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Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
Automation for engineers
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Automation for engineers

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a brief presentation on the fundamentals of automation that shall be useful to engineers and professionals entering the automation sector. higher value presentations are available from CfAT on demand. …

a brief presentation on the fundamentals of automation that shall be useful to engineers and professionals entering the automation sector. higher value presentations are available from CfAT on demand. contact training@cfatindia.com.


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  • 1. Presented by SENTHIL V BE,PgDOR, MIEEE Managing Director Center for Automation Technology Kochi, Chennai & Bangaluru +91 938 759 9406, +91 889 319 3411 admin@cfatindia.com
  • 2. Use of Control Systems and Components to perform a task, application, process or evaluation without the need for human Intervention.
  • 3. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Absence of fatigue during repetitive jobs High degree of accuracy in mass production Reliability due to absence of human factors like prejudice, anger, jealousy etc. Easily upgradable by adding value High initial cost Ineffective in highly intelligent tasks Requires highly skilled manpower for supervisory control Low exchangeability factor
  • 4. 1. Controllers – Dedicated or Programmable 2. Inputs – Sensors, Transducers, Switches 3. Outputs – Relays, Buzzers, Contactors 4. Program – Software that describes the task to the controller in its own low level language 5. Power Supply 6. Networking – Protocols and Bus
  • 5. INPUT COMPONENTS PRO MEM CONTROLLER OUTPUT COMPONENTS SYS MEM POWER AC/DC COMPUTER ‘SYSTEM/ HH PGRMRS DATA BUS
  • 6. Dedicated Controllers are designed to do the jobs as designed by the manufacturer and the user has little options to change the way they work. Micro-controlled Systems Programmable Controllers have minimum software at the time of shipment and most of the program is designed by the user to suit his needs. PLC and FPGA
  • 7. Embedded Controllers are part of the system itself and are inseparable from the system they are intended to control. Each unit of the same system comes with a unique controller; Induction Stove Stand Alone Controllers are purchased and programmed separately from the system they are intended to control. They are also interchangeable with
  • 8. Switches – Electromechanical Units that can be set to ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ by user Sensors – Electronic Units that turn ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ when a certain parameter is detected Switches and Sensors generate a one-bit digital data input to a controller Transducers – Devices that convert a physical quantity into an electrical signal that can be used as an analog input to a controller or converted to
  • 9. Relays – Electromechanical Units that can turn ON/OFF loads operating at higher voltage/current/frequency depending on digital outputs from the controller Buzzers – Electronic Units that convert controller outputs into sound that can be used as alerts/alarms Contactors – Similar to relays, available in both single and three phase versions Valves – Used to control Gas/Liquid Flow based on controller outputs. Available for both analog and digital processing.
  • 10. Set of Rules or Protocols that help the controller system to decide the proper outputs based on the input data string. Various Formats are available to develop programs for automation applications. Structured Text formats like “C” and “embedded C” are used in microcontroller and PLC programming Graphical Interface Programming methods like ladder diagrams, flow charts, functional blocks are used in PLC programs and Simulation Sequences Description Languages like Verilog and VHDL are used to program CPLD and FPGA
  • 11. -- (this is a VHDL comment) library IEEE; use IEEE.math_real.all; use IEEE.electrical_systems.all; -- this is the entity entity DIODE is generic (iss : current := 1.0e-14; -- Saturation current af : real := 1.0; -- Flicker noise coefficient kf : real := 0.0); -- Flicker noise exponent port (terminal anode, cathode : electrical); end entity DIODE; architecture IDEAL of DIODE is quantity v across i through anode to cathode; constant vt : voltage := 0.0258; -- Thermal voltage at 300 K begin i == iss * (exp(v/vt) - 1.0); end architecture IDEAL;
  • 12. Mains, single and three phase DC Regulated Power Supply Switched Mode Power Supply Dual Power Supplies Variable Power Supplies Voltage and Current Sources Online and Offline Invertors Solar Cells Wind Generators
  • 13. SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES IMPROVE EFFICIENCY SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS THROW NEW CHALLENGES AND ENGINEERS ARE CONSTANTLY DEVELOPING METHODS TO HARNESS THEM WITH MINIMAL LOSSES
