Society for American ArchaeologyThe Castanheira Site: New Evidence on the Antiquity and History of the Ananatuba Phase(Mar...
CASTANHEIRA SITEFIG.1. MarajoIsland, showing the riverine system and the location of sites of the Ananatuba phase.a house,...
AMERICAN ANTIQUITYFIG.2. Map showing the location of J-26 on an islandsurrounded by the Igarape da Castanheira, on the rig...
CASTANHEIRA SITEbetween the first occupation and the arrival ofthe later groupof people; or (b) the initial pop-ulation ma...
AMERICAN ANTIQUITY-..........I-sX -! -* -..U .,..... .. ......// .....w. .. .-....... ),,lillllitiU tl1jlll l[ill L, IIi! ...
CASTANHEIRA SITEThe stratigraphiclevel from which the datewas obtained seriates approximately one-thirdof the distance fro...
410SIMOES,M.RIO F.1967 Resultados preliminares de uma prospecgaoarqueologica na regiao dos rios Gioapi e Camara(Ilha de Ma...
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New evidence on the antiquity and history of the ananatuba phase(marajo island, brazil)

  1. 1. Society for American ArchaeologyThe Castanheira Site: New Evidence on the Antiquity and History of the Ananatuba Phase(Marajo Island, Brazil)Author(s): Mario F. SimoesSource: American Antiquity, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Oct., 1969), pp. 402-410Published by: Society for American ArchaeologyStable URL: .Accessed: 10/07/2011 20:33Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . .Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact for American Archaeology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toAmerican Antiquity.
  2. 2. THE CASTANHEIRA SITE: NEW EVIDENCE ON THEHISTORY OF THE ANANATUBA PHASE (MARAJOMARIOF. SIMOESABSTRACTThe geographical distribution of the Ananatuba phasehas been extended to the eastern coast of Marajo by thediscovery of J-26: Castanheira on the right bank of themiddle Rio Camara. Two stratigraphic cuts were exca-vated, and the pottery obtained was classified into thetypes established by Meggers and Evans (1957). Theresulting seriated sequence shows trends of ceramicchange parallel to theirs and a similar intrusion of Man-gueiras phase sherds in the upper levels of the deposit.Interdigitation of the J-26levels into the seriated sequencefor the Ananatuba phase shows the new site to occupya relatively late position, supporting the earlier inferenceof expansion from the north coast toward the southeastduring the history of the phase. A charcoal sampleobtained from Cut 1, Level 40-50 cm., and correlatingwith the appearance of Mangueiras phase sherds in therefuse, gave the date of 980 B.C. - 200 (SI-385), whichplaces the initial occupation of Maraj6 by pottery-makinggroups within the Formative period.THE Ananatuba phase, the earliest of thepottery-making cultures at the mouth ofthe Amazon, was first recognized by Meggersand Evans (1957) during archaeological inves-tigations undertaken two decades ago on thenorth-central part of the Island of Maraj6.Em-ploying methods of stratigraphy, quantitativeceramic analysis, seriation, and other kinds ofevidence, these authors were able to establish asequence of five archaeological phases on theisland prior to the Portuguese conquest in the17th century. On the basisof the evidence thenavailable, they suggested temporal and spatialdimensions for the various phases. The Ana-natuba phase was postulated to have been in-troduced around A.D.700 onto the north coastof Marajo,from which it spreadover an approxi-mately triangular area southeastward to LagoArari It came to an end with domination andassimilation by the Mangueiras phase people,the second group to arrive on the island (Meg-gers and Evans 1957: 421, Fig. 145).Except for investigations by Hilbert in 1950-51 east and southeast of Lago Arari (Meggersand Evans 1957: 179, 203, 266-7, 299-301, 316;319-22), no further work was undertaken until1962, in