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Attractive annuals 2013

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This lecture was given in April, 2013 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

This lecture was given in April, 2013 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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    Attractive annuals   2013 Attractive annuals 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • 4/6/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND 1
    • 4/6/2013 Attractive Annuals our most attractive annualwildflowers & how to use them C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve October 8, 2013 © Project SOUND 2
    • 4/6/2013 My Gardening Philosophy – circa 2013 1. Knowledge is power 2. It’s better to understand how something works rather than to just follow rules 3. It’s easier to work with the physical conditions in a garden (soil characteristics, light, etc.) than to try to change them dramatically 4. California native plants from the local area are oftenhttp://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/ the best suited for local gardens 5. Look to Mother Nature and Native Californians for gardening advice 6. Make a garden plan – even tho’ it may change over time 7. Choose plants based on their suitability for your needs and garden conditions 8. Save ‘Heritage’ trees and large shrubs – unless there’s a good reason to remove them 9. Choose plants for their habitat value 10. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.) © Project SOUND 3
    • 4/6/2013 What are  Complete their entire life cycle in ‘Annual plants’? a year or less (one growing season)  Only the dormant seed bridges the gap between one generation and the next.  Because they only grow a short time, most have an economical form: short, herbaceous, just enough leaves, etc.  Some plants can behave as an http://www.whiteflowerfarm.com/87191-product.html#.UV4KJ1Pn9D8 annual or a perennial depending on local climatic and geographicIn the garden, annuals are growing conditions [examples:particularly useful for providing pepper plants; CA Poppies].seasonal color – and food © Project SOUND 4
    • 4/6/2013It all starts with Pollination and Fertilization 5
    • 4/6/2013 Schematic representation of Arabidopsis seed development and stages of the life cycle used Seed development: a complex process for GeneChip analysis. Le B H et al. PNAS 2010;107:8063-8070©2010 by National Academy of Sciences 6
    • 4/6/2013 Notice the last step of seed development Loss of water: up to 90- 95% of water is lost Important for:  Putting embryo into (and keeping it in) suspended animation  Keeping the seed protected – hard, protective coat That’s why important to let plants dry out after they set seeds © Project SOUND 7
    • 4/6/2013 The mighty seed: a time capsule into the future  Seed coat (testa) – protection  Embryo  Provisions:  Food (cotyledon)  Hormones  Other stored http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/hort604/lecturesupplmex07/anatomymorphology.htm chemicals (enzymes & other)Everything the seed needs in order to be ready for germination © Project SOUND 8
    • 4/6/2013 Germination: rapid re-animation  Uptake of water: imbibation  Turning on metabolism  Activating enzymes needed to break down food stores  All this involves many plant hormones; may also involve http://images.tutorvista.com/content/feed/tvcs/germination-process-voandzeia.jpeg outside signals (light; temp.) http://www.seedbiology.de/images/hormgerm1web.gif © Project SOUNDhttp://5e.plantphys.net/images/ch11/we1104a_s.jpg 9
    • 4/6/2013 The annual lifestyle is a good adaptation to our mediterranean climate  Plants are dormant during long dry period – they are in ‘suspended animation’ in the seed  The plants can weather particularly dry years – wait for more favorable rainfall conditions  Plants grow during the season ofhttp://prairierosesgarden.blogspot.com/2010_03_01_archive.html abundant soil moisture; fast growth, timed to rainfall  Set seed as the soil dries out © Project SOUND 10
    • 4/6/2013 Timing is everything…http://occnps.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/front.jpg © Project SOUND 11
    • 4/6/2013The schedule of local Annual plants  Seed germination – Fall/Winter (after the first seasonal rains); some require spring warmth; generally quick (1-4 weeks)  Plant growth – Winter (some) Spring, Summer (some) – rapid in warm days of Spring  Flowering – Spring/Summer (a very few in early fall)  Seed production – Late Spring- Summer  Death – Spring (some), Summer (most), Fall (a few) © Project SOUND 12
    • 4/6/2013But how can I use annual wildflowers in my garden? http://www.gardensbygabriel.com/blog/2011/05/09/plant-of-the-month-lupine/ © Project SOUND 13
