Preview Question 10: What are dependence and addiction? Can substance abusers overcome their addictions?
Addictive drugs quickly corrupt: After taking drugs only (perhaps) 10% become addict. Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily: It can be to a large extent. Addiction not different than repetitive pleasure-seeking behaviors: Indeed. But should we stretch the concept to cover social behaviors?
Preview Question 11: What are depressants, and what are their effects?
Preview Question 12: What are stimulants, and what are their effects?
Preview Question 13: What are hallucinogens, and what are their effects?
DRUGS-any substance, natural or artificial, otherthan food, that by its chemical or physicalnature alters structure or function in theliving organism.Consciousness- refers to our awareness ofsensations, thoughts, and otherinternal processes.
7Drugs and Consciousness…Psychoactive Drug:A chemical substance that alters perceptions andmood.
AddictionAddiction is a brain diseaseidentified by components ofphysical and psychologicaldependence.
10Addiction & Dependence…tolerance - the powerof enduring the action ofthe drug.- is one aspect ofphysical dependence.
Withdrawal & DependenceWithdrawal is a term referring to the feelings ofdiscomfort, distress, and intense craving for asubstance that occur when use of the substance isstopped.Dependence Absence of a drug may lead to afeeling of physical pain, intense cravings andnegative emotions.
12Misconceptions About Addiction1. Addictive drugs quickly corrupt.2. Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily.3. Addiction is no different than repetitivepleasure-seeking behaviors.
14Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups.1. Depressants2. Stimulants3. Hallucinogens
DepressantsDepressants are drugs that reduce neural activityand slow body functions. They include:A. AlcoholB. BarbituratesC. Opiates
16Depressants…A. Alcohol affects motor skills, judgment, andmemory.Drinking and DrivingDanielHommer,NIAAA,NIH,HHSRayNg/Time&LifePictures/GettyImages
Why do college students drink?1. Increases sociability2. Relieves anxiety or tension3. Feel elated or euphoric4. Less inhibited5. Can go along with friends6. Different state of consciousness7. Sexual inhibition8. Stops worrying9. Alleviates depression10. Less self-conscious
18Depressants…B. Barbiturates: Drugs that depress the activity ofthe central nervous system, reducing anxietybut impairing memory and judgment.Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are someexamples.
Depressants …C. Opiates-they are highlyaddictive-temporarilylessening pain andanxiety.
20StimulantsStimulants are drugs that excite neural activity andspeed up body functions. Examples of stimulantsare:1. Caffeine2. Nicotine3. Cocaine4. Ecstasy5. Amphetamines6. Methamphetamines
212. Stimulants: Caffeine & NicotineA & B. Caffeine and nicotine increase heart andbreathing rates and other autonomic functions toprovide energy.http://www.tech-res-intl.comhttp://office.microsoft.com/clipart
222. Stimulants:Why Do People Smoke?1. People smoke because it is socially rewarding.2. Smoking is also a result of genetic factors.RusselEinhorn/TheGammaLiasonNetwork
242. StimulantsC. CocaineCocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash.Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms ofcocaine can be sniffed or injected.http://www.ohsinc.com
252. Stimulants:D. EcstasyEcstasy orMethylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is astimulant and mildhallucinogen. It produces aeuphoric high and candamage serotonin-producingneurons, which results in apermanent deflation of moodand impairment of memory.GregSmith/APPhotos