Lecture 1 Making A New World To 1558
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Lecture 1 Making A New World To 1558

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Covers the migration of peoples across the Bering Land Bridge, the diversity of lifestyles as they settled across the different regions of what is now the United States, the exploration of the New......

Covers the migration of peoples across the Bering Land Bridge, the diversity of lifestyles as they settled across the different regions of what is now the United States, the exploration of the New World by Spain England and France and the results of the interactions between Europeans and Native Americans

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  • 1. Mrs. Dani Vaughn-Tucker History 103: American History to 1865 Spring 2009 Term A
  • 2.
    • Migration Theory
    • Historians and anthropologists believe humans lived in North America starting around 35,000 B.C.
    • Believed to have migrated across the Bering Land Bridge
    • Migration took place over many years
    • People migrated southward and eastward probably in search of food
  • 3.
    • Influences on the different Native American cultures
    • Regional diversity between the different groups
    • Ability to create food surpluses
  • 4.
    • Capital of one of the larger states near Mexico
    • Served as a major trade center, specializing in obsidian
    • Major religious center, where the Sun Pyramid was located
  • 5.
    • Migrated from the north and became a dominant force in the 1400s
    • Capital city was Tenochtitlan
    • Worshipped more than 200 different deities
    • Created elaborate drainage systems
  • 6.
    • Land area characterized by a dry environment still farming became important
    • Chaco Canyon was the center
    • Specialized in turquoise
    • Believed to have declined due to drought
  • 7.
    • Full-time farmers who lived in very large communities
    • Largest community was Cahokia
    • Famous for their large platform mounds surrounded by religious temples
    • Believe decline was due to climate change and an overtaxed environment
  • 8.
    • Confederacy of five Indian tribes
      • Mohawks
      • Oneida
      • Onondagas
      • Cayugas
      • Seneca
      • According to legend they were united by a Mohawk sachem named Hiawatha
  • 9.
    • Political Structure
    • Made decisions in council meetings
    • Lifestyle
    • Lived in “longhouses”
    • Owned property communally
    • Labor was divided according to gender
  • 10.
    • Held positions of power
    • Descent was matrilineal
    • Women could easily divorce their husbands
    • Had significant influence over the decision making process of the council
  • 11.
    • Northern Region
    • Exclusively hunters and gatherers
    • Mobile tribe life
    • Seafood made up a large portion of their diet
    • Lived in smaller communities
    • Southern Region
    • Farmers
    • Much more stable life
    • Lived in larger communities
  • 12.
    • “ Three Sisters of Agriculture”
    • Maize
    • Beans
    • Squash
  • 13.
    • Lived exclusively as hunters and gatherers
    • Incredibly wealthy
      • Timber
      • Lived exclusively as hunters and gatherers
      • Lived in longhouses in fixed locations
      • Seafood was the foundation of their diet
      • Stratified society
  • 14.
    • Reasons for European exploration
    • Economics
    • Religion
    • Adventure
    • Forced immigration (slavery)
  • 15.
    • Primary goal was to find a shorter route to the East
    • Explorers
    • Christopher Columbus
    • Bartolomeu Dias (Portuguese explorer)
    • Amerigo Vespuci
  • 16.
    • Primary goal was to find gold and other treasures
    • Explorer
    • Herman Cortes
    • Reasons for Conquer of the Aztecs
    • Cortes and his men were believed to be gods
    • Disease
    • Differing views on warfare
  • 17.
    • 1565
    • St. Augustine
    • First permanent European Settlement in the U.S.
    • 1598
    • Juan de Ornate led a powerful takeover in the upper Rio Grande Valley
    • Roughly 800 people were killed
    • 1680
    • Pueblo Revolt
    • Led by Pope
  • 18.
    • Jacques Cartier
    • Explored the east coast of Canada in the 1530s
    • Travels formed the basis for French claim in North America
    • Samuel de Champlain
    • Founded Quebec in 1608
    • Established an important trading post
    • Considered to be the “father” of New France
  • 19.
    • John Cabot – late 15 th century
    • Sir Walter Raleigh
      • Roanoke
      • Named Virginia after Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen
  • 20.
    • Roanoke
    • 1585
    • Primary purpose was to serve as a base for pirate ships
    • Relations with the Indians (Croatoans) were strained
    • Settlement disappeared with only the word “Croatoan” carved into a tree
  • 21.
    • Jamestown
    • 1607
    • First successful English settlement
    • Organized by the Virginia Company of London
    • Relied on the Powhatan Indians for food
    • Issues facing the colonists:
      • Swampy lands
      • Settlers did not want to work
      • Relied on the Powhatan Indians for food
      • Became successful due to John Rolfe and his tobacco plant
  • 22.
    • Describes the interaction between Europeans and Native Americans
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Disease
  • 23.
    • The migration of Native Americans across the Bering Land Bridge
    • The diversity of lifestyles as they settled into different regions of what is now the U.S.
    • The exploration of the New World by Spain, England and France and their efforts to establish colonies
    • The results, both positive and negative, of interactions between Europeans and Native Americans and the results of this interactions