    • 4/6/2013 Annuals are often used to add a ‘spot of color’http://homeguides.sfgate.com/companion-plants-annual-flowers-43553.html http://garden-designs.org/2011/07/04/perennial-garden-design/ © Project SOUND 14
    • 4/6/2013 Dark background that’s gloomy (or boring) in spring – need something to liven it upA little bit of yellow might addsome cheerful ‘sunshine’ http://gardensofpetersonville.blogspot.com/2012/06/little-heat.html © Project SOUND 15
    • 4/6/2013Tidy-tips and Goldfields are old standbys © Project SOUND 16
    • 4/6/2013But maybe we want something a little bigger that is pure golden yellow © Project SOUND 17
    • 4/6/2013 The genus Coreopsis: the Tickseeds  Scientific name is derived from the Greek word koris, meaning Bedbug.  Flowers: usually yellow, toothed tips.  Primarily native to North America.  Many cultivars are available for gardens; used world-wide as ‘yellow daisies’.  Coreopsis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera speciesFamily: Asteraceae © Project SOUND 18
    • 4/6/2013 The Asteraceae: the sunflowers http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/angiosperm-families/family-asteraceae.php The flowers, also called florets, are nearly always clustered into heads, with each subtended by a whorl or whorls of modified leaves called bracts (the involucre). © Project SOUND 19
    • 4/6/2013 Asteraceae – two forms of flowers ©2006 Larry Blakelyhttp://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM  A disk flower, in its most complete form, has five petals fused into a tube, with a tube of five fused anthers inside the petal tube  A ray flower (a "petal" of a daisy) is similar, except that some of the fused petals extend on one side into a flat strap-like ligule.  Flower heads may have only ray flowers or disk flowers, or both. © Project SOUND 20
    • 4/6/2013 Asteraceae – reproduction & seeds http://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM Flowers may be ‘complete’, unisexual or sterile, lacking either or both "male" and "female" sexual parts. Each functionally "female" flower, whether ray or disk, has a single inferior ovary with a single ovule. If the ovule is fertilized, it will develop into a single seed in a special dry fruit called an achene. © Project SOUND 21
    • 4/6/2013Bigelow coreopsis – Coreopsis bigelovii ©2005 Brent Miller © Project SOUND 22
    • 4/6/2013 Bigelow coreopsis – Coreopsis bigelovii  Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica Mtns), Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Mojave Desert, n Sonoran Desert  Open woodlands, grasslands, deserts, dry gravelly hillsides to about 5000, creosote bush scrub, joshua tree woodland, chaparral, pinyon-juniper woodlandhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1008,1009 ©2006 Larry Blakely © Project SOUND 23
    • 4/6/2013 Bigelow Coreopsis: mostly flowers  Size:  12-18 inches tall  12-18 inches wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:  Leaves mostly in basal rosette  Leaves often divided into linear lobes – likely more substantial in garden  Color: varies with water/light availability  Leaves used extensively as raw/cooked vegetable by CA native desert tribes©2006 James M. Andre © Project SOUND 24
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are glorious  Blooms:  In spring: usually Feb-Mar to May in our area  Flowers:  In typical ‘sunflower heads’ – usually one per stalk ©2006 Larry Blakely  Both ray & disk flowers yellow – disk often a little darker gold  Broad liguled ray flowers  Attract a wide range of insect pollinators  Seeds: dry achenes typical of sunflowers; wind distributed; edible (mostly by birds) © Project SOUNDhttp://www.hazmac.biz/050221/050221CoreopsisBigelovii.html 25
    • 4/6/2013Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any – coarse in wilds  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter/spring: to establish  Summer: taper off after flowering ceases  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Gravel mulch or none if you want them to re-seed  Easy from seed – no pre- treatment©2006 Larry Blakely http://xasauantoday.com/category/diablo-range/ © Project SOUND 26
    • 4/6/2013 Uses for Coreopsis  In a desert garden or rock garden with other desert annuals, grasses, shrubs  As an attractive container plant  And much more©2010 Thomas Stoughton With desert plants http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3335/4606895484_8a18c3a140_z.jpg SOUND © Project http://www.delange.org/DesertCoreopsis/DesertCoreopsis.htm 27
    • 4/6/2013 Coreopsis: where ever a little spring sunlight is neededhttp://millernursery.com/image/plantPicFiles/SmallWebPics/coreopsisVerticillataMoonbeamS.jpg http://www.ehow.com/info_8306523_do-marigolds- keep-insects-away.html http://www.mahoneysgarden.com/perennial/tickseed- coreopsis-little-sundialhttp://www.gardennj.com/images/zagreb1.JPG http://www.robsplants.com/plants/CoreoAuric © Project SOUND 28
