Local Services improving…… 170 160 150 140 130 Index 120 110 100 90 80 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Year Primary Education Secondary Education Social Services Waste Transport Culture All Services
…but satisfaction falling… In other words, democratic deficit 70 65 60 55 50 40 30 % of respondents satisfied 20 10 0 2000/01 2003/04
ODPM Thinking Government wants to see neighbourhood arrangements available everywhere that make a real difference with variety and innovation but building on what already exists with elected ward councillors at their heart
ODPM Thinking David Miliband, Minister for Communities and Local Government . “We want local authorities to develop new ways of empowering communities through: Neighbourhood Charters and contracts – setting out what citizens can expect in their neighbourhood from local government and other service providers. New mechanisms to enable individuals to trigger action when the quality of services fall below the level they have a right to expect Delegated budgets and the creation of parish councils where there is sufficient demand.”
Most localities also face major transformations Many towns and cities have lost their traditional economic role. Industries have disappeared or the commercial viability of town centres is threatened by out of town development. Uncertainty and change have replaced old certainties. Economic change has brought social consequences, as the costs of those changes are born by different groups within the area. Environmental issues grow as problems of urban transport magnify and physical infrastructure requires renewal. The changing nature of agriculture and rural employment and challenges to village life through the loss of local services and amenities and the advance of commuters have brought changes in the countryside too. Each locality has to establish its own agenda, deal with its own problems and realise its own opportunities. It has to find its own role in an era of transformation. i.e. doctrines of constant change and self-help
effective community governance 6 key principles underlying effective community governance. (Based on Clarke and Stewart.): 1. The concern of government extends well beyond the services provides to the overall welfare of the area. 2. Government’s role in community governance is only justified if it is close to and empowers communities and their citizens. 3. Government must recognise the contribution of other organisations – public, private and voluntary and see its task as enabling (not controlling) that contribution. 4. Government should ensure that the whole range of resources in a community is used to the full for the good of its area. 5. To make the best use of those resources, there must be ongoing review (learning) as to how needs are best met and a willingness to act in innovative ways. 6. In showing leadership, the government must seek to reconcile, to balance and, in the final resort (when it is the funder), to judge the diversity of views and interests. Michael Clarke and John Stewart (1998) Community Governance, Community Leadership and the New Local Government
A new name for an old practice? A new name for a new practice? A new way of doing things? How does CE relate to:
community development ?
Some definitions - 1 ‘1. Joint working between agencies and the public to reduce crime and improve community safety... People and community organisations working together with the police, local authorities and others to achieve a common goal. 2. Community influence over the actions of agencies... and holding them to account. 3. Understanding of public/ community needs... to enable an organisation to interact with and understand community needs and reflect these in the delivery of services.’ (HO Crime Group strategy exercise, core)
‘The development and sustaining of a working relationship between one or more public body and one or more community group designed to assist both of them to understand and address the needs and issues experienced by the relevant community or communities’ [Communities Scotland / SCDC Standards for Community Engagement (Nov 03)] Some definitions - 2
‘There are broadly four levels of community engagement Communication Consultation – harder than it seems...(includes) demonstrating that change has taken place as a result of consultation. Participation – public involvement – lay magistracy, volunteers, witnesses Governance – giving local people a say in how their services are run (for example, Local Advisory Committees)’ Criminal Justice Council, Dec 03 Some definitions - 3
Do definitions match the overall principles of civil renewal? ‘The origins of policing (are in )communities taking responsibility for their own safety and security. I want the police to be genuinely engaged with the people they serve ... I also want communities to be able to hold the police to account...’ (‘Policing: Building Safer Communities Together’, Home Secretary’s foreword). ‘At the heart of government policy is the determination to reinvigorate local communities and give people a real opportunity to contribute to the development and delivery of local service’ (main text, 1.5).
CE is defined from the top down(institution engages community in institution’s work)Or equal balance (joint work/ Scottish definition) What’s left out?
People doing things for themselves
People’s capability to act as a community
Role of the VCS as stepping stone from citizen action to community action
Institution engaging with community to help reinvigorate
Tenants’ association policy to resolve disputes in preference to calling in police Creative individuals traumatised by events start own community action Carers of people in trouble start own community group Preventive action in households, families, informal networks Examples of action ‘below the radar’:
Wide engagement needs many pathways, direct and indirect Wide engagement needs action across the VCS Help build capability at different levels Much community engagement with the issue is preventive, not through institutions Commissionvol orgs for specialist vol-sector roles Support (don’t institutionalise) community orgs which take their own initiatives: Policy and practice implications:
Community ‘engagement’ assumes: Communities know what they want They have a consistent demand and expectation They are all agreed on this demand They can communicate this rationally They have power within the system in question
Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation," JAIP, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224. Arnsteins ladder of participation
Even online communities engage!
The hidden currency We’ll get to Foucault and Freire later!
But the opposite of power is not ‘empowerment’ The idea is that government can't solve everything by itself, and nor can the community: it's better when we work together. There are three key ingredients to community empowerment: Active citizens: people with the motivation, skills and confidence to speak up for their communities and say what improvements are needed. Strengthened communities: community groups with the capability and resources to bring people together to work out shared solutions. Partnership with public bodies: public bodies willing and able to work as partners with local people. The vision for empowering communities was set out by the then Home Secretary, David Blunkett MP, in two key speeches: the Scarman Trust Forum Lecture on 11 December 2004 and the Edith Kahn Memorial Lecture on 11 June 2003 http://www.communities.gov.uk/communities/communityempowerment/aboutcommunityempowerment/whatiscommunity/
How much empowerment is there? Local authorities consider empowerment to be: (i) whether people feel they can influence what goes on in their locality (which is also used as an indicator of cohesion) (ii) whether people participate in public affairs, by such means as signing a petition, contacting a councillor or official, responding to a consultation, going on a demonstration (which is also used as an indicator of equalities) Is this really power? http://www.creatingexcellence.org.uk/ceimages/Developingqualityassuranceempowermentguidance.pdf
Critical Community Practice Whether you are going to be in the business of: