D. Gorter: Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian

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Durk Gorter; Jasone Cenoz
"Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian"
Ikerbasque / University of the Basque Country
Barcelona, 16 d'octubre de 2008
Minority languages in the linguistic landscape
Conferència a càrrec de Durk Gorter
12 a 14 hores, Sala de Professors
Organitza: CUSC-UB, Càtedra Linguamón i Xarxa CRUSCAT

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D. Gorter: Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian

  1. 1. Minority languages in the linguistic landscape: Basque and Frisian Durk Gorter Jasone Cenoz Ikerbasque / University of the Basque Country Barcelona 16 October 2008
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS
  3. 3. Linguistic landscape defined (1) • “Landscape” = • 1) expanse of scenery • 2) picture representing such a view LITERAL & REPRESENTATIONAL Hobbema - Avenue at Middelharnis, 1689
  4. 4. “Linguistic landscape” defined (2) Existing literature • Sciriha, L. and Vassallo, M. (2001) Malta : A Linguistic Landscape. • = language situation • Labov, W., Ash, S. and Boberg, C. (1997) A National Map of The Regional Dialects of American English. • = spread and boundaries of dialects • Tafoya, S.M. (2002) The Linguistic Landscape of California Schools. • = non-English speakers in primary schools • Hicks, D. (2002) Scotland's linguistic landscape: the lack of policy and planning with Scotland's place-names and signage. • = signage and place-names
  5. 5. Linguistic landscape defined (3) ‘The language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on government buildings combines to form the linguistic landscape of a given territory, region, or urban agglomeration’ (Landry and Bourhis 1997: 25)
  6. 6. Linguistic landscape defined (4) • Written language(s) in public space • Language visible in a specified area • Alternative term: “multilingual cityscape”
  7. 7. Motivation • Study of linguistic diversity • Reflect different strengths of languages • Related to identity and language policy • Additional source of information
  8. 8. PERSPECTIVES
  9. 9. Conceptual approaches historical urban geography language policy sociolinguistics semiotics Linguistic Landscape education economic SLA
  10. 10. Historical • LL as old as writing • Origin of writing - urbanisation - public sphere • Readership Mene tekel : “writing on the wall”
  11. 11. Historical Jerusalem street signs Spolsky 2008
  12. 12. Model of language policy Spolsky 2004 Language Policy Language Language Language Practices Beliefs Management
  13. 13. Language policy • Rules and regulations • Status and corpus planning • Bilingual signage • Reflection of traditions and ‘uniqueness’ • Contestation of space
  14. 14. Top-down • Written by authorities (traffic signs, street names, public notices, etc.) • = ‘top-down’
  15. 15. Bottom up • Written by citizens (advertisements, shop signs, graffiti, etc.) • = ‘bottom-up’
  16. 16. Contested spaces Brussels, Belgium Slovenes, Austria
  17. 17. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  18. 18. Data collection
  19. 19. Technology
  20. 20. Sampling Some examples: • Tokyo: 28 stations (Backhaus 2006) • Bangkok: 15 neighborhoods (Huebner 2006) • Israel: 8 localities (Ben Rafael et al 2006) • Basque Country/Friesland: 2 streets (Cenoz & Gorter 2006) • Netherlands: 11 locations (Edelman 2008) • Roma: 4 neighborhoods (Gorter 2008)
  21. 21. Unit of analysis Posters/signs on trucks/buses Sandwich board Crawler Wrappers in street Text on t-shirts, bags, etc
  22. 22. Coding Coding scheme:  type of sign  top-down vs. bottom-up signs  number of languages  languages displayed  conspicuity  repetition  etc.
  23. 23. Data analysis Special software: Barni & Bagna 2008
  24. 24. STUDIES on BASQUE and FRISIAN
  25. 25. Basque Country & Friesland: two streets Boulevard, Donostia Nieuwestad, Ljouwert Cenoz & Gorter 2006
  26. 26. Geography Ljouwert Friesland Donostia Iparralde Basque Autonomous Community Navarre Size Basque C. 20.664 km2 BAC 7.234 km2 Friesland 3.339 km2 Population Basque C 3.000.000 BAC 2.100.000 Friesland 643.000
  27. 27. Sociolinguistic context: speaking Donostia Ljouwert 33% 44% 56% 67% Basque Spanish Frisian Dutch
  28. 28. Language policy Basque Autonomous Fryslân Community Old: gradual 19th C. Recent: since 1979 Normalization Formalization 1st Education: strong 1st Education: weak 2nd Media: strong 2nd Government: medium 3rd Government: medium 3rd Media: weak
  29. 29. Examples of monolingual signs Frisian Basque Dutch Spanish English English
  30. 30. Examples of bilingual signs Donostia Ljouwert
  31. 31. Study of Donostia-Ljouwert - Pictures all texts n = 975 - Coding-scheme: 16 variables - Code units n=207, Ljouwert 103, Donostia 104
  32. 32. Number of languages found Donostia Ljouwert Ljouwert 0% 0% 36% 64%
  33. 33. Which languages on signs Donostia Ljouwert Dutch D&E 53% 31% Fri&Du 2% Other 5% English Frisian 6% 3%
  34. 34. Prominent language bilingual signs Donostia Ljouwert English, 20% Frisian, 2 % Dutch, 7 8%
  35. 35. Second study Street interviews  1st tourists visiting the city  Donostia N = 314  Ljouwert N = 251  2nd local inhabitants  Donostia N = 56  Ljouwert N = 76  Cenoz & Gorter 2008; Aiestaran, Cenoz, Gorter & Hanenburg forthcoming
  36. 36. Stated preference: nr of languages - tourists Donostia Ljouwert one two more than two 19% 36% 45% “How many languages should be used in the language signs?”
  37. 37. Willingness to pay Allocation scenario: • “In order to assess and rank your priorities, we kindly ask you if you were given 100 euros, how would you allocate this amount of money among the following activities?”
  38. 38. Scenario: average amounts tourists Donostia Ljouwert
  39. 39. FURTHER STUDIES
  40. 40. Education
  41. 41. Multicompetence
  42. 42. euskara español english
  43. 43. euskara español english
  44. 44. Languages as a resource - Languages not in compartments - Allocation is planned: aesthetic value, symbolic force, audience effect - Use languages in different ways - Interaction between different languages - Mixing blurs lines separate languages
  45. 45. CONCLUSIONS & MAIN TRENDS
  46. 46. Functions • Information function: - communicate official messages - communicate with visitors or immigrants • Symbolic function
  47. 47. Characteristics • Visible for all citizens • Combines public and private sectors • Can be regulated by authorities • Linked to economic value (e.g. advertising) • World-wide phenomenon • “multilingual cityscapes”
  48. 48. Main trends • The spread of multilingualism • The spread of English • Top-down and bottom-up signs • The effect of globalization
  49. 49. SOURCES can be found in : Special issue International Journal of Multilingualism: link http://www.multilingual-matters.net/ijm/003/1/default.htm New book on linguistic landscape research: link http://www.routledgelinguistics.com/books/Linguistic-Landscape-isbn9780415988735 CONTACT?: Jasone.Cenoz@ehu.es D.Gorter@ikerbasque.org

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