    • 4/6/2013 * Common Madia – Madia elegans Summer bloomer© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND 29
    • 4/6/2013 Yellow Coreopsis combine well with other bright spring colorshttp://wwwrockrose.blogspot.com/2010/05/they-have-to-go.html http://www.flickriver.com/photos/scs_in_nj/sets/72157604353309858/ © Project SOUND 30
    • 4/6/2013 We’ve often hyped the ‘blue & gold’ color scheme © Project SOUNDhttp://www.resimsite.com/img144.htm 31
    • 4/6/2013 Mother Nature’s CA wildflower gardens abound with complementary color schemes  Blue/purple with yellow/gold schemes are the most common  Probably because our flowers evolved along with their insect pollinators – many of whom ‘see’ yellows & blueshttp://www.humanflowerproject.com/index.php/weblog/comments/feral_flowers_cultured_eyes/ © Project SOUND 32
    • 4/6/2013 Phacelias provide a wide range of purples & blues Sticky Phacelia – Phacelia viscida Parry’s Phacelia – Phacelia parryi Tansey-leaf Phacelia – Phacelia tanecetifoliaCaterpillar Phacelia – Phacelia cicutaria © Project SOUND 33
    • 4/6/2013 * California Bluebell – Phacelia minor©2003 Guy Bruyea © Project SOUND 34
    • 4/6/2013 * California Bluebell – Phacelia minor  S. CA from Santa Monica Mts. to edge of desert  Dry disturbed places like burns and road-sides below 5000, coastal sage scrub, chaparral  AKA: Wild Canterbury Bells; Whitlaviahttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4659 © Project SOUND ©2009 Robert Steers 35
    • 4/6/2013 CA Bluebell: surprisingly large leaves  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual  Low, dense clump of blue-green, scalloped leaves with branched flower stalks above©2004 Larry Blakely  Foliage:  Most leaves in basal rosette  Leaves large – to 4-5 inches  Leaves toothed, crinkly, oval or rounded blades borne on long petioles (leaf stem)  Stiff glandular trichomes (hairs) – cause skin rash in some ©2009 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND 36
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are velvety purple-blue  Blooms: in spring; usually Mar- May in S. Bay  Flowers:  Fantastic rich blue-purple; generally no white on petals  Relatively large – to 1 ½ inches  Petals fused into a bell-shaped corolla (petal) tube; fairly broad for Phacelia – may have a narrower ‘neck’  Really beautiful  Seeds: many small, hard seeds©2010 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND 37
    • 4/6/2013 Delicate-looking – but tough in fact  Soils:  Texture: likes a coarse, well- drained soil – can take others  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun  Water:  Winter/spring: keep moist while developing  Summer: dry after flowering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch – like in the photograph© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND 38
    • 4/6/2013 CA Bluebell: color & more  Wonderful massed – alone or with contrasting yellow or white flowers  As an attractive pot plant  On dry slopes or water-wise gardens – let it naturalize©2010 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND http://blog.anniesannuals.com/tag/phacelia-minor/ http://biology.csusb.edu/PlantGuideFolder/PhaceliaMinor/PhaceliaMinorStand.jpg 39
    • 4/6/2013 Choose native annuals for double duty as ‘pollinator plants’ All other things being equal 1. Choose plants for their habitat value 2. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.)http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Boraginaceae/Phacelia%20minor.htm © Project SOUND 40
    • 4/6/2013 Why are Phacelias such good pollinator plants?  Many flowers per plant; long bloom period  Make it worthwhile for the pollinators to visit  Open flower structure (some):  Nectar accessible to many types of pollinators  Abundant nectar production  Evolved with insect pollinator species  Note: many have markings to attract pollinators to the nectar (‘nectar lines’)©2003 Kristin Szabo © Project SOUND 41
    • 4/6/2013 The tale of two Phaceliashttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phaceliaminor.jpg © Project SOUND 42
    • 4/6/2013 Parry’s Phacelia – Phacelia parryi  Waterleaf family (like Baby Blue-eyes)  Named for Charles C. Parry (1832-1890) – botanist with the Pacific Railway Survey  Grows in S. CA south to Baja CAhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4673 © Project SOUND 43
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are lovely…  Blooms Apr-June in South Bay  Flowers bell-shaped, with very open, http://www.gardengates.info/Phac.%20par.close.jpg spreading petals, borne on erect stems  Color: rich purple-blue with five pure-white spots, white anthershttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/phacpar4.htm © Project SOUND 44