spite of the size and accessibilityof theisland and the fact that a largeportionremainedarchaeologically unknown. In 1962, the authorand Napoleao Figueiredo secured the coopera-tion of the owners of the land between the RiosGoiapl and Camara, southeast of Lago Arari,ANTIQUITY ANDISLAND, BRAZIL)permitting the design of a long-term researchprogramwith the aims of testing the validity ofthe reconstructions reached by Meggers andEvans for the north coast and, also, of provid-ing field trainingfor students. The programwasfinanced by the Universidade Federal do Paraand the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi in the1962-64 seasons, and subsequently by the latterinstitution alone. In four seasons of field work,16 new sites have been subjected to strati-graphic testing, and several samples have beencollected for radiocarbonanalysis. Of the sites,10 belong to the Marajoara phase, 5 to theFormiga phase, and 1 to the Ananatuba phase(Simoes 1967: 214, 222).This article will present the results of ceramicanalysis and seriation of pottery from the Ana-natuba phase site, PA-J-26: Castanheira, andwill compare these with the Ananatuba phaseseriated sequence obtained by Meggers andEvans (1957), as a basis for evaluating the sig-nificanceof the radiocarbondate.SITE AND EXCAVATIONSThe Castanheira site (J-26) is located on theright bank of the middle Rio Camara, whichflows eastwardinto the Baia de Marajo (Fig. 1).Being navigable throughout most of its course,it is the principal route of penetration into thispart of the island. Except at the height of thedry season, it connects with Lago Arari via acanal or "furo,"which links its headwaters withthe Igarape dos Bichos, a tributary of the RioGoiapi, which in turn is an affluent of the RioArari. The site occupies a nearly circularislandsurroundedby the Igarapeda Castanheria,with-in the galleryforest (Fig.2). Maximum elevationat the northeastsectoris 1.8 m. above Julywaterlevel. The island is overgrown with trees andshrubs,although vegetation is less dense than inthe surrounding gallery forest. The edge of thesavanna is about 40 m. to the east, 120m. to thenorth, and 200 m. to the south.The refuse area has a maximum diameter(east-west) of 85 m. and covers about 3,000 sq.m. Numerous sherds arescatteredover the sur-face, with somewhat greater concentrations inthe northwest and southeast sectors,where theyextend to the bed of the Igarapl. The ruins of402
  3. 3. CASTANHEIRA SITEFIG.1. MarajoIsland, showing the riverine system and the location of sites of the Ananatuba phase.a house, as well as posts and fragments of tileand glass on the northeast summit (Fig. 2), andthe remains of two wells on the southeast aresurvivals of a moder habitation that termi-nated in 1945.Two stratigraphiccuts were excavated in loca-tions where surface sherds were abundant andrecent disturbancewas minimal. Both were 1 x1 m. and were controlled in arbitrary 10-cm.levels until sterile soil was reached. Sherdswere abundant to a depth of 70 cm. Humuscontaining numerous roots in the upper levelswas encountered in Cut 1 to a depth of 50 cm.,where the soil changed to dark gray color andclayey texture. This was replaced below 65 yellowish sandy clay, which continued to1.65 m., where the test was abandoned. In Cut2, in the southeast sector, the humus layerchanged to dark gray clayey soil at 35 cm. Thelatter, containing lenticular inclusions of yel-lowish clay, continued to 55 cm., below whichextended the sterile yellowish clay also underly-ing the refuse deposit in Cut 1.Materials recovered from two excavations areas follows: Cut 1-4,914 sherds, 146 clay lumps,and 6 lateritic concretions;Cut 2-4,944 sherds,4 worked sherd disks, 4 cylindrical pottery ob-jects, 1 stone flake, 63 clay lumps, and 14 lat-eritic concretions. Charcoal in sufficient abun-dance to be suitable for radiocarbondating wasencountered only