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Final Presentation






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    Final Presentation Final Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Thinking about place
      Social, Change and Communities
      Penultimate & Final presentation
    • This module is ‘soft’
    • Whatever is true for space and time, this much is true for place; we are immersed in it and could not do without it. To be at all – to exist in any way – is to be somewhere, and to be somewhere is to be in some kind of place
      Edward Casey, The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. ix
    • Space and Place
      “Space is like sex …it’s there but we don’t talk about it” (Edward Hall)
      “Place is humanized space” (Yi-Fu Tuan)
      Time-space compression (David Harvey)
      Placeless planet, space of flows (Manuel Castells)
      A global sense of place (Doreen Massey):
      porous boundaries
      connections between places
      roots vs routes
      Paradox of place (Noel Castree): unique but connected.
    • Scale and Connection
      A hierarchy of scales (from the body to the world)
      Connections between scales (Margaret Roberts: zooming in/zooming out)
    • Proximity and Distance
      Not just physical distance (miles or kms)
      Distant places made ‘closer’ (by TV or the internet) but can remain physically inaccessible, emotionally remote
      Caring for ‘distant strangers’ vs a failure of the geographical imagination for those ‘closer to home’ (child poverty, spatial inequality, social exclusion).
    • Relational thinking
      Geographies of difference (us and them, self and Other, East and West…): desire and dread, fear and fascination (Example: ‘racist soup’ vs the ‘couscous of friendship’ in Marseilles)
      Geographies of connection (combined and uneven development)
      Physical and human geography (nature and culture in a more-than-human world).
    • 8
      Defining Place
      How do we define ‘place’?
      Dimensions of place:
      Place as location: coordinates, dimensions, scale
      Place as an idea: public & private; inclusive or exclusive; places of memory; socially constructed places; spaces of identity; place-making’; home & nation; contested places
      Cresswell: Places are “meaningful locations”
      John Agnew: Places have three attributes: (1) location; (2) locale; and (3) sense of place
      Cresswell: “place is not just a thing in the world but a way of understanding the world.”
    • 9
      Space and Place
      Often ‘space’ is understood as something hollow or exterior: a container for place.
      In common usage (even by many geographers), ‘spaces’ are transformed into ‘places’ by naming [claiming] and filling them. In this sense space and place are treated as a duality, even as opposites.
      But this is overly simplistic.
      Rather than think of space as hollow or as an absence, we might understand ‘space’ as a broader and more abstract concept than ‘place’.
      Yi Fu Tuan (1974) describes space as ‘movement’ and place as ‘pause’.
      Space as possibility, openness, the sublime, the ‘beyond’
      Some geographers (e.g., Henri Lefebvre 1974) use ‘space’ where others might use ‘place’
    • 10
      Scale in Geographical Practice
      The politics of scale: manipulation of electoral boundaries and political territories by political parties, governments, trade unions; different ways spaces are divided and ordered.
      Mobilization at local and global scales. The ‘rescaling’ of territorial power (e.g., global trade agreements)
      Localities: spaces of dependence; networks of engagement (Kevin Cox)
      Sociological: micro / meso / macro scale (or) global, national, and urban scale … also rural (agrarian?) and bodily scale.
      Remember: this is about scale as an idea, not only as something empirical or measured.
    • 11
    • Space and Place
      What begins as undifferentiated space becomes place as we get to know it better and endow it with value… The ideas ‘space’ and ‘place’ require each other for definition. From the security and stability of place we are aware of the openness, freedom, and threat of space, and vice-versa. Furthermore, if we think of space as that which allows movement then place is pause; each pause in movement makes it possible for location to be transformed into place.
      Tuan, Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), p. 6
    • Sensing place
      ‘There is no knowing or sensing a place except by being in that place, and to be in place is to be in a position to perceive it.’
      Casey, ‘How to get from Space to Place, p. 18
      ‘How to get from Space to Place in a Fairly Short Stretch of
      Time’, in Senses of Place, ed. by Steven Feld & Keith H.