    • 4/6/2013 Some CA Bluebell plants appear to have characteristics of both Phacelias  Phacelia minor  Uniform color – no white spots or streaks  Long cylindric corolla tube  Phacelia parryi  White spots  Very short/no corolla tube  Often more blue than purple  ‘unusual’ P. minor  Occur w/in 10 mi. of P. parryi populations  Always within P. minor populations  White spots/streaks  Shorter tubehttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html © Project SOUND 45
    • 4/6/2013 Conclusion?  Introgression with P. parryi; i.e., some specimens are hybrids with P. parryi, whereas other specimens are "pure" P. minor.  It is also possible that this simply represents intrinsic variation within P. minor.  rDNA evidence : either hybridization or a recent divergence between P. parryihttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html and P. minor  Take home message:  Evolution is still occurring  Role of humans in plant evolution  Responsibility of gardeners © Project SOUND 46
    • 4/6/2013* Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia © Project SOUND 47
    • 4/6/2013 * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia  Mojave Desert & N. and W. Sonoran Desert of California  Open dry, sandy or gravelly places below 4000 ft.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4601 © Project SOUNDGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 48
    • 4/6/2013Desert Bluebells – an annual desert wildflower  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2+ ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Mounded to somewhat sprawling shape - attractive  Stems often red-purple in color  Foliage:  Rounded, coarsely-toothed leaves – somewhat like Heuchera  Whole plant hairy/sticky – may cause mild skin allergies, so wear gloves to handlehttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1886/phacelia-campanularia-desertbells/ © Project SOUND 49
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are a bright, pure blue  Blooms: in spring - usually Feb-Apr. in our area, but may be later  Flowers:  Small-medium size (to 1 inch)  Bell-shaped – typical for Phacelia  Bright, intense true blue – iridescent http://www.hortmag.com/article/desertbluebells/ – difficult to photograph  Seeds:  In dry capsules  Relatively easy – no pre-treatment; just plant in place in fall/winter – germinate in spring  Serial sow for longer bloom season  Will reseed – but not extensively –http://www.delange.org/BlueBells/BlueBells.htm usually must re-seed © Project SOUND 50
    • 4/6/2013  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any well-drained; sandy & gravelly soils great  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun (best) to light shade  Water:  Winter/spring: need plenty of water during active growth  Summer: occasional deep water extends blooming; taper off as flowering ends  Fertilizer: fine in poor soils, OK with light fertilizer (like any of our annual wildflowers)  Other: seeds need bare soil/light gravel mulch to germinate; requirehttp://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Phacelia_campanularia_var._campanulari dim light as germination cue.a&printable=yes&printable=yes © Project SOUND 51
    • 4/6/2013 Annual ‘Pollenator Plants’ can be tucked in anywhere  Spilling out of pots & planters  Along garden paths – often short  Massed for spring color – pairhttp://back40feet.blogspot.com/2008/06/friday-night-botanical-garden.html with Tidy-tips or CA Poppy for a real zing!  Between native shrubs & sub- shrubs  Mixed with native desert grasses  In a rock or gravel garden  Fine in hot places © Project SOUND 52
    • 4/6/2013 Sticky Phacelia – Phacelia viscidaGood for shady spots © Project SOUND 53
    • 4/6/2013 Growing Phacelia is easy  Soil: any well-drained soil  pH: any local  Light: most like full sun to part-shade  Water: average needs; can take irrigation during dry spells  Plant fall/winter - be sure that seeds are lightly covered (germinate in darkness or dim light)http://home.pi.net/~vries796/plantslides/phac_par.htm © Project SOUND 54
    • 4/6/2013 Other advantages of annual wildflowers: their small size & adaptability http://queerbychoice.livejournal.com/643809.html?t hread=4226785http://www.gardensbygabriel.com/blog/2011/05/09/plant-of-the-month-lupine/ © Project SOUND 55
    • 4/6/2013 Even the smallest garden has a place for wildflowers http://www.penick.net/digging/index.php?s=wildflower+center Annual wildflowers are the ultimate ‘tuck-in plants’http://farm1.static.flickr.com/215/502812583_c943310b50.jpg © Project SOUND 56
    • 4/6/2013 There’s something refreshing about purple & whitehttp://tiltshifttheworld.blogspot.com/2012/04/not-just-belfast-titanic-belfast.html http://www.nihonsun.com/2009/05/22/meiji-jingu-iris-garden/ © Project SOUND 57
    • 4/6/2013* Mojave Pincushion – Chaenactis xantiana ©2009 Stephen Dowlan © Project SOUND 58