in Cut 1, Level 50-60 cm.,although traces were noted in other levels ofboth cuts. The surface sample was obtained bycollecting all sherds within two 2- by 2-m. areas,one on the northwest and the other on thesoutheast part of the site. It contains 470 sherdsand 1 small cylindrical object of pottery.CERAMICANALYSISAND SERIATIONThe 10,328 sherds obtained from the twoexcavations and the surface collection were clas-sified into the types described by Meggers andEvans, and percentage frequencies were calcu-lated for each sample (Table 1). Interdigitationof the levels from the two stratigraphicexcava-tions produced the seriatedsequence for the site(Fig. 3). Classification revealed that 8,981 or87 percent of the sherds belonged to Ananatubaphase pottery types and 1,312 or 12.7 percent toMangueiras phase types, while 35 to 0.3 per-cent remained unclassified.All the pottery types identified by Meggersand Evans were represented. The principal403SIMOES]
  4. 4. AMERICAN ANTIQUITYTABLE 1. SHERD COUNTS AND PERCENTAGE FREQUENCIES OF POTTERY TYPES OF ANANATUBAPHASE AND MANGUEIRAS PHASE AFFILIATION FROM J-26,SURFACE COLLECTIONAND LEVELS OF CUTS 1 AND 2.STRATA CUT 1Surface Level 0-10 cm. Level 10-20 cm. Level 20-30 cm. Level 30-40 cm. Level 40-50 cm.Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count %ANANATUBA PHASEAnanatuba Plain 109 23.2 534 29.8 231 27.8 240 29.5 220 43.6 329 52.9Sororoco Plain 304 64.7 880 49.3 373 45.1 331 40.8 186 36.9 221 35.6Sipo Incised - - 6 0.3 6 0.7 2 0.2 1 0.2 1 0.1Carmo Brushed - - 2 0.1 - - 2 0.2 - 2 0.3Ananatuba Painted 14 3.0 117 6.5 62 7.5 52 6.4 34 6.7 36 5.8MANGUEIRAS PHASE:Mangueiras Plain 11 2.3 47 2.6 58 7.0 82 10.2 40 7.9 16 2.6Anjos Plain 30 6.4 180 10.2 77 9.3 68 8.3 16 3.2 7 1.1Esperanga Red - - 12 0.6 19 2.3 29 3.5 5 0.9 6 0.9Bacuri Brushed 1 0.2Croari BrushedPocoato Scraped - - 1 0.05 - - - - -Pseudo-Sip6 Incised - 1 0.05 2 0.2 1 0.1 - - 2 0.3UNCLASSIFIED 1 0.2 10 0.5 1 0.1 7 0.8 3 0.6 3 0.4TOTAL 470 100.0 1790 100.0 829 100.0 814 100.0 505 100.0 623 100.0Ananatuba Phase Total 427 90.8 1539 85.9 672 81.2 627 77.0 441 87.2 589 94.6Mangueiras Phase Total 42 9.0 241 13.6 156 18.7 180 22.2 61 12.2 31 5.0trends consisted of a decline in AnanatubaPlain, characterized by a whitish surface andgray core, from 67 percent in the lowest levelto 32.6 percent in the upper level of the seriatedsequence, and a concomitant increasein Sororo-co Plain, with a pinkish surface and oxidizedcore, from 27.1 to 56 percent of the total sherdsper level. The most common decorated type isAnanatuba Painted, which increases erraticallyfrom 5.1 to 11.9 percent at the middle of thesequence, thereafter declining to 0.9 percent.Sipo Incised, the diagnostic decorated type ofthe phase, is absent in three of the four lowestlevels; thereafter, its frequency varies between0.1 and 0.9 percent. Carmo Brushed is absentor of minor occurrence in most levels and ex-hibits no consistent trend of change. The un-classified decorated sherds include seven exam-ples with applique nubbins and one nicked rim.Five handles were included in the sample, oneAnanatuba Plain and four SororocoPlain.Mangueirasphase sherds are restricted to theupper five levels of Cut 1 and the upper threelevels of Cut 2 (Fig. 3); relative frequency perlevel rangesbetween a low of 5 percent in Cut 1,Level 40-50 cm., and a high of 22.2 percent inCut 1, Level 20-30 cm. Mangueiras Plain andAnjos Plain sherds comprise 82.1 percent of thetotal sample, but all the decorated types pre-viously described for the phase are also repre-sented. In the seriated sequence, MangueirasPlain attains a frequency of 10.2 percent, de-clining thereafter to 1.9 percent, while AnjosPlain increases from 1.1 to 10.2 percent, drop-ping to 5 percent in the upper level (Fig.3). Ofthe decorated types, the most popular is Esper-anga Red, which expands from 0.9 to 3.5 per-cent and