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  • 1. Thinking about place
    Social, Change and Communities
    Penultimate & Final presentation
  • 2. This module is ‘soft’
  • 3. Whatever is true for space and time, this much is true for place; we are immersed in it and could not do without it. To be at all – to exist in any way – is to be somewhere, and to be somewhere is to be in some kind of place
    Edward Casey, The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. ix
  • 4. Space and Place
    “Space is like sex …it’s there but we don’t talk about it” (Edward Hall)
    “Place is humanized space” (Yi-Fu Tuan)
    Time-space compression (David Harvey)
    Placeless planet, space of flows (Manuel Castells)
    A global sense of place (Doreen Massey):
    porous boundaries
    connections between places
    roots vs routes
    Paradox of place (Noel Castree): unique but connected.
  • 5. Scale and Connection
    A hierarchy of scales (from the body to the world)
    Connections between scales (Margaret Roberts: zooming in/zooming out)
  • 6. Proximity and Distance
    Not just physical distance (miles or kms)
    Distant places made ‘closer’ (by TV or the internet) but can remain physically inaccessible, emotionally remote
    Caring for ‘distant strangers’ vs a failure of the geographical imagination for those ‘closer to home’ (child poverty, spatial inequality, social exclusion).
  • 7. Relational thinking
    Geographies of difference (us and them, self and Other, East and West…): desire and dread, fear and fascination (Example: ‘racist soup’ vs the ‘couscous of friendship’ in Marseilles)
    Geographies of connection (combined and uneven development)
    Physical and human geography (nature and culture in a more-than-human world).
  • 8. 8
    Defining Place
    How do we define ‘place’?
    Dimensions of place:
    Place as location: coordinates, dimensions, scale
    Place as an idea: public & private; inclusive or exclusive; places of memory; socially constructed places; spaces of identity; place-making’; home & nation; contested places
    Cresswell: Places are “meaningful locations”
    John Agnew: Places have three attributes: (1) location; (2) locale; and (3) sense of place
    Cresswell: “place is not just a thing in the world but a way of understanding the world.”
  • 9. 9
    Space and Place
    Often ‘space’ is understood as something hollow or exterior: a container for place.
    In common usage (even by many geographers), ‘spaces’ are transformed into ‘places’ by naming [claiming] and filling them. In this sense space and place are treated as a duality, even as opposites.
    But this is overly simplistic.
    Rather than think of space as hollow or as an absence, we might understand ‘space’ as a broader and more abstract concept than ‘place’.
    Yi Fu Tuan (1974) describes space as ‘movement’ and place as ‘pause’.
    Space as possibility, openness, the sublime, the ‘beyond’
    Some geographers (e.g., Henri Lefebvre 1974) use ‘space’ where others might use ‘place’
  • 10. 10
    Scale in Geographical Practice
    The politics of scale: manipulation of electoral boundaries and political territories by political parties, governments, trade unions; different ways spaces are divided and ordered.
    Mobilization at local and global scales. The ‘rescaling’ of territorial power (e.g., global trade agreements)
    Localities: spaces of dependence; networks of engagement (Kevin Cox)
    Sociological: micro / meso / macro scale (or) global, national, and urban scale … also rural (agrarian?) and bodily scale.
    Remember: this is about scale as an idea, not only as something empirical or measured.
  • 11. 11
  • 12. Space and Place
    What begins as undifferentiated space becomes place as we get to know it better and endow it with value… The ideas ‘space’ and ‘place’ require each other for definition. From the security and stability of place we are aware of the openness, freedom, and threat of space, and vice-versa. Furthermore, if we think of space as that which allows movement then place is pause; each pause in movement makes it possible for location to be transformed into place.
    Tuan, Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), p. 6
  • 13. Sensing place
    ‘There is no knowing or sensing a place except by being in that place, and to be in place is to be in a position to perceive it.’
    Casey, ‘How to get from Space to Place, p. 18
    ‘How to get from Space to Place in a Fairly Short Stretch of
    Time’, in Senses of Place, ed. by Steven Feld & Keith H.