    • 4/6/2013 * Mojave Pincushion – Chaenactis xantiana  Desert mountains and foothills: s. Sierra Nevada, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert  Slopes in Chaparral, Pinyon-http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,890,912 Juniper Woodland, Sagebrush Scrub, between 1400 and 7000 feet  Open, deep, loose sandy (rarely gravelly) soils, © Project SOUND© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College 59
    • 4/6/2013Mojave Pincushion: a petit sunflower  Size:  1 – 1 ½ ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:  Leaves mostly in basal rosette  Leaves slightly fleshy; deeply lobed into very narrow segments  Color blue-green due waxy scales  Foliage often dies back before ©2009 Stephen Dowlan or with flowering in wild © Project SOUND 60
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are pale  Blooms: in spring usually Mar- June in western L.A. County  Flowers:  Flowers in dense, compact heads that look somewhat©2011 Neal Kramer like a pincushion  Color: white to pale pink – hence another common name ‘flesh-color pincushion’  Cute  Seeds:  Dry; rather showy  Wind dispersed © Project SOUND 61
    • 4/6/2013Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained best  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter/spring: adequate for development  Summer: none after blooming  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND 62
    • 4/6/2013 Garden Pincushions  In mixed ‘color bowls’ - as a contrast plant with other, more colorful native blooms  In a desert garden  Tucked into narrow, dry places in the garden ©2010 James M. Andre © Project SOUNDhttp://166.78.84.170/taxa/57925-Chaenactis-xantiana 63
    • 4/6/2013 Yellow Pincushion (Chaenactis glabriuscula) – local version  Size: 1-2 ft tall; < 1 ft wide  Blooms:  Spring: usually Mar-May for 2-4 wks  Composite flower: http://www.callutheran.edu/wf/images/des/des-658.jpg  Larger flowers to outside  Smaller inside  Looks like a pincushion  Color: bright to golden yellow  Usually several head per stem  In wilds are often massed – ‘carpet of gold’  Excellent butterfly plant © Project SOUNDhttp://www.nps.gov/archive/pinn/images/flowers/large/yellowpincushion.jpg 64
    • 4/6/2013 ‘Sunflowers’ are easy to grow from seed  Plant at the right time – in winter, just before a major rain cyclehttp://www.ransomseedlab.com/aboutus/asteraceae/examples_lastheni  Just lightly rake in the seeds –a_californica.htm need light to germinate  Be sure the young seedlings get adequate water  Taper off water after flowering  Let plants reseed – and/or collect dry seeds, dry a week or two, store in cool, dry place (paper bags, envelopes or glass jars)http://www.nps.gov/plants/sos/bendcollections/images/Lasthenia%20californica_JPG.jpg © Project SOUND 65
    • 4/6/2013 What’s the deal about gravel/crushed rock mulches?  You may have noticed that many annual wildflowers like to grow in decomposed granite  Why?  Similar to natural conditions for some wildflowers  Well-drained  Warms up well  Easy for small seedlings to grow through; and protects them  Seeds can avoid predation  Other advantages  Looks neater than bare ground  Looks quite naturalAn inorganic mulch ~ 1 inch deep or lessworks well – you will have to weed © Project SOUND 66
    • 4/6/2013Another advantage of CA native annuals is that they ‘naturalize’ © Project SOUND 67
    • 4/6/2013Advantages to letting plants naturalize  Saves money – sometimes can just start with a few plants – or a packet of seed  Saves effort – let Mother Nature do the work  Looks ‘natural’  Helps to tie the garden together – a theme that runs through the garden © Project SOUND 68
    • 4/6/2013 Worried about annuals looking too informal?http://greatflowerbedideas.wordpress.com/ © Project SOUND 69
    • 4/6/2013 Combine them with some formal hardscape http://www.flickr.com/photos/53351976@N02/4964811573/http://www.comfortinnselinsgrove.com/privacy-policy.htm © Project SOUND 70
    • 4/6/2013 Or use them in a more formal landscape design http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/knot%20gardenhttp://phillipoliver.blogspot.com/2009/04/birmingham-open-gardens-tour-part-2.html © Project SOUND http://www.silive.com/homegarden/index.ssf/2012/09/plants_are_a_passion_at_well-s.html 71
    • 4/6/2013 Combine informal annuals with more formal non-natives for a fresh look Native annuals brighten up a knot garden – the basic structure can be designed with non-native perennial herbshttp://wreathfactoryonline.com/2012/08/19/from-cheryls-garden-riverside-international-friendship-gardens/ © Project SOUND 72
    • 4/6/2013*Desert Dandelion – Malacothrix glabrata ©2003 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND 73