  • 14. SERIAL COMMUNICATION FOR UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING PROGRAMS FROM CONTROLLER TO PC AND PC TO CONTROLLER COMMUNICATION USING ETHERNET MODBUS AND FIELDBUS WIDE AREA NETWORKING REMOTE TERMINAL UNITS AND MODEMS WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
  • 15. A serial port is a general-purpose interface that can be used for almost any type of device, including modems, and printers. Serial Ports are used for communication between a controller and a programming device Modbus is a serial communication protocol developed by Modicon published by Modicon® in 1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs). In a standard Modbus network, there is one Master and up to 247 Slaves, each with a unique Slave Address from 1 to 247. The augmented term Fieldbus is consisting of two terms, Field and To start, the meaning of Field, as defined in industrial world, is a geographical or contextual limited area. From the industry point of view the Field is an abstraction of the plant levels. As for the term Bus is a well- known word in computer science as a set of common line that electrically (or even optically) connects various units
  • 16. FIELDBUS MODBUS ETHERNET
  • 17. A REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT WITH A MODEM CAN BE USED TO INTERFACE SENSORS AND ACTUATORS WITH AN AUTOMATION CONTROLLER THROUGH WIRELESS OR MODBUS PROTOCOLS. INPUTS FROM THE SENSORS ARE RELAYED TO THE CONTROLLER THROUGH RF MODULATED SIGNALS. SIMILARLY OUTPUTS FROM THE CONTROLLER ARE DEMODULA AND SENT TO THE ACTUATORS A REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT CAN ALSO BE CONNECTED TO A CONTROLLER OR A SUPERVISORY TERMINAL/HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE THROUGH ET AND CAN CONNECT TO FIELD DEVICES USING FIELDBUS PROTOCOL A MODBUS RTU LIKEWISE CAN BE CONNECTED TO A MODBUS MASTER AND ACT AS A MODBUS SLAVE. THUS A COMBINATION OF PROTOCOLS ARE USED WHEN IT COMES TO NETWORKING IN AUTOMATION
  • 18. wireless sensor network (WSN) of spatially distributed autonomous senso to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sou pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks wa motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today su networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, ETC
  • 19. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Human Machine Interface Visualization Miniature Model Control Panel
  • 20. Control and Supervision It is impossible to keep control and supervision on all industrial activities manually. Some automated tool is required which can control, supervise, collect data, analyses data and generate reports. A unique solution is introduced to meet all this demand is SCADA system. SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. It is an industrial control system where a computer system monitoring and controlling a process.
  • 21. Human Machine Interface The user interface in a manufacturing or process control system. It provides a graphics-based visualization of an industrial control and monitoring system. Previously called an "MMI" (man machine interface), an HMI typically resides in an office- based Windows computer that communicates with a specialized computer in the plant such as a programmable automation controller (PAC), programmable logic controller (PLC) or distributed control system (DCS) New Technologies have evolved that enable touch screens previously installed with operating system functions to be programmed as human machine interfaces. With the growing popularity of android based devices, tomorrow
  • 22. Visualization is a runtime environment. It integrates development tools and diagrams to automate working places and the industrial control process. Mnemonic diagrams (screen forms) can be created on the basis of own tools of vector graphics using libraries of ready graphic objects with dynamics and settled functions, third-party Active X controls etc. Setting of graphic objects animation (change of form, dimensions, allocation, color of graphic objects, their encapsulation, blinking, gradient fill) ensures visual display of production object or process. Creation and setting of algorithms for secondary data processing and screen forms control procedures is provided using Visual Basic for Applications.
  • 23. Miniatures usually used in assembly of large machines and automobile units
  • 24. Control Panel is a flat, often vertical, area where control or monitoring instruments are displayed. They are found in factories to monitor and control machines or production lines and in places such as nuclear power plants, ships, aircraft and mainframe computers. Older control panels are most often equipped with push buttons and analog instruments, whereas today in many cases touchscreens are used for monitoring and control purposes.
  • 25. ALARMS & EVENTS MONITORING EMERGENCY PROCEDURES MASTER CONTROL BUTTONS MANUAL OVERRIDES IN HOUSE SERVICE ENGINEERS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT SHUTDOWN & RESTART PROCEDURES REDUNDANT SYSTEMS OVERLOAD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

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