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Our guide to service design
 

Our guide to service design

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    Our guide to service design Our guide to service design Presentation Transcript

    • Our Guide to Service Design
    • Our Guides Our guides are here to help you understand a topic or to provide support for a particular task you might already be working on. Inside you’ll find lots of information to help you plan and make better decisions. We’re not saying we have all the answers but we believe the stuff inside this guide will help get you started. If you think we’ve missed anything, or you want to join in the debate then please get in touch. Inside you’ll find • What is Service Design? • A Service Design process? • Who else is involved? • Service Design techniques • Some important things to remember • How we can help
    • What is Service Design? In a nutshell Service design is the scoping, design, development and creation of user centred and evidence based services though the application of research and testing. Service design aims to influence environment, culture and process in delivering services that are useable, efficient and valuable in the eyes of the user. It’s about • Putting the user at the centre of the design and build process • Understanding the user, their needs, behaviours, perceptions, motivations, expectations and desired outcomes • Designing services that are intuitive, consistent, effective and differentiated • Designing services that take a holistic approach and recognise context, emotion, environment and surroundings • Working collaboratively with clients, analysts, designers, employees and customers • Constant critique, testing and feedback. Making changes, improvements and enhancements • Understanding best practice, appreciating the work done by existing service leaders • Keeping up with the pace of change, new standards, trends, modes of behaviour • Taking into account business requirements
    • Service Design process From start to finish Is there such a thing as a Service Design process? The answer to this is ‘yes and no’ or, rather, ‘somewhere in between.’ It often depends on the type of project you’re involved with and the stage at which you’ve been asked to participate. A client might already have a service up and running and therefore might only need your help for some gap analysis work. On the other hand they may want your help in designing a new service from scratch. Both scenarios will require a methodical process, but not necessarily the same one and certainly not with activities happening in the same order. I’m hearing a lot about agile service development, what does it all mean? Taking an agile approach to service design means that activities are planned or amended based on project evolution. The benefit of agile is that it helps ensure changes in requirements are incorporated into any design, reducing the need for later re-work.One of the many UX processes to be found online
    • Service Design principles From start to finish Guiding design and decisions Principles should be used to influence and guide those working in service design. They act like a mantra and should be used when setting out on any design task. They’re a useful tool in helping to ensure you stay on track and true to what the service user really wants. Co-creativity Flexi-build Holistic Awareness Evidence Based Services are built with users involved throughout the process. They help to define, research, test and implement any approved design Services are built using an agile approach to take into account changes in project reality and the surfacing of new information Services are built taking into account context, environment and the emotional state of the user. Third parties and suppliers are also involved Services are built using evidence throughout. Forensic analysis means the end deliverable meets the users’ expectations and requirements
    • Who else is involved? Creating a Service Design community Community stakeholders Role & remit Customers or service users Those using and engaging with your service. Might involve more than one type of person and various roles. The service user may also have varying needs which change as and when they interact with the service Clients This is you. The person sponsoring the service design work and owner of the outcomes and budget. Client may also include other stakeholders who have a vested interest in the work Service Design Lead Responsible for managing and delivering output to help you achieve your service design aims Analysts Data owners and responsible for gathering, storing and analysing service data. Expert in demonstrating facts behind service use Shop assistants / call centre staff These are your employees and those who know the customer / end user best. Responsible for providing a ‘real world’ view on your designs
    • Service Design Techniques
    • The brief Requirements, objectives, outcomes and expectations The brief outlines what the client expects from your involvement in the project. It provides clarity around goals, objectives, expected outcomes, deliverables, milestones, budgets, timings and additional resource. A good brief will also illustrate interdependent projects or initiatives that may have relevance for the project. It will provide focus while you are working on the project and need to make decisions. All briefs should be signed off before work starts and continually updated. Briefs should act as a business case and be used to demonstrate expected outputs and provide justification when needed. Be aware that you may not receive a brief. You may want or need to write one in collaboration with your client. Brief Clarity up front, saves re-work later