subsequently declines to 0.4 percent infrequency. Pseudo-Sipo Incised is present inmost levels but never exceeds 0.3 percent. Ba-curi Brushed, Croari Brushed, and Pocoat6Scraped are rareand never representmore than0.1 percent of the total sherdsperlevel.The unclassified plain sherds include 6 tem-pered with bone and 29 tempered with sand.The former are limited to the surface and up-per levels and relate to the recent caboclo occu-pation of the site. The latter occur sporadicallyto a depth of 50 cm. in Cut 1 and are of uniden-tified origin.Ceramic artifacts are rare and represent thefollowing kinds of objects: (1) one small cyl-404 [ VOL.34, No. 4, 1969
  5. 5. CASTANHEIRA SITETABLE 1 (CONTINUED). SHERD COUNTS AND PERCENTAGE FREQUENCIES OF POTTERY TYPES OF ANANATUBAPHASE AND MANGUEIRAS PHASE AFFILIATION FROM J-26, SURFACE COLLECTIONAND LEVELS OF CUTS 1 AND 2.STRATA CUT 2Level 50-60 cm. Level 60-70 cm. Level 0-10 cm. Level 10-20 cm. Level 20-30 cm. Level 30-50 cm. Level 50-70 cm.Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count %146 62.3 79 67.0 465 32.6 708 31.2 288 32.3 85 56.3 127 67.075 31.8 32 27.1 801 56.0 1074 47.4 329 36.7 52 34.5 56 29.5- - - 6 0.4 12 0.5 8 0.9 - - 1 0.5- - 1 0.8 37 2.5 7 0.3 - - 8 5.3 2 1.014 5.9 6 5.1 14 0.9 137 6.0 106 11.9 6 3.9 3 1.5- - - - 28 1.9 115 5.1 82 8.9 - - -- - - - 72 5.0 189 83 60 6.7 - -- - - - 5 0.4 25 1.0 13 1.5 - -.- - - 2 0.1 .- --2 .-- - - - - 1 0.04 1 0.1 - -.- - - 2 0.1 3 0.1 3 0.3 -- - - - 1 0.1 2 0.06 7 0.7 - - 1 0.5235 100.0 118 100.0 1433 100.0 2273 100.0 897 100.0 151 100.0 190 100.0235 100.0 118 100.0 1323 92.3 1938 85.44 731 81.6 151 100.0 189 99.5- - - - 109 7.6 333 14.5 159 17.7 - - --~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~._...inder of Ananatuba Plain with slightly convexfaces, possibly an ear plug; diameter is 2.5 cm.,thickness 1.0 cm.; (2) four small cylinders withends broken off, Ananatuba Plain, diameterabout 2 cm.; (3) four sherds reworked intodisks, three Ananatuba Plain and one SororocoPlain. The only possible stone artifact was aflake that may have served as a scraper.The charcoal sample collected from a hearthin Cut 1, Level 40-50 cm., was submitted to theSmithsonian Institution for analysis. An age of2930 = 200 years, or 980 B.C. (SI-385), hasbeen obtained; this is the earliest radiocar-bon date yet reported for a ceramic complex inthe lower Amazon region.HISTORYOF OCCUPATIONTwo kinds of evidence can be used to recon-struct the history of the occupation of the site:(1) the difference in sherd density between theupper and lower levels of the refuse deposit, and(2) the position in the seriated sequence of lev-els showing these differences. The two cuts,although producing similar total numbers ofsherds and of similar depth, differ in the distri.bution of sherds per level. In Cut 1, for ex-ample, all levels produced more than 100sherds, and the upper five levels produced morethan 500 sherds. In Cut 2, by contrast, threelevels produced less than 100 sherds, and onlythe upper three exceeded 500 sherds each. Theupper five levels of Cut 1 and the upper threelevels of Cut 2 show Mangueirasphase mixture,and, in spite of the differenceof 20 cm. in depthsrepresented, they produced almost equalamounts of pottery. Specifically, the upper fivelevels of Cut 1 contained 4,537 sherds (3,868of Ananatuba phase origin and 669 of Man-gueirasphase origin), while the upper three lev-els of Cut 2 are represented by 4,593 sherds(3,992 from the Ananatuba phase and 601 fromthe Mangueiras phase). Similarly, the lowerlevels of both excavations,correspondingto pureAnanatuba phase occupation, are representedby samples of nearly equal size in spite of a dif-ference in the thickness of the deposit. Cut 1,50-70 cm., produced 353 sherds, while Cut 2,30-70 cm., produced 341 sherds. This changein density equates with the natural stratig-raphy, the mixed levels correlating with thehumus layer and the unmixed ones with theSIMOES] 405
