertilizer (like any of our annual wildflowers)  Other: seeds need bare soil/light gravel mulch to germinate; requirehttp://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Phacelia_campanularia_var._campanulari dim light as germination cue.a&printable=yes&printable=yes © Project SOUND 51
  52. 52. 4/6/2013 Annual ‘Pollenator Plants’ can be tucked in anywhere  Spilling out of pots & planters  Along garden paths – often short  Massed for spring color – pairhttp://back40feet.blogspot.com/2008/06/friday-night-botanical-garden.html with Tidy-tips or CA Poppy for a real zing!  Between native shrubs & sub- shrubs  Mixed with native desert grasses  In a rock or gravel garden  Fine in hot places © Project SOUND 52
  53. 53. 4/6/2013 Sticky Phacelia – Phacelia viscidaGood for shady spots © Project SOUND 53
  54. 54. 4/6/2013 Growing Phacelia is easy  Soil: any well-drained soil  pH: any local  Light: most like full sun to part-shade  Water: average needs; can take irrigation during dry spells  Plant fall/winter - be sure that seeds are lightly covered (germinate in darkness or dim light)http://home.pi.net/~vries796/plantslides/phac_par.htm © Project SOUND 54
  55. 55. 4/6/2013 Other advantages of annual wildflowers: their small size & adaptability http://queerbychoice.livejournal.com/643809.html?t hread=4226785http://www.gardensbygabriel.com/blog/2011/05/09/plant-of-the-month-lupine/ © Project SOUND 55
  56. 56. 4/6/2013 Even the smallest garden has a place for wildflowers http://www.penick.net/digging/index.php?s=wildflower+center Annual wildflowers are the ultimate ‘tuck-in plants’http://farm1.static.flickr.com/215/502812583_c943310b50.jpg © Project SOUND 56
  57. 57. 4/6/2013 There’s something refreshing about purple & whitehttp://tiltshifttheworld.blogspot.com/2012/04/not-just-belfast-titanic-belfast.html http://www.nihonsun.com/2009/05/22/meiji-jingu-iris-garden/ © Project SOUND 57
  58. 58. 4/6/2013* Mojave Pincushion – Chaenactis xantiana ©2009 Stephen Dowlan © Project SOUND 58
  59. 59. 4/6/2013 * Mojave Pincushion – Chaenactis xantiana  Desert mountains and foothills: s. Sierra Nevada, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert  Slopes in Chaparral, Pinyon-http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,890,912 Juniper Woodland, Sagebrush Scrub, between 1400 and 7000 feet  Open, deep, loose sandy (rarely gravelly) soils, © Project SOUND© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College 59
  60. 60. 4/6/2013Mojave Pincushion: a petit sunflower  Size:  1 – 1 ½ ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:  Leaves mostly in basal rosette  Leaves slightly fleshy; deeply lobed into very narrow segments  Color blue-green due waxy scales  Foliage often dies back before ©2009 Stephen Dowlan or with flowering in wild © Project SOUND 60
  61. 61. 4/6/2013 Flowers are pale  Blooms: in spring usually Mar- June in western L.A. County  Flowers:  Flowers in dense, compact heads that look somewhat©2011 Neal Kramer like a pincushion  Color: white to pale pink – hence another common name ‘flesh-color pincushion’  Cute  Seeds:  Dry; rather showy  Wind dispersed © Project SOUND 61
  62. 62. 4/6/2013Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained best  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter/spring: adequate for development  Summer: none after blooming  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND 62
  63. 63. 4/6/2013 Garden Pincushions  In mixed ‘color bowls’ - as a contrast plant with other, more colorful native blooms  In a desert garden  Tucked into narrow, dry places in the garden ©2010 James M. Andre © Project SOUNDhttp://166.78.84.170/taxa/57925-Chaenactis-xantiana 63
  64. 64. 4/6/2013 Yellow Pincushion (Chaenactis glabriuscula) – local version  Size: 1-2 ft tall; < 1 ft wide  Blooms:  Spring: usually Mar-May for 2-4 wks  Composite flower: http://www.callutheran.edu/wf/images/des/des-658.jpg  Larger flowers to outside  Smaller inside  Looks like a pincushion  Color: bright to golden yellow  Usually several head per stem  In wilds are often massed – ‘carpet of gold’  Excellent butterfly plant © Project SOUNDhttp://www.nps.gov/archive/pinn/images/flowers/large/yellowpincushion.jpg 64
  65. 65. 4/6/2013 ‘Sunflowers’ are easy to grow from seed  Plant at the right time – in winter, just before a major rain cyclehttp://www.ransomseedlab.com/aboutus/asteraceae/examples_lastheni  Just lightly rake in the seeds –a_californica.htm need light to germinate  Be sure the young seedlings get adequate water  Taper off water after flowering  Let plants reseed – and/or collect dry seeds, dry a week or two, store in cool, dry place (paper bags, envelopes or glass jars)http://www.nps.gov/plants/sos/bendcollections/images/Lasthenia%20californica_JPG.jpg © Project SOUND 65