    • 4/6/2013 *Desert Dandelion – Malacothrix glabrata  San Joaquin Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert - to Oregon, Idaho, Utah; Mexico  Creosote Bush Scrub, Joshua Tree Woodland, Shadscale Scrub: 0-6562 ft  On coarse, sandy, gravely or rocky soils in open areas or among shrubs © Project SOUNDCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences ©2008 Steve Matson 74
    • 4/6/2013 A Dandelion taken to a whole new level  Size:  < 18 inches tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Leaves primarily in basal rosette  Leaves somewhat fleshy  Deeply divided – segments almost thread-like – very unusual for genus  Color: medium to gray-green ©1998 Larry Blakely © Project SOUND 75
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers: small zinnias  Blooms: spring – usually Mar- June depending on rains  Flowers:  In large (to 2 inch) dandelion- like heads  Many blunt-tipped, strap-like©2008 Neal Kramer ray flowers – somewhat like zinnia  Color: yellow, often darker towards center; young head may have dark orange center  Seeds:  Like super dandelion – quite pretty w/ long silky pappus © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya 76
    • 4/6/2013  Soils:Need rain – but tough  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter/spring: need good winter rains (or irrigation)©1988 Gary A. Monroe  Summer: dry  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND 77
    • 4/6/2013 Versatile Desert Dandelion  As habitat: birds, pollinators, tortoises  As an alternative to tidy-tips in hot, dry gardens  In un-watered, out of the way places©2008 Neal Kramer  To ‘soften’ more formal plantings ©2009 Ron Wolf https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Malacothrix_glabrata © Project SOUND 78
    • 4/6/2013 Adaptations common in desert annuals  Seeds only germinate in wet years – will be more regular inhttp://www.worldbotanical.com/chaenactis.htm our area  Quick growth  Small size; ‘play well together’  Often spare, narrow/dissected leaves – or fleshy to hold water  Leaves in basal rosette – no resources wasted on leafy stems  Flowers often on stems above foliage – to increase chances of http://www.abdnha.org/pages/03flora/family/asteraceae/m pollination alacothrix_glabrata.htm © Project SOUND 79
    • 4/6/2013 Hybrid zinnias provide little in the way of habitat © Project SOUNDhttp://sparklingyogini.wordpress.com/2011/07/30/july-favorites-2011/ 80
    • 4/6/2013 Another good use of annuals is as ‘filler plants’ http://ochereeingreenwood.wordpress.com/2010/05/ © Project SOUNDhttp://wwwrockrose.blogspot.com/2009/04/easter-garden.html 81
    • 4/6/2013Something tall and colorful while the shrubs fill in http://www.jeckels.com/photoDetail?PhotoId=2148&ReferringCategoryId=281 © Project SOUND 82
    • 4/6/2013 When it comes to filler plants, the Clarkias are garden favorites throughout the world http://gardenpuzzle.com/projects/show/49848 http://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/s howimage/1758/ © Project SOUNDhttp://norahwilsonwrites.com/wordpress/?tag=alice-gaines 83
    • 4/6/2013And many are California native annuals http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2009/07/filoli.html © Project SOUND 84
    • 4/6/2013Clarkias – Evening Primrose family  Genus named after William Clark  41 annual species  72 species and sub- species native to CA  Include garden varieties sold by seed companies 85
    • 4/6/2013Clarkias have long been used in gardens  The Clarkias have been used in gardens since 1840, when seeds were sent back to England for cultivation  Most garden forms were derived from Elegant Clarkia, Clarkia amoena, and Ruby Chalice Clarkia Clarka rubicunda  Nurseries sometimes carry something they call "Godetia", which will usually © 2004 Norman Jensen be a Clarkia. 86
    • 4/6/2013 Clarkias: two types (for garden design purposes)Robust & bushy types Wand-like types Purple Clarkia – Clarkia purpureaElegant Clarkia – Clarkia unguiculata © Project SOUND 87
    • 4/6/2013 Clarkia’s: dramatic when massed  Make bold, colorful statement – sometimes for months at a time  Allow you to appreciate the differences between the different species  Planting several may allow you to extend the flowering season into summer – some tend to bloom later than othershttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/wildflower_watch_wk13.htm © Project SOUND 88
    • 4/6/2013 Confusion over Clarkias  Many Clarkia were mistaken for other genera such as Godetia  Even within the same species there is much variability  Interbreeding between sub- species  Some populations are isolated – tend to diverge from others even within a species  In the 1950s, the genus Clarkia became the object of intensive genetic and taxonomic studies athttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/purpleclarkia.html UCLA 89
    • 4/6/2013* Godetia/Farewell-to-spring – Clarkia amoenahttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/images/garden_weekly/amoena_cu1_wk12_big.jpg © Project SOUND 90