  6. 6. AMERICAN ANTIQUITYFIG.2. Map showing the location of J-26 on an islandsurrounded by the Igarape da Castanheira, on the rightbank of the Rio Camara, and the position of stratigraphicCuts 1 and 2.dark gray clayey soil and upper part of the yel-lowish sandy clay.The seriated ceramic sequence also providesa basis for dividing the refuse deposit into twounequal vertical segments. The earliest cor-responds to the lower third of the graph, inI O II I aI XI I XII XI I ?lIllI 1I IIIOwhich the lower two levels of Cut 1 and thelower four (combined into two) levels of Cut 2are interdigitated,and in which only Ananatubaphase remains were encountered. The trendsshow a gradual change in popularity of Anana-tuba Plain and SororocoPlain, rare presence ofSip6 Incised, relatively higher frequently of Car-mo Brushed, and slightly erratic occurrence ofAnanatuba Painted (Fig. 3). The upper two-thirds of the sequence, containing the remaininginterdigitated levels of both cuts (five of Cut 1and three of Cut 2) and showing Mangueirasphase mixture, exhibit an abrupt decline in thepopularity of Ananatuba Plain, presence ofSip6 Incised in all levels, reduced relative fre-quency of Carmo Brushed, and slight increasefollowed by a decline in popularity of Anana-tuba Painted.From these various lines of evidence, the fol-lowing reconstruction of the history of the sitecan be postulated: (1) The site was occupiedinitially and for an unknown length of time by asmall Ananatuba phase group, which settledmore heavily on the northwest part of the site(correspondingto Cut 1), perhaps because thiswas closer to the mouth of the igarape (Fig. 2).(2) Subsequently, there was sudden and sizableincrease in the density of the resident popula-tion, implied by the abruptchange in density be-tween sherds in the lower and upper levels,which equates with the appearanceof the Man-gueirasphase influence. Initially the most inten-sive Mangueiras phase occupation was in thesoutheast sector,where Ananatuba phase refusehad been lightest. Two hypotheses can be ad-vanced relevant to this second period of occupa-tion: (a) The site may have been abandonedIII*ID I* II II II IOI I 0O COSIPC CARMOS ANANATUAMANGUEIRAS ANJOSINCISED BRUSHED PAINTED PLAIN PLAINI I I I I IESPERAN<A BACURI CROARI POCOATO PSEUDO-SIPO UNCLASSIFIEDRED BRUSHED BRUSHED SCRAPED INCISED! ANANATUBAPHASE TYPES II ANGUEIRASPHASEFIG.3. Seriated ceramic sequence obtained by interdigitation of levels from Cuts 1 and 2 at J-26.i:0-o10 CM.2:10-201:10-20 o1:20-302:20-301:30- 401:40-500oA200oC (slt-si5)2:30-501: O-6O2:50-701:60-700o 10 30 40 50 X406 [ VOL.34,No.4, 1969II II IISOROROCOPLAINIII
  7. 7. CASTANHEIRA SITEbetween the first occupation and the arrival ofthe later groupof people; or (b) the initial pop-ulation may have been augmented by Anana-tuba phase immigrants from the north-centralpart of Marajo Island. In either case, the laterimmigrant group could have included Man-gueirasphase potters incorporatedthrough mar-riageor adoption, both practicesattested amongsurviving indigenous Amazonian tribes. Thesealternatives seem more acceptable than acquisi-tion of the pottery by trade in view of the largeproportionof plain sherds of Mangueirasphaseorigin and agreement between relative frequen.cies observedat J-26and those prevalent at pureMangueirasphase sites.COMPARISONWITH PREVIOUSRESULTSThe Ananatuba phase was previously repre-sented by surface collections and stratigraphicexcavations at six sites (Fig. 1): four on thenorth coast of Marajo (J-7, J-8, J-9, J-10), ex-cavated by Meggers and Evans; and two nearthe center of the island (J-19,J-20), investigatedby Hilbert (Meggers and Evans 1957: 174-9).All have been described as located in patchesof forest near the edge of the savanna and dis-tant from the coast. Village refuse is dense