      Basso (Santa Fe: School of American Research,1996)
    • Perceptions of Place
      Place is perceived multi-dimensionally
      Coordinates help to situate us in place
      Place and the body constantly interact
      Embodiment of place- from feminist philosophy
      Representation of self in space (graffitti, but also Somerville 2000)
      Jeff Conklin: Wicked Issues
      Somerville, Margaret and Laura Hartley. 2000. Eating Place: postcolonial explorations of embodiment and place. Journal of Intercultural Studies. 21(3):353-364
    • ‘Just as there are no places without the bodies that sustain and vivify them, so there are no lived bodies without the places they inhabit and traverse.’Casey,‘How to get from Space to Place’, p. 25
    • Senses of Place
      You inhabit a spot which before you inhabit it is as indifferent to you as any spot upon the earth, & when, persuaded by some necessity you think to leave it, you leave it not, - it clings to you & with memories of things which in your experience of them gave no such promise, revenges your desertion.
      Percy Bysshe Shelley, from The Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, ed. Frederick L. Jones, 2 Vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964), II, p. 6.
    • Urban Space/urbanism
      Detachment from nature
      Crossing of boundaries
      Subject to different meanings
    • So where have we been??
      Social, change & communities
    • 19
      Rules of the Game
      How we teach….
      Developing your thoughts
      Challenging your assumptions
      Practical reinforced with reflection
      Student led
      You want different, you tell us!
    • Whole Module
      We started with SELF
      Then we looked at OTHER
      Then we looked at the intersection of SELF and OTHER
      SELF/OTHER, like Michael Buber (1923) I/THOU
      Then we looked at Community, Space, Place and then back to
      Embodied Place, and New Urbanism
    • Starting with YOU
      Being, working, relating and learning within the context of uncertainty
      Uncertainty as threat
      Uncertainty as opportunity
      “Personal Construct Psychology-inc. ‘we can challenge certain myths about ourselves.’
      Being true to the person not the system
    • Motivation
      The pressure to change, continuous improvement
      Both as a student and your (future) clients.
      Intrinsic v extrinsic motivation
      Your role to facilitate the interplay
      Miller and Rollnick {2002} Preparing People for Change.
    • Self as social- the SELF:OTHER intersection
      Herbert Mead- I/Self: generalised OTHER
      Identity work: the effort in maintaining identity
      Constructing, deconstructing, reconstructing
      MANIPULATING identity
    • Simmel 1950s
      Strangeness- otherness
      Being with strangers
      No host communities
      Indifference/retreat/reserve/style = mask
      Overload of signs and meanings
      Professionals dissociate from everyday life, rendering it strange
      Perhaps only objectivity/dispassion
    • Graffiti – constructing the OTHER
      Our identity informed in relation to OTHERNESS
      NOT ME
      Others are ‘constructed’ by what I don’t like in myself –scapegoat
      How do I ‘construct’ my clients?
      Am I being true to their own identities?
      • Grafitti does not make a place worse, it highlights places that have already been neglected
      • Dialectic of claiming ownership in the context of ownership being abrogated
    • Who am I, Sam?
      I am not who I think I amI am not who you think I amI am who I think you think that I am
      it's not "You are what you eat," it's "You eat what you think you are."
      WHO ARE YOU? If you are to ‘fix’ other people, is your identity(ies) stable?
    • Community and Me
      And my interviewee….
    • Community, communities
      Ferdinand Tonnies: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft” Community v society
      What happens when my client is no longer in an abstract space of the counselling room?
      What happens to their ‘coping mechanisms'’ when in a real ‘place’?
    • All of social & community work
      Is now subject to the wider policy of ‘Sustainable Communities’
      Sustainable communities are places where people want to live and work, now and in the future.
      They meet the diverse needs of existing and future residents, are sensitive to their environment, and contribute to a high quality of life.
      They are safe and inclusive, well planned, built and run, and offer equality of opportunity and good services for all.
    • Coin Street, London
      The experience of modernity
    • Response to a Problem
      Since World War II, cities have been spreading ever-outward. Strip malls, parking lots, highways, and housing tracts have sprawled over the landscape.