    • 4/6/2013 * Godetia – Clarkia amoena  CA and OR coast north of San Francisco Bay  Generally open, drying places, < 1500 ft.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5341,5343  Found in coastal scrub, prairies and dry open coastal slopes & bluffs  A staple of cottage gardens world-wide since the 1800’s © Project SOUNDCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences 91
    • 4/6/2013 Godeta is a robust type of Clarkia – like Elegant Clarkia  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Upright, branched form  Foliage:  Leaves simple  Typically blue-green to gray- green – may be tinged with red or magenta© 2002 George Jackson © Project SOUND 92
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers: like C. purpurea on steroids  Blooms:  Spring/summer: usually Apr-June in our area but may be later into summer with water – 2-4 months  Flowers:  Glorious two-toned colors: usuallyhttp://www.americanmeadows.com/godetia-seeds?___store=default featuring magenta, but may be more purple or more pink  Incredibly showy – like Elegant Clarkia but larger and often more bright  Attracts butterflies, hummingbirds  Seeds: many small seeds in capsules – will reseed on bare ground or gravel/crushed rock mulch; edible © 2002 George Jackson http://www.rampantscotland.com/colour/supplement070818.htm © Project SOUND 93
    • 4/6/2013 Using robust-type Clarkias  Lovely in containers – with bulbs and other annuals  Massed on slopes with grasses  In mid-beds for cottage garden  To fill in spaces that need ahttp://www.cnps.org/cnps/grownative/tips/clarkias.php little color – short- or long-term http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2011/08/larner-seeds-demonstration-garden.htmlhttp://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2010_07_01_archive.html © Project SOUND 94
    • 4/6/2013 Ruby Chalice Clarkia – Clarkia rubicunda©2011 Margo Bors © Project SOUND 95
    • 4/6/2013 Ruby Chalice Clarkia – Clarkia rubicunda  Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area  Grassy slopes and openings in Northern Coastal Scrub, Mixed Evergreen Forest and Chaparral, 0-1600 ft. elevationhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5341,5392 ©2008 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND 96
    • 4/6/2013 Ruby Chalice Clarkia: open & slender  Size:  2-4 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Foliage:  Similar to Purple Clarkia  Slender, upright stems  Often many-branched  Long, slender leaves  Foliage gray-green – may be red- or purple-tinged©2011 Margo Bors © Project SOUND 97
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are pink-purple  Blooms:  In summer – one of the later ones (to fall in N. CA  Usually May-July in S. CA; long season with summer water  Flowers: Abundant flowers per plant http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Clarkia_rubicunda   Open and cup-like shape; magenta to pink  Petals darker at base – very noticeable in side view  Wild types often similar to Clarkia amoena  Seeds:  Many small seeds in typical Clarkia capsule; edible © Project SOUNDhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clarkia_rubicunda_subsp._blasdalei.jpg 98
    • 4/6/2013 Ruby Chalice –  Soils: drought tolerant  Texture: quite adaptable  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade – good transition area plant  Water:  Winter/spring: supplement if needed  Summer: occasional water may extend bloom season well into summer – more drought-tolerant than C. amoena  Fertilizer: likes poor soils but wouldn’t mind some fertilizer©2008 Neal Kramer  Other: gravel mulch © Project SOUND 99
    • 4/6/2013 Ruby Chalice – good for informal look  In a life-friendly habitat garden; all Clarkias attract insect pollinators, hummingbirds and seed-eating birds  Massed for a cottage garden effect  Mixed in a meadow or prairie planting  Lovely as a color spot in containers  Good filler, bulb cover http://www.gardeningwithnatives.com/articles/wildflower_top _10.html ©2008 Neal Kramer © Project SOUNDhttp://www.pacifichorticulture.org/articles/wild-in-the-city/# 100
    • 4/6/2013 Cultivar ‘Shamini’  Likely a hybrid with C. amoena or other Clarkia/Godetia  Very brightly colored & large (2-3 inch) flowers – almost unbelievable  Late-blooming – through summer  Available from Annie Annualshttp://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2010_07_01_archive.html http://www.flickr.com/photos/anniesannuals/4439354572/ SOUND © Project 101
    • 4/6/2013Extending the annual show into summer  Include some later-blooming species in your garden  Clarkias – esp. C. rubicunda, C. unguiculata  Globe Gilia – Gilia capitata  Annual Phacelias  Consider serial sowing:  Plant seeds at two week intervals from late winter until about April  Keep plants watered © Project SOUND 102