andoccupies a circularor oval area;depth of the de-posit ranges from 60 to 100 cm. (Meggers andEvans 1957: 193). In location, form, depth anddensity of refuse, site J-26: Castanheira agreesperfectlywith the settlement patterndescriptionof the previousinvestigators.As concerns pottery, all the types originallyestablished for the Ananatuba phase were iden-tified at J-26,with a minor variationin the pasteof two of the decorated types. Ananatuba Paint-ed and Sipo Incised, describedas having a pastecomparable to Ananatuba Plain (Meggers andEvans 1957: 180, 185), include some exampleswith paste resembling Sororoco Plain (4.7 per-cent), although Ananatuba Plain paste pre-dominates (12.6 percent). This variation isattributableto the increasedpopularityof Soror-oco Plain at J-26, reflecting its later position inthe seriated sequence (Simoes 1967, Fig. 8).The attempt at interdigitation of the strati-graphic cuts at J-26 into the seriated sequencepresented by Meggersand Evans (1957, Fig.56)for the Ananatuba phase met with a slight dif-ficulty. Although the lower four levels of theJ-26 seriation fit easily into the middle of thesequence, the upper eight do not interdigitatewith the upper levels of J-7 because of the dis-tortion produced in the latter samples by theMangueiras phase component. Two solutionsseemed to be suggested: (1) reseriation of theupper levels of J-7 using Ananatuba phasesherds only, and excluding from the total usedas a basis for percentage calculation the Man-gueirasphase sherds (as Meggersand Evans didin constructing the seriated sequence for theMangueirasphase;Meggersand Evans 1957,Fig.72); or (2) elimination of the disturbedJ-7 lev-els from the seriatedsequence since, as the origi-nal authors noted, they correspondtoa time when the culture was being subjected to strongdisruptive pressures that had the effect ceramically ofsuppressing or selecting certain of the pottery types andthus altering the normal trend (Meggers and Evans 1957:191).Adoption of the first solution would have re-duced the samples for the levels involved to lessthan 70 Ananatuba phase sherds, less than theminimum number required to give reliable re-sults. Consequently, the second alternative wasadopted.After removal of the disturbed levels of J-7,the upper part of the J-26 sequence fits readilyinto the Ananatuba phase seriation (Fig. 4).The lower levels enter into the middle thirdwhile the upper ones constitute the final por-tion of the graph. The plain types continueearlier trends, with SororocoPlain gradually in.creasing in popularity from 6.2 to 56.0 percentwhile Ananatuba Plain shows a correspondingdecline from 93.0 to 32.6 percent. Sipo Incisedand Carmo Brushed, which reach their maxi-mum popularity toward the middle of the se-quence, declined thereafter, although showinga somewhat erratictendency. Ananatuba Paint-ed, of minor and sporadicoccurrenceduringthefirst half of the period represented, increases toa maximum of 11.9 percent to become the mostcommon decorated type in the latter part of thesequence. This replacement of the diagnosticearly decorated types by Ananatuba Paintedmay reflect internal evolution, acculturation, orpossibly loss of sociocultural autonomy by theAnanatuba phase.Among other Ananatuba phase characteris.tics describedby Meggersand Evans (1957: 194)is an abundance of clay lumps, some bearingstick or cane impressions suggesting derivationfrom a wattle-and-daub house construction.Similar evidence was encountered at J-26. Thesmall cylindrical pottery object collected fromthe surface is comparable to an example fromSIMOES] 407