    • Response to a Problem
      Too many urban neighborhoods have been blighted by oversized housing projects and centralized redevelopment schemes.
    • The problem of too much
      Excess, the modern urban experience
      Looking for the good in community
      Having the moral courage
      When is enough?
      What is sustainable?
      What can be sustained?
    • What’s Old in New Urbanism
      Many of the planning ideas behind New Urbanism are not new.
    • What’s Old in New Urbanism
      Urban design has been an art for millennia.
    • Chapter 1 of Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding
      of Wicked Problems, by Jeff Conklin, Ph.D., Wiley,
      October 2006.
    • Wicked Problems
      There is no definite formulation of a wicked problem.
      Wicked problems have no stopping rules.
      Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse.
      There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem.
      Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one-shot operation"; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial-and-error, every attempt counts significantly.
      Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan.
      Every wicked problem is essentially unique.
      Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another [wicked] problem.
      The causes of a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution.
      [With wicked problems,] the planner has no right to be wrong.
    • Tame Problems
      Chapter 1 of Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding
      of Wicked Problems, by Jeff Conklin, Ph.D., Wiley,
      October 2006.
    • The Neighborhood
      The word “neighborhood” gets tossed around a lot in real estate brochures, so it is important to be clear what it means. Each neighborhood has a center and an edge. The center should be a public space, whether a square, a green, or an important intersection.
    • The Neighborhood
      The optimal size of a neighborhood is a quarter-mile from center to edge. For most people, a quarter mile is a five-minute walk. For a neighborhood to feel walkable, many daily needs should be supplied within this five-minute walk. That includes not only homes, but stores, workplaces, schools, houses of worship, and recreational areas.
    • The Neighborhood
      People within a quarter-mile radius will walk to a major transit stop. Those who live further from a transit node are less likely to bother with the train or bus.
    • BUT, change?
      Physical infrastructure is easy
      Community infrastructure is neglected
    • Exploring the Community Infrastructure
      Community profile- rational
      Rich picture- lived experience & gaps
      Express Empathy
      Support Self-Efficacy
      Roll with Resistance
      Develop Discrepancy
      • Contributes to change for a peaceful, just and sustainable future.
      • Develops anti-discriminatory analyses that reach from local to global, identifying the ways in which personal stories are political
      • Builds practical local projects with people in community
      • Teaches people to question their reality
      • Forms strategic alliances for collective action, local to global
      • Remains true to its radical agenda, with social and environmental justice at its heart
      • Generates theory in action, practical theory based on experience which contributes to a unity of praxis.
      Ledwith (2007) reclaiming the radical agenda
    • Practical theory in action (Ledwith)
      Begins in stories of everyday life
      Values: equality, respect, dignity, mutuality, trust…
      Teaching to question the taken-for-grantedness of everyday life
      Re-experiencing the ordinary as extraordinary
      Understanding local lives as politically constructed across difference
      Dialogue: creating critical dissent
      Praxis: theory/practice, action/reflection, thinking/doing
      Conscientisation: becoming critical
      Collective action for change: local to global
      Worldview based on cooperation, not competition
      Participatory democracy
      Spirituality of resistance and change (TC)
    • THE MORAL CONTEXT/Social Justice praxis
      The courage to enter the moral conflict {Kennedy}.
      Critiquing the moral context.
      Resisting the temptation to moralise, whilst being moral.
      Modelling a discursive morality; offering opportunities to alternative moral perspectives.
      The risk of a treadmill of relativism; how far can alternative moral perspectives and visions constructively interact?
      Is radical and autonomous critique by the people, the community, the stuff of utopian dreams?
    • Utopian Corby
    • Dystopia
      Blade Runner Kowloon
    • Heterotopia (Charles Foucault)
      real space, utopia, and heterotopia.
      Foucault describes heterotopia as alternative, phantasmagorical, and ordinary space where transience and timelessness intersect with normal and ideal constructs of chronology, identity, sexuality, and reality
      Heterotopia is a space of juxtaposition and transgression.
    • Carnival (Bakhtin)
      Multiplicity of Languages
      Multiplicity of Places