• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
D. Gorter: Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian
 

D. Gorter: Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian

on

  • 2,988 views

Durk Gorter; Jasone Cenoz...

Durk Gorter; Jasone Cenoz
"Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian"
Ikerbasque / University of the Basque Country
Barcelona, 16 d'octubre de 2008
Minority languages in the linguistic landscape
Conferència a càrrec de Durk Gorter
12 a 14 hores, Sala de Professors
Organitza: CUSC-UB, Càtedra Linguamón i Xarxa CRUSCAT

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,988
Views on SlideShare
2,969
Embed Views
19

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
46
Comments
0

2 Embeds 19

http://www.slideshare.net 11
http://cruscat.wordpress.com 8

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    D. Gorter: Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian D. Gorter: Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian Presentation Transcript

    • Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian Durk Gorter Jasone Cenoz Ikerbasque / University of the Basque Country Barcelona 16 October 2008
    • DEFINITIONS
    • Linguistic landscape defined (1) • “Landscape” = • 1) expanse of scenery • 2) picture representing such a view LITERAL & REPRESENTATIONAL Hobbema - Avenue at Middelharnis, 1689
    • “Linguistic landscape” defined (2) Existing literature • Sciriha, L. and Vassallo, M. (2001) Malta : A Linguistic Landscape. • = language situation • Labov, W., Ash, S. and Boberg, C. (1997) A National Map of The Regional Dialects of American English. • = spread and boundaries of dialects • Tafoya, S.M. (2002) The Linguistic Landscape of California Schools. • = non-English speakers in primary schools • Hicks, D. (2002) Scotland's linguistic landscape: the lack of policy and planning with Scotland's place-names and signage. • = signage and place-names
    • Linguistic landscape defined (3) ‘The language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on government buildings combines to form the linguistic landscape of a given territory, region, or urban agglomeration’ (Landry and Bourhis 1997: 25)
    • Linguistic landscape defined (4) • Written language(s) in public space • Language visible in a specified area • Alternative term: “multilingual cityscape”
    • Motivation • Study of linguistic diversity • Reflect different strengths of languages • Related to identity and language policy • Additional source of information
    • PERSPECTIVES
    • Conceptual approaches historical urban geography language policy sociolinguistics semiotics Linguistic Landscape education economic SLA
    • Historical • LL as old as writing • Origin of writing - urbanisation - public sphere • Readership Mene tekel : “writing on the wall”
    • Historical Jerusalem street signs Spolsky 2008
    • Model of language policy Spolsky 2004 Language Policy Language Language Language Practices Beliefs Management
    • Language policy • Rules and regulations • Status and corpus planning • Bilingual signage • Reflection of traditions and ‘uniqueness’ • Contestation of space
    • Top-down • Written by authorities (traffic signs, street names, public notices, etc.) • = ‘top-down’
    • Bottom up • Written by citizens (advertisements, shop signs, graffiti, etc.) • = ‘bottom-up’
    • Contested spaces Brussels, Belgium Slovenes, Austria
    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • Data collection
    • Technology
    • Sampling Some examples: • Tokyo: 28 stations (Backhaus 2006) • Bangkok: 15 neighborhoods (Huebner 2006) • Israel: 8 localities (Ben Rafael et al 2006) • Basque Country/Friesland: 2 streets (Cenoz & Gorter 2006) • Netherlands: 11 locations (Edelman 2008) • Roma: 4 neighborhoods (Gorter 2008)
    • Unit of analysis Posters/signs on trucks/buses Sandwich board Crawler Wrappers in street Text on t-shirts, bags, etc
    • Coding Coding scheme:  type of sign  top-down vs. bottom-up signs  number of languages  languages displayed  conspicuity  repetition  etc.
    • Data analysis Special software: Barni & Bagna 2008
    • STUDIES on BASQUE and FRISIAN
    • Basque Country & Friesland: two streets Boulevard, Donostia Nieuwestad, Ljouwert Cenoz & Gorter 2006
    • Geography Ljouwert Friesland Donostia Iparralde Basque Autonomous Community Navarre Size Basque C. 20.664 km2 BAC 7.234 km2 Friesland 3.339 km2 Population Basque C 3.000.000 BAC 2.100.000 Friesland 643.000
    • Sociolinguistic context: speaking Donostia Ljouwert 33% 44% 56% 67% Basque Spanish Frisian Dutch
    • Language policy Basque Autonomous Fryslân Community Old: gradual 19th C. Recent: since 1979 Normalization Formalization 1st Education: strong 1st Education: weak 2nd Media: strong 2nd Government: medium 3rd Government: medium 3rd Media: weak
    • Examples of monolingual signs Frisian Basque Dutch Spanish English English
    • Examples of bilingual signs Donostia Ljouwert
    • Study of Donostia-Ljouwert - Pictures all texts n = 975 - Coding-scheme: 16 variables - Code units n=207, Ljouwert 103, Donostia 104
    • Number of languages found Donostia Ljouwert Ljouwert 0% 0% 36% 64%
    • Which languages on signs Donostia Ljouwert Dutch D&E 53% 31% Fri&Du 2% Other 5% English Frisian 6% 3%
    • Prominent language bilingual signs Donostia Ljouwert English, 20% Frisian, 2 % Dutch, 7 8%
    • Second study Street interviews  1st tourists visiting the city  Donostia N = 314  Ljouwert N = 251  2nd local inhabitants  Donostia N = 56  Ljouwert N = 76  Cenoz & Gorter 2008; Aiestaran, Cenoz, Gorter & Hanenburg forthcoming
    • Stated preference: nr of languages - tourists Donostia Ljouwert one two more than two 19% 36% 45% “How many languages should be used in the language signs?”
    • Willingness to pay Allocation scenario: • “In order to assess and rank your priorities, we kindly ask you if you were given 100 euros, how would you allocate this amount of money among the following activities?”
    • Scenario: average amounts tourists Donostia Ljouwert
    • FURTHER STUDIES
    • Education
    • Multicompetence
    • euskara español english
    • euskara español english
    • Languages as a resource - Languages not in compartments - Allocation is planned: aesthetic value, symbolic force, audience effect - Use languages in different ways - Interaction between different languages - Mixing blurs lines separate languages
    • CONCLUSIONS & MAIN TRENDS
    • Functions • Information function: - communicate official messages - communicate with visitors or immigrants • Symbolic function
    • Characteristics • Visible for all citizens • Combines public and private sectors • Can be regulated by authorities • Linked to economic value (e.g. advertising) • World-wide phenomenon • “multilingual cityscapes”
    • Main trends • The spread of multilingualism • The spread of English • Top-down and bottom-up signs • The effect of globalization
    • SOURCES can be found in : Special issue International Journal of Multilingualism: link http://www.multilingual-matters.net/ijm/003/1/default.htm New book on linguistic landscape research: link http://www.routledgelinguistics.com/books/Linguistic-Landscape-isbn9780415988735 CONTACT?: Jasone.Cenoz@ehu.es D.Gorter@ikerbasque.org