    • Service user personas Getting under the skin of your user Emma, 43, Lincoln, Eastern England A persona should bring your customer to life by outlining in detail their demographic, personality, characteristics, motivations, behaviours and desired outcomes. It should also outline the relationship the customer has with the service and highlight their expectations and perceptions. It’s important to remember that personas should be built using evidence sourced from customer data, analytics and insight. Making up a persona without using data and insight will only dilute the effectiveness of your work later on. Don’t forget that you may need more than one persona, depending on the types of customer using your service. Remember to be cognisant of emotion and how this might change throughout the service journey. An example of a persona we recently employed at a visitor experience conference Clarity up front, saves re-work later
    • Empathy mapping Identifying best practice and commonalities Empathy mapping is a great way of really getting to know your service users. By asking yourself the questions shown in the image on the left you can really start to understand the expectations people have of your service and what you will have to deliver against. Understanding their perception and emotions will help ensure that your designs reflect the context and situation that your service users find themselves in. Thinking about the pain a user might go through will really help foster some appreciation for the user experience. The output from this will help you create a service experience that anticipates these issues and dispels them for the service user as quickly as possible. Putting yourself in their shoes An example of an empathy map from the great book ‘This is service design thinking’ (Stickdorn/Schneider)
    • Competitive immersion Identifying best practice and commonalities Competitive immersion is a great way of assessing a competitor service from the perspective of a service user. Whether it’s using an airline lounge or visiting the local general practitioner, it’s a great way to understand how everything starts to fit together. You can start to identify the major touch points throughout the service and note down the feelings, emotions, sights and sounds you experienced as you interacted with the service. Competitive immersion is about assessing and learning from leaders in service design. A lot of best practice and common service features can be gathered during these sessions. It’s really important to identify the things your customers really value and identify leaders who are particularly good in that area. Exploring competitive worlds
    • Service user research 5W X H Why, what, when, where, who and how User research is a large subject, which is difficult to cover in such a short document. The approach or methodology you decide to adopt will invariably depend on your objectives and the insights you’re trying to discover. Research can take a variety of forms, from straight forward qualitative and quantitative analysis to interactive contextual interviews. Taking contextual interviews as an example, it can be a great way of understanding how users find, engage with and travel through a service journey. Interviewing users as they actively engage with a service can really help unearth those insights that would otherwise remain hidden. There’s no better tool for understanding why a user did or didn’t do something or how they reacted to a certain situation or event.
    • Storyboarding Milestone and event based scenarios Graphical service design Everyone loves a story and it’s a great way to engage everyone in the design process. The purpose of the storyboard is to walk colleagues through a future service experience from the viewpoint of the user. The storyboard often takes a high level view of the service experience but provides readers with enough information to be able to identify and understand the major milestones and any potential pain points. A storyboard doesn’t necessarily have to be a graphical drawing and you don’t need the skills of an artist to be able to create one. You can cut images out of magazines, sketch low fidelity matchstick people or even act out the story using amateur dramatics. The benefit of storyboarding is getting everyone on the same page and starting the necessary debate and discussion. An example of storyboarding used to describe the major events happening within a service scenario
    • Customer journey mapping Define journeys, activities, tasks and events End-to-end journey design Journey mapping and task modelling are great ways to better understand what your customer is trying to achieve and the likely steps they might go through. The best way to create a customer journey map is to observe the customer in a real world setting. Watching the customer engage with a service or a similar environment can really help you gain clarity on the triggers, events and activities the customer goes through and experiences. The journey map will help define the end-to-end service lifecycle and will encourage debate and discussion around key themes and events. Don’t forget to involve customers in this work. They will often highlight a lot of tasks and activities that would otherwise have remained hidden. One of our own client journey designs. Used to bring to life the end-to-end service experience
    • Service blueprint Designing behind the scenes Thinking on-stage, remembering back-stage A service blueprint is similar to a customer journey map. It traditionally covers the end-to- end experience from the customer point of view, albeit with a significant addition: the blueprint also includes behind the scenes activities and the business responses to service user activity. The merging of the customer and business perspective enables those using the map to understand how everything fits together. The ability to plan how a service reacts to customer behaviour is one of the most critical elements in ensuring the design works in reality. One of the biggest benefits of generating a blueprint is the unification of disparate internal teams.A great service blueprint example from the guys at Servicedesigntoolkit.org