  66. 66. 4/6/2013 What’s the deal about gravel/crushed rock mulches?  You may have noticed that many annual wildflowers like to grow in decomposed granite  Why?  Similar to natural conditions for some wildflowers  Well-drained  Warms up well  Easy for small seedlings to grow through; and protects them  Seeds can avoid predation  Other advantages  Looks neater than bare ground  Looks quite naturalAn inorganic mulch ~ 1 inch deep or lessworks well – you will have to weed © Project SOUND 66
  67. 67. 4/6/2013Another advantage of CA native annuals is that they ‘naturalize’ © Project SOUND 67
  68. 68. 4/6/2013Advantages to letting plants naturalize  Saves money – sometimes can just start with a few plants – or a packet of seed  Saves effort – let Mother Nature do the work  Looks ‘natural’  Helps to tie the garden together – a theme that runs through the garden © Project SOUND 68
  69. 69. 4/6/2013 Worried about annuals looking too informal?http://greatflowerbedideas.wordpress.com/ © Project SOUND 69
  70. 70. 4/6/2013 Combine them with some formal hardscape http://www.flickr.com/photos/53351976@N02/4964811573/http://www.comfortinnselinsgrove.com/privacy-policy.htm © Project SOUND 70
  71. 71. 4/6/2013 Or use them in a more formal landscape design http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/knot%20gardenhttp://phillipoliver.blogspot.com/2009/04/birmingham-open-gardens-tour-part-2.html © Project SOUND http://www.silive.com/homegarden/index.ssf/2012/09/plants_are_a_passion_at_well-s.html 71
  72. 72. 4/6/2013 Combine informal annuals with more formal non-natives for a fresh look Native annuals brighten up a knot garden – the basic structure can be designed with non-native perennial herbshttp://wreathfactoryonline.com/2012/08/19/from-cheryls-garden-riverside-international-friendship-gardens/ © Project SOUND 72
  73. 73. 4/6/2013*Desert Dandelion – Malacothrix glabrata ©2003 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND 73
  74. 74. 4/6/2013 *Desert Dandelion – Malacothrix glabrata  San Joaquin Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert - to Oregon, Idaho, Utah; Mexico  Creosote Bush Scrub, Joshua Tree Woodland, Shadscale Scrub: 0-6562 ft  On coarse, sandy, gravely or rocky soils in open areas or among shrubs © Project SOUNDCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences ©2008 Steve Matson 74
  75. 75. 4/6/2013 A Dandelion taken to a whole new level  Size:  < 18 inches tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Leaves primarily in basal rosette  Leaves somewhat fleshy  Deeply divided – segments almost thread-like – very unusual for genus  Color: medium to gray-green ©1998 Larry Blakely © Project SOUND 75
  76. 76. 4/6/2013 Flowers: small zinnias  Blooms: spring – usually Mar- June depending on rains  Flowers:  In large (to 2 inch) dandelion- like heads  Many blunt-tipped, strap-like©2008 Neal Kramer ray flowers – somewhat like zinnia  Color: yellow, often darker towards center; young head may have dark orange center  Seeds:  Like super dandelion – quite pretty w/ long silky pappus © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya 76
  77. 77. 4/6/2013  Soils:Need rain – but tough  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter/spring: need good winter rains (or irrigation)©1988 Gary A. Monroe  Summer: dry  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND 77
  78. 78. 4/6/2013 Versatile Desert Dandelion  As habitat: birds, pollinators, tortoises  As an alternative to tidy-tips in hot, dry gardens  In un-watered, out of the way places©2008 Neal Kramer  To ‘soften’ more formal plantings ©2009 Ron Wolf https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Malacothrix_glabrata © Project SOUND 78
  79. 79. 4/6/2013 Adaptations common in desert annuals  Seeds only germinate in wet years – will be more regular inhttp://www.worldbotanical.com/chaenactis.htm our area  Quick growth  Small size; ‘play well together’  Often spare, narrow/dissected leaves – or fleshy to hold water  Leaves in basal rosette – no resources wasted on leafy stems  Flowers often on stems above foliage – to increase chances of http://www.abdnha.org/pages/03flora/family/asteraceae/m pollination alacothrix_glabrata.htm © Project SOUND 79
  80. 80. 4/6/2013 Hybrid zinnias provide little in the way of habitat © Project SOUNDhttp://sparklingyogini.wordpress.com/2011/07/30/july-favorites-2011/ 80