    Basso (Santa Fe: School of American Research,1996)
  • 14. Perceptions of Place
    Place is perceived multi-dimensionally
    Coordinates help to situate us in place
    Place and the body constantly interact
    Embodiment of place- from feminist philosophy
    Representation of self in space (graffitti, but also Somerville 2000)
    Jeff Conklin: Wicked Issues
    Somerville, Margaret and Laura Hartley. 2000. Eating Place: postcolonial explorations of embodiment and place. Journal of Intercultural Studies. 21(3):353-364
  • 15. ‘Just as there are no places without the bodies that sustain and vivify them, so there are no lived bodies without the places they inhabit and traverse.’Casey,‘How to get from Space to Place’, p. 25
  • 16. Senses of Place
    You inhabit a spot which before you inhabit it is as indifferent to you as any spot upon the earth, & when, persuaded by some necessity you think to leave it, you leave it not, - it clings to you & with memories of things which in your experience of them gave no such promise, revenges your desertion.
    Percy Bysshe Shelley, from The Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, ed. Frederick L. Jones, 2 Vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964), II, p. 6.
  • 17. Urban Space/urbanism
    Detachment from nature
    Crossing of boundaries
    Subject to different meanings
  • 18. So where have we been??
    Social, change & communities
  • 19. 19
    Rules of the Game
    How we teach….
    Developing your thoughts
    Challenging your assumptions
    Practical reinforced with reflection
    Student led
    You want different, you tell us!
  • 20. Whole Module
    We started with SELF
    Then we looked at OTHER
    Then we looked at the intersection of SELF and OTHER
    SELF/OTHER, like Michael Buber (1923) I/THOU
    Then we looked at Community, Space, Place and then back to
    Embodied Place, and New Urbanism
  • 21. Starting with YOU
    Being, working, relating and learning within the context of uncertainty
    Uncertainty as threat
    Uncertainty as opportunity
    “Personal Construct Psychology-inc. ‘we can challenge certain myths about ourselves.’
    Being true to the person not the system
  • 22. Motivation
    The pressure to change, continuous improvement
    Both as a student and your (future) clients.
    Intrinsic v extrinsic motivation
    Your role to facilitate the interplay
    Miller and Rollnick {2002} Preparing People for Change.
  • 23. Self as social- the SELF:OTHER intersection
    Herbert Mead- I/Self: generalised OTHER
    Identity work: the effort in maintaining identity
    Constructing, deconstructing, reconstructing
    MANIPULATING identity
  • 24. Simmel 1950s
    Strangeness- otherness
    Being with strangers
    No host communities
    Indifference/retreat/reserve/style = mask
    Overload of signs and meanings
    Professionals dissociate from everyday life, rendering it strange
    Perhaps only objectivity/dispassion
  • 25. Graffiti – constructing the OTHER
    Our identity informed in relation to OTHERNESS
    NOT ME
    Others are ‘constructed’ by what I don’t like in myself –scapegoat
    How do I ‘construct’ my clients?
    Am I being true to their own identities?
    • Grafitti does not make a place worse, it highlights places that have already been neglected
    • 26. Dialectic of claiming ownership in the context of ownership being abrogated
  • Who am I, Sam?
    I am not who I think I amI am not who you think I amI am who I think you think that I am
    it's not "You are what you eat," it's "You eat what you think you are."
    WHO ARE YOU? If you are to ‘fix’ other people, is your identity(ies) stable?
  • 27. Community and Me
    And my interviewee….
  • 28. Community, communities
    Ferdinand Tonnies: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft” Community v society
    What happens when my client is no longer in an abstract space of the counselling room?
    What happens to their ‘coping mechanisms'’ when in a real ‘place’?
  • 29. All of social & community work
    Is now subject to the wider policy of ‘Sustainable Communities’
    Sustainable communities are places where people want to live and work, now and in the future.
    They meet the diverse needs of existing and future residents, are sensitive to their environment, and contribute to a high quality of life.
    They are safe and inclusive, well planned, built and run, and offer equality of opportunity and good services for all.
  • 30. Coin Street, London
    The experience of modernity
  • 31. Response to a Problem
    Since World War II, cities have been spreading ever-outward. Strip malls, parking lots, highways, and housing tracts have sprawled over the landscape.
  • 32. Response to a Problem
    Too many urban neighborhoods have been blighted by oversized housing projects and centralized redevelopment schemes.