    • 4/6/2013Clarkia purpuria ssp. quadrivulnera  Purple Clarkia; Farewell- to-Spring; Winecup Fairy Fan; Four-spot  Coastal and lower elevations of S. CA  Coastal strand and slopes  Intergrades with other subspecies of Clarkia purpurea 103
    • 4/6/2013Punchbowl Clarkia – Clarkia bottae/lewisii http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Onagraceae/Clarkia%20bottae.htm © Project SOUND 104
    • 4/6/2013 Punchbowl Clarkia – Clarkia bottae  Coastal foothills below about 3000 from Monterey Co. south, including Santa Monica Mtns.  Dry opening in many plant communities: Coastal Sage Scrub, Closed-cone Pine Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Southern Oak Woodland, Foothill Woodland, Chaparralhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5341,5356 Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/onagraceae/clarkia/clarkia-bottae/ © Project SOUND 105
    • 4/6/2013 Punchbowl Clarkia: wand-like & delicate  Size:  1 to 2 ft tall (usually; in wild)  1+ ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower (herbaceous)  Foliage:http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Onagraceae/Clarkia%20bottae.htm  Wand-like – similar to Purple Clarkia but smaller/shorter  Rather slender stems – not much branching – often red/purple  Leaves gray-green, long & narrow (linear)  Leaves generally sparse © Project SOUND 106
    • 4/6/2013 Flowers are adorable  Blooms:  In spring – any time from Mar to summer  Depends on rain patterns, temperature; a little summer water extends bloom season ©2009 Lynn Watson  Flowers:  Pale magenta – usually with lighter centers of petals  May have dark magenta ‘freckles’, but no blotches  Open and large – 1 inch +  Four long and four short stamens and a pistil with a four-part stigma that extends beyond the anthers. The outer anthers are lavender-colored©2009 Lynn Watson and the inner are yellowish. © Project SOUND 107
    • 4/6/2013 Growing Clarkia from seed  Fruit – an 8-ribbed pod that develops below the petals  Seed is small – 1,500,000/lb  Collect seed spring/summer when ©2009 Thomas Stoughton pods become brown  Keep seed cool and dry until planting  Sow seed in place in spring or fall (at the time of first rains)  Seeds germinate in 7-21 days when daytime temperatures are in the 70http://www.hazmac.biz/090810/090810ClarkiaBottae.html © Project SOUND 108
    • 4/6/2013 Punchbowl Clarkia -  Soils:  Texture: any easy to please  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade; great in intermediate zones, under tall trees  Water:  Winter/spring: supplement as ©2010 Michael OBrien needed  Summer: dry to regular water (Zones 1-2 to 2-3)  Fertilizer: none needed; likes poor soils but fine with fertilizer  Other: tolerates seaside conditions, alkaline soil, salt, and clayBeatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND 109
    • 4/6/2013 Myths about gardening with Clarkia  the cultivation literature almost always stresses growing clarkias in poor soils lest lush leaves be grown at the expense of flowers.  the truth is that most clarkia prefer at least moderately fertile soils – tolerate fertilizer  sandy, well-drained soils are great, but most do well in clay  tolerate full sun to partial shade  like moist soil in spring; can water into early summerhttp://www.coestatepark.com/clarkia_purpurea_ssp__quadrivulnera.htm  May need to be staked 110
    • 4/6/2013 Punchbowl Clarkia is a perfect naturalizer  As an attractive pot plant  Tucked in those ‘tough to fill’ places  Combined with other Clarkias – make a nice contrast http://www.mijntuin.org/exchange/offers/2  In wildflower meadows/prairies http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/onagraceae/clarkia/clarkia-bottae/http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/wildflower_watch_wk13.htm © Project SOUND 111
    • 4/6/2013 Cultivar ‘Lilac Pixie’  Flowers over long season; look stunning en-masse.  Grows only 10-12" tall, annual  Ideal for beds and borders. Suitable as cut flowers. http://www.longacres.co.uk/plants/seeds/flower-seeds/clarkia-  Widely available from conventional (British) seed companies – and on lilac-pixie-suttons-109842.html e-bay http://www.suttons.co.uk/Gardening/Flower+Seeds/All+Flower+See ds/Clarkia+Lilac+Pixie+Seeds_109842.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.seedman.com/aclarkia.htm 112
    • 4/6/2013So get out and look at annual wildflowers in local gardens © Project SOUND 113
    • 4/6/2013 Go on the native plant garden toursTheodore Payne Foundation –local gardens tomorrow(Sun/4/7) © Project SOUND 114
    • 4/6/2013 Note which wildflowers do well in sun, shade and in betweenhttp://back40feet.blogspot.com/2011/08/larner-seeds-demonstration-garden.html © Project SOUND 115
    • 4/6/2013Celebrate wildflowers - come draw, paint and photograph April 13 & 14 © Project SOUND 116