  81. 81. 4/6/2013 Another good use of annuals is as ‘filler plants’ http://ochereeingreenwood.wordpress.com/2010/05/ © Project SOUNDhttp://wwwrockrose.blogspot.com/2009/04/easter-garden.html 81
  82. 82. 4/6/2013Something tall and colorful while the shrubs fill in http://www.jeckels.com/photoDetail?PhotoId=2148&ReferringCategoryId=281 © Project SOUND 82
  83. 83. 4/6/2013 When it comes to filler plants, the Clarkias are garden favorites throughout the world http://gardenpuzzle.com/projects/show/49848 http://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/s howimage/1758/ © Project SOUNDhttp://norahwilsonwrites.com/wordpress/?tag=alice-gaines 83
  84. 84. 4/6/2013And many are California native annuals http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2009/07/filoli.html © Project SOUND 84
  85. 85. 4/6/2013Clarkias – Evening Primrose family  Genus named after William Clark  41 annual species  72 species and sub- species native to CA  Include garden varieties sold by seed companies 85
  86. 86. 4/6/2013Clarkias have long been used in gardens  The Clarkias have been used in gardens since 1840, when seeds were sent back to England for cultivation  Most garden forms were derived from Elegant Clarkia, Clarkia amoena, and Ruby Chalice Clarkia Clarka rubicunda  Nurseries sometimes carry something they call "Godetia", which will usually © 2004 Norman Jensen be a Clarkia. 86
  87. 87. 4/6/2013 Clarkias: two types (for garden design purposes)Robust & bushy types Wand-like types Purple Clarkia – Clarkia purpureaElegant Clarkia – Clarkia unguiculata © Project SOUND 87
  88. 88. 4/6/2013 Clarkia’s: dramatic when massed  Make bold, colorful statement – sometimes for months at a time  Allow you to appreciate the differences between the different species  Planting several may allow you to extend the flowering season into summer – some tend to bloom later than othershttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/wildflower_watch_wk13.htm © Project SOUND 88
  89. 89. 4/6/2013 Confusion over Clarkias  Many Clarkia were mistaken for other genera such as Godetia  Even within the same species there is much variability  Interbreeding between sub- species  Some populations are isolated – tend to diverge from others even within a species  In the 1950s, the genus Clarkia became the object of intensive genetic and taxonomic studies athttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/purpleclarkia.html UCLA 89
  90. 90. 4/6/2013* Godetia/Farewell-to-spring – Clarkia amoenahttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/images/garden_weekly/amoena_cu1_wk12_big.jpg © Project SOUND 90
  91. 91. 4/6/2013 * Godetia – Clarkia amoena  CA and OR coast north of San Francisco Bay  Generally open, drying places, < 1500 ft.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5341,5343  Found in coastal scrub, prairies and dry open coastal slopes & bluffs  A staple of cottage gardens world-wide since the 1800’s © Project SOUNDCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences 91
  92. 92. 4/6/2013 Godeta is a robust type of Clarkia – like Elegant Clarkia  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Upright, branched form  Foliage:  Leaves simple  Typically blue-green to gray- green – may be tinged with red or magenta© 2002 George Jackson © Project SOUND 92
  93. 93. 4/6/2013 Flowers: like C. purpurea on steroids  Blooms:  Spring/summer: usually Apr-June in our area but may be later into summer with water – 2-4 months  Flowers:  Glorious two-toned colors: usuallyhttp://www.americanmeadows.com/godetia-seeds?___store=default featuring magenta, but may be more purple or more pink  Incredibly showy – like Elegant Clarkia but larger and often more bright  Attracts butterflies, hummingbirds  Seeds: many small seeds in capsules – will reseed on bare ground or gravel/crushed rock mulch; edible © 2002 George Jackson http://www.rampantscotland.com/colour/supplement070818.htm © Project SOUND 93
  94. 94. 4/6/2013 Using robust-type Clarkias  Lovely in containers – with bulbs and other annuals  Massed on slopes with grasses  In mid-beds for cottage garden  To fill in spaces that need ahttp://www.cnps.org/cnps/grownative/tips/clarkias.php little color – short- or long-term http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2011/08/larner-seeds-demonstration-garden.htmlhttp://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2010_07_01_archive.html © Project SOUND 94
  95. 95. 4/6/2013 Ruby Chalice Clarkia – Clarkia rubicunda©2011 Margo Bors © Project SOUND 95

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