  • 33. The problem of too much
    Excess, the modern urban experience
    Looking for the good in community
    Having the moral courage
    When is enough?
    What is sustainable?
    What can be sustained?
  • 34. What’s Old in New Urbanism
    Many of the planning ideas behind New Urbanism are not new.
  • 35. What’s Old in New Urbanism
    Urban design has been an art for millennia.
  • 36.
  • 37. Chapter 1 of Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding
    of Wicked Problems, by Jeff Conklin, Ph.D., Wiley,
    October 2006.
  • 38. Wicked Problems
    There is no definite formulation of a wicked problem.
    Wicked problems have no stopping rules.
    Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse.
    There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem.
    Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one-shot operation"; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial-and-error, every attempt counts significantly.
    Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan.
    Every wicked problem is essentially unique.
    Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another [wicked] problem.
    The causes of a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution.
    [With wicked problems,] the planner has no right to be wrong.
  • 39. Tame Problems
    Chapter 1 of Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding
    of Wicked Problems, by Jeff Conklin, Ph.D., Wiley,
    October 2006.
  • 40. The Neighborhood
    The word “neighborhood” gets tossed around a lot in real estate brochures, so it is important to be clear what it means. Each neighborhood has a center and an edge. The center should be a public space, whether a square, a green, or an important intersection.
  • 41. The Neighborhood
    The optimal size of a neighborhood is a quarter-mile from center to edge. For most people, a quarter mile is a five-minute walk. For a neighborhood to feel walkable, many daily needs should be supplied within this five-minute walk. That includes not only homes, but stores, workplaces, schools, houses of worship, and recreational areas.
  • 42. The Neighborhood
    People within a quarter-mile radius will walk to a major transit stop. Those who live further from a transit node are less likely to bother with the train or bus.
  • 43. BUT, change?
    Physical infrastructure is easy
    Community infrastructure is neglected
  • 44. Exploring the Community Infrastructure
    Community profile- rational
    Rich picture- lived experience & gaps
    Express Empathy
    Support Self-Efficacy
    Roll with Resistance
    Develop Discrepancy
    • Contributes to change for a peaceful, just and sustainable future.
    • 45. Develops anti-discriminatory analyses that reach from local to global, identifying the ways in which personal stories are political
    • 46. Builds practical local projects with people in community
    • 47. Teaches people to question their reality
    • 48. Forms strategic alliances for collective action, local to global
    • 49. Remains true to its radical agenda, with social and environmental justice at its heart
    • 50. Generates theory in action, practical theory based on experience which contributes to a unity of praxis.
    Ledwith (2007) reclaiming the radical agenda
  • 51. Practical theory in action (Ledwith)
    Begins in stories of everyday life
    Values: equality, respect, dignity, mutuality, trust…
    Teaching to question the taken-for-grantedness of everyday life
    Re-experiencing the ordinary as extraordinary
    Understanding local lives as politically constructed across difference
    Dialogue: creating critical dissent
    Praxis: theory/practice, action/reflection, thinking/doing
    Conscientisation: becoming critical
    Collective action for change: local to global
    Worldview based on cooperation, not competition
    Participatory democracy
    Spirituality of resistance and change (TC)
  • 52. THE MORAL CONTEXT/Social Justice praxis
    The courage to enter the moral conflict {Kennedy}.
    Critiquing the moral context.
    Resisting the temptation to moralise, whilst being moral.
    Modelling a discursive morality; offering opportunities to alternative moral perspectives.
    The risk of a treadmill of relativism; how far can alternative moral perspectives and visions constructively interact?
    Is radical and autonomous critique by the people, the community, the stuff of utopian dreams?
  • 53. Utopian Corby
  • 54. Dystopia
    Blade Runner Kowloon
  • 55. Heterotopia (Charles Foucault)
    real space, utopia, and heterotopia.
    Foucault describes heterotopia as alternative, phantasmagorical, and ordinary space where transience and timelessness intersect with normal and ideal constructs of chronology, identity, sexuality, and reality
    Heterotopia is a space of juxtaposition and transgression.
  • 56. Carnival (Bakhtin)
    Multiplicity of Languages
    Multiplicity of Places