  8. 8. AMERICAN ANTIQUITY-..........I-sX -! -* -..U .,..... .. ......// .....w. .. .-....... ),,lillllitiU tl1jlll l[ill L, IIi! lIllllllllllIt IllllllllJl[ill[1111!llXi llllilllllllIll lllllilflllllllllllllI a M Ia* a II__3_m m U_ _a0o aI aO oI IIoaIIi 1Ii 1IIIIIl0 10 20 30 40 50 %! ANANATUBA PHASE TYPES I 1 MANSUEIRAS PHASE TYPESIFIG.4. Seriated sequence for the Ananatuba phase, showing the position of J-26 in relation to sites previously inves-tigated on the north (J-7, J-8, J-9, J-10) and central (J-19) portions of Marajo.J-5: Croari, of the Mangueiras phase (Meggersand Evans 1957, Fig. 60), while the potterycylinders with broken ends resemble objectsfound at J-9: Ananatuba (Meggers and Evans1957: 189,Fig.51).CONCLUSIONSThe geographical location of J-26, its seriatedposition, and radiocarbon date, added to pre-vious information, permit reevaluation of in-ferences regarding the spatial and temporaldistribution of the Ananatuba phase.The geographical location of the previouslyknown sites suggestedthat the Ananatuba phaseoccupied an approximately triangular area be-tween the north-central coast, the western for-ested zone, and Lago Arari on the east (Meg-gers and Evans 1957: 405, Fig 1,45). Discov-ery of J-26 on the middle Rio Camara extendsthe,known distribution of.the phase toward thesoutheast (Fig. 1; Sim6es 1967: 222).The relative seriated positions of the varioussites. suggest that the Ananatuba phase, wasintrodtced onto the north coastof Marajo.Afteran extended period of occupation in this region,represented by J-7, J-8, and J-9, there was anintrusiontoward the south and east (J-19,J-20).The priority of J-26 over J-19 raises the possi-bility that expansion proceeded around thecoast rather than through the center of theisland. This movement may have been provokedby the pressure from the Mangueiras phase,which after settling on the northern part of Ma-raj6 appears to have expanded onto Caviana,the island to,the north, and over the Ananatubaphase territory. Interaction between the twophases culminated in domination or assimilationof the latter by the Mangueirasphase.With regardto the temporal dimension, Meg-gers and Evans (1957: 253-4) originally esti-mated that the Ananatuba phase arrivedon thenorth coast of Maraj6 around A.D.700. Subse-quently, on the basis of new evidence fromarchaeological investigations in other parts ofSouth America and radiocarbondating of earlyceramic complexes elsewhere, these authorsconcluded that their estimate was too conserva-tive. The date of 980 B.C.recently obtainedfrom J-26confirmsthese reservations.J-26,2:0-10 CM.1:0-10 CM.2:10-201:10-201:20-302:20-301:30-40J-10,30-45 CM.45-60J-26,1:40-50J-19, SURFACEJ-26,2:30-501:50-60J-10,60-7575-9090-105J-26,2:50-701:60-704-8, SURFACEJ-7,1:30-45 CM.2:45-60 CM.60-7575-90J-7,1:45-60J-9,0-15 CM.15-3030-4545-60408 [ VOL.34,No.4, 1969......... .............arrmm,B,Wr,,,,.............*.t- -r;I .mmmmrt,mmnamcmnBIIIII!I1IaIIaIIIIgZ<2:6 "0 o o w it ou , no z aw rwr0(r T aOo ID-j z-4Lq P (aoc(1J t-r~ icIw ( Qco) c,a ,, ~~~d 2~ dP mi Ua~~~6-
  9. 9. CASTANHEIRA SITEThe stratigraphiclevel from which the datewas obtained seriates approximately one-thirdof the distance from the top of the seriatedsequence (Fig. 4) and equates with the initia-tion of Mangueiras phase contact. The originof the phase must be estimated to be somewhatearlier, and the magnitude of ceramic changesuggests that 1100 B.C. might be a reasonableguess. This being the case, the introduction ofthe Ananatuba phase to the mouth of the Ama-zon is approximatelycontemporarywith the ap-pearanceof potterymakingin the Orinoco delta(Cruxent and Rouse 1958: 17), although theceramic complexes involved are quite different.In the presentstate of knowledge, it is the oldestceramic culture in the Amazon lowlands.Although Willey and Phillips (1958: 180-1)considered the Ananatuba phase as "probablycloser to Archaic than to Formative standards,"the definition suggested by Ford (1966: 872)of the Formative as "the 3,000 years precedingthe Christian Era, during which Neolithic-levelcultural elements were beingdiffusedand addedto the Paleolithic-level cultures that alreadyexisted" permits the addition of both the Ana-natuba and Mangueirasphases of MarajoIslandto the growinglist of archaeologicalculturesrep-resenting the American Formative.If Fords definition is accepted, the earliestFormative cultures are found on the north andnorthwest coasts of South America, whererecent field work has revealed the existence ofceramic complexes with radiocarbon dates inthe fourth and third millennia B.C.:for example,Valdivia on the coast of Ecuador (3200 B.C. -150, M-1320); Puerto Hormiga on the Carib-bean coast of Colombia (3090 B.C. + 70, SI-153); and Rancho Peludo on the Venezuelancoast (2680 B.C. ? 150, Y-578). Of these earlyceramic complexes, Ananatuba phase potterymost closely resembles that of Puerto Hormiga,with which it sharescharacteristicsof the ZonedHachure horizon style (Meggers and Evans1961), such as decorations in zones bounded bybroadincisions,and rounded bowl and jarforms.Ford (1966: 782) has suggested that Formativeelements diffused from northwestern SouthAmerica to the southern United States, andMeggers (1967: 146 and Fig. 1) has traced thespreadof the Zoned Hachure horizonstyle fromPuerto Hormiga southward to eastern Ecuadorand Peru, as well as eastward along the Vene-zuelan coast. The Ananatuba phase can be ex-plained in similar fashion as the result ofdiffusionof the same elements into the Amazonbasin via the main stream or down its principaltributarieson the left bank. If this hypothesis iscorrect,the Ananatuba phase is the culminationof the early spread of Formative patterns intothe Amazonian lowlands, and a long processoffiltration through and adaptation to the tropi-cal forest environment.Acknowledgments. Site J-26 was discovered and exca-vated in July of 1965 by Jose Carlos Cardoso, one of theowners of the Fazenda Santa Maria, on which it islocated. Dr. Cardoso was a participant in other fieldwork, and I should like to express my deep appreciationboth personally and on behalf of the Museu Goeldi for hishelpful collaboration. The archaeological materials andaccompanying field notes have been deposited in theDivisao de Antropologia, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi,Belem. During and subsequent to the conduct of thisresearch, the author has received support from the Con-selho Nacional de Pesquisas. This article was preparedduring residence at the Smithsonian Institution as a Fel-low of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Founda-tion. The assistance of all of these organizations is herebygratefully acknowledged.CRUXENT,J. M. ANDIRVINGROUSE1958 An Archaeological Chronology of Venezuela.Social Science Monographs, VI. Pan AmericanUnion, Washington.FORD,JAMESA.1966 Early Formative Cultures in Georgia and Flor-ida. American Antiquity, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp.781-99. Salt Lake City.MEGGERS, BETTY J.1967 The Archeological Sequence on the Rio Napo,Ecuador and its Implications. Atas do Simposiosobre a Biota Amazonica, Vol. 2, pp. 145-52.Rio de Janeiro.MEGGERS, BETTY J. AND CLIFFORD EVANS1957 Archeological Investigations at the Mouth of theAmazon. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulle-tin 167. Washington.1961 An Experimental Formulation of Horizon Stylesin the Tropical Forest Area of South America.In Essays in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeol-ogy, by Samuel K. Lothrop and others, pp. 372-88. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.SIMOES] 409
  10. 10. 410SIMOES,M.RIO F.1967 Resultados preliminares de uma prospecgaoarqueologica na regiao dos rios Gioapi e Camara(Ilha de Marajo). Atas do Simp6sio s6bre a BiotaAmazonica, Vol. 2, pp. 207-24. Rio de Janeiro.[VOL.34, No. 4, 1969WILLEY, GORDON R. AND PHILIP PHILLIPS1958 Method and Theory in American Archeology.University of Chicago Press, Chicago.MUSEU PARAENSE EMILIO GOELDIBel6m, Para, BrazilMarch, 1968AMERICAN ANTIQUITY