    • Service gap analysis Service improvement planning Best practice service improvement Service improvement is an important capability of any service organisation. Understanding the user experience can help identify, prioritise and plan improvements to further develop and strengthen the service being offered. One of the best ways to do this is by running a maturity model exercise. The purpose of the model is to grade the service based on a set of attributes and capabilities. The model should take into account the view from service users and the organisation itself. The model is accompanied by a survey that enables those responsible for the service to score their current performance. Viewing these results in line with service satisfaction reports can really accelerate improvement planning. Using a maturity model can really help you understand current service experience versus the future once improvements have been made
    • Service prototype Service dress rehearsal Practice makes perfect Once you’ve designed your service you’ll want to test out your design and theory. A great way to test your design is to conduct a service prototyping event. This involves re- creating the service, albeit using props or false artefacts, to illustrate and represent major elements of the service experience. By walking through the experience you will start to notice small improvements that need to be made. You’ll also start to understand what does and doesn’t work. As the design work continues you can start to introduce more real life service elements into the prototyping. A more creative way of running a service prototype event. It certainly gets people talking
    • Some important things to consider
    • Live practical testing is essential Don’t stay in the land of theory Real world testing Testing your designs in the real world is the only way of ensuring the end design will actually work. Testing should happen throughout the design process, as this will help smooth out any problems and help to accelerate development. It’s important to change testing over time. Practical testing can take the shape of prototyping or theoretical testing. However, at some point you’ll need to conduct some live testing using real environments, people, materials and processes. Whilst it can be a nervous time for any service designer, the benefits of real-world testing are significant. Metro Bank. Renowned for the high service levels and differentiated banking experience
    • Design through participatory activities Get service users involved Solicit help from actual service users Encourage users to have their say on the service or any improvements you might want to make. Service users are more than happy to share their views on what does and doesn’t work. Involving them early in your design process will help ensure the end result matches their needs and requirements. Manage their expectations though, you might not be able to fix and improve everything they have recommended. It’s often a good idea to bring a new set of service users into the project at regular intervals. This helps prevent thinking and opinion from becoming stale whilst also helping to provide new critique of the on-going work. Remember, without involving your service users any design is certain to fail.People will happily share their views with you. People love discussing problems, issues, hopes and dreams
    • Engage third parties and suppliers Services are made up of interdependent ecosystems Taken from Macmillan Cancer Support Look beyond the service organisation When designing services it’s important to consider the wider context within which your design will operate. Taking the example on the left, Macmillan Cancer Support often has to design services in collaboration and partnership with other organisations within the state, voluntary and private sector. Service experiences are often viewed by the user as encompassing a multitude of smaller journeys and experiences. It’s important to pull this all together and to take a holistic approach to design. Consider the wider world. If you’re designing a healthcare service think about the other parties involved.
    • Anticipate the random Hope for the best, plan for the worst Thinking about service user ‘side-steps’ Those involved in service design often get carried away in creating service experiences that differentiate and innovate. Whilst these are positive goals, it’s also important to consider and anticipate how users might react or behave differently to how you imagined. Some service users might have different requirements or want a different solution to a particular problem. You need to ensure that your service can deal with these ‘side steps’ and respond accordingly. It’s difficult to respond to every potential deviation that a user might take but it’s worth spending some time at the very start of a project brainstorming some of the potential ‘side steps’ that might occur.The ash cloud left airlines struggling to deal with upset and angry passengers. Those same airlines now have plans in place to deal with a future ‘unlikely’ event
    • How we can help You’re not alone 1Facilitation Whether you’re looking for us to run a design session or simply attend as a disruptive influence we can help build a blueprint that really drives improvement planning 2End to End You may want us to conduct a service design project or develop and manage a continual improvement initiative. We can be both creative and executional 3Strategy You may be lacking a coherent service design strategy. You might have grown very quickly. We can help get a clear strategy in place